Practice Questions Chapter 5 1. The distinction between civil rights and civil liberties is that civil rights ____ while civil liberties ______. Protect against discrimination; are guaranteed in Bill of Rights 2. The Missouri Compromise _____. Limited expansion of slavery whiIf you want to learn more check out hbs midterm study guide
Don't forget about the age old question of define splinter party
If you want to learn more check out What are nucleosomes?
We also discuss several other topics like informally: ask about what happened at home yesterday?
Don't forget about the age old question of ee302
If you want to learn more check out math 1131
le maintaining the balance of slave states. 3. Plessy v. Ferguson established ______. Separate but equal doctrine 4. The principle of ____ was used in many court cases to deny women equal rights. Protectionism 5. Most of the differences in voter turnout among whites relative to racial minorities can be accounted for by ______. Education and income 6. The gaps between whites and blacks on health measures are _____ and in many cases _____. Small; decreasing 7. In economic terms, the average Hispanic family is ____. Worse off than the average white family 8. Early in the nation’s history, civil rights activism was focused on ____. African Americans 9. Early in the civil rights movement, which branch provided most of the successes? Supreme court 10. The difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation is that de facto segregation _____, while de jure segregation _____. Is result of circumstances; is mandated by law 11. The strongest protection as the “suspect classification” applied which test? Strict scrutiny 12. The voting rights act of 1965 _____. Eliminated direct obstacles to minority voting in the South 13. Relative to protection of individuals with disabilities, congress’s track record in protecting gay rights is ______. Weaker 14. The supreme court’s implementation of “color blind jurisprudence” fits the agenda of those who argue _____. That the gap between blacks and whites has narrowed 15. What did the case University of California Regents v. Bakke establish? Race could be used as a “plus factor” in the admissions process Chapter 11 1. What did the Seventeenth Amendment do? Allowed for direct election of senators 2. Why do senators have longer terms than members of the house of representatives? To make sure that senators were somewhat insulated for the people 3. What is the most common style of representatives in congress? Delegate 4. Most constituents are _____; most members of congress act as if the constituency ____ paying attention. Inattentive; is 5. MoCs generally hold multiple goals. Which goal comes first? Getting reelected 6. What is apportionment? Determining which states win/lose seats in the House 7. A home style shapes the way MoCs ____. Present themselves to their district 8. On average, incumbents spend ____ times as much as challengers. Three 9. The norm of ____ says that federal highway dollars are likely to be divided up so that many districts benefit. Universalism 10. Committee leadership, division of seats on committee, and allocation of committee resources are determined by ____ The majority party 11. The senate leadership is ____ the house leadership. Less powerful than 12. Party leaders have the power to ____. Help their members get favorable committee assignments 13. Compared to the senate, the floor process in the House is very ___ and ____. Structured; majoritarian 14. Waiting for a crisis to emerge before taking action is called _____. Fire alarm oversight 15. The McCain Feingold Act is an example of a reform that ____ congress’s image and ____ the internal efficiency. Improved; improved Chapter 12 1. Presidential power has increased over time for all of the reasons below except: Changes in the constitution 2. Which of the following events during Barack Obama’s presidency best illustrates the limits of presidential power? Congressional consideration of immigration reforms 3. Presidents used recess appointments when they are trying to ____. Temporarily dodge the need for Senate approval 4. A presidential proclamation that unilaterally change govt. policy w/out congressional consent is called___ An executive order 5. Some scholars argue that the War Powers Resolution has effectively expanded the power of ____ President 6. The first mover advantage refers to the presidents’ negotiation advantage over _____ Congress 7. For most presidents, the problem with going public is that _____ The energize their opponents 8. In most appointments to EOP positions, presidents generally emphasize ____ Loyalty 9. Recent vice presidents have had _____ official duties, and/but ___ been influential in their role. Limited; have 10. Presidential approval is generally based on ____ Policy outcomes 11. Presidential popularity generally ____ over time, and it ____ during national crises. Declines; spikes 12. The ____ was used by George W. Bush administration argue in favor of the power to station American forces in Iraq. Unitary executive theory 13. Most presidents use the ____ to control the interpretation and implementation of laws Signing statement 14. Congressional challenges to presidential authority are ___ used and are generally _____ at constraining presidential power. Rarely, unsuccessful Chapter 13 1. A govt. rule that affects the choices that individuals or corporations make is called _____. Regulation 2. One of the reasons bureaucrats respond to pressure from elected officials is bc _____. They need congressional support to get larger budgets 3. In the problem of control, the ____ is the principal and the ___ is the agent. President; bureaucracy 4. ____ occurs when bureaucrats cater to a small group of individuals regardless of the impact of these actions on the public welfare. Regulatory capture 5. How did the bureaucracy change during the progressive era? It increased the govt.’s regulatory activity 6. The civil service reforms of the progressive era ______ the spoils system and ____ the power of party organizations. Ended; decreased 7. What effect did the Reagan Revolution have on bureaucracy? The size of federal govt. increased 8. What is the job of the office of management and budget? To prepare the president’s annual budget proposal for the congress 9. Independent agencies have ___ freedom from oversight than executive departments do and ___ be controlled by the president through his appointees. More; can 10. The federal budget is rowing in size bc _____ The public does not support large scale budget cuts 11. Compared with employees in private business, govt. employees are motivated___ by salary and benefits than/as by the chance to make a difference. Less 12. The civil service regulations ____ the flexibility that managers have in their hiring decisions and ____ the influence of elected officials. Decrease; decrease 13. When bureaucrats pursue their own goals rather than their assignments from officeholders this is called _____ Bureaucratic drift 14. Giving direct orders to bureaucrats ____ the influence of their policy expertise and _____ the potential for incrementalism. Limits; reduces 15. While police patrol oversight has the advantage of being _____, it has the drawback of being ____. Responsive; costly Chapter 14 1. Most of the details about the SC were established in ____. Judiciary Act of 1789 2. Marbury v. Madison is significant bc it_____. Established judicial review 3. Judicial review enables the SC to _____. Strike down laws passed by congress 4. The court’s application of national and state laws to particular cases is called ______. Statutory interpretation 5. A system of ____ relies on legal decisions that are built from precedent established in previous cases. Common law 6. When one has suffered direct and personal harm from the action addressed in a case, it is called ____ Standing 7. The president appoints federal judges with the “advice and consent” of the _____. Senate 8. When the litigant who lost in a lower court files a petition, the case reaches the SC _____ Through a writ of certiorari 9. _____ means that the controversy is not relevant when the court hears the case. Mootness 10. Most justices ____ in initially deciding which cases should be heard. Use a cert pool 11. Oral arguments generally last ____ and justices ___wait until the end of the arguments to ask questions. One hour; do not 12. Generally, the chief justice or the ____ justice decides who writes the majority opinion; justices; individual areas of expertise ____ a factor in making this assignment. Most senior; are 13. The perspective that when the constitution is not clear, the justices should be guided by what the founders wanted is called _____. Original intent 14. Advocates of ____ argue that the court must defer to the elected branches and not strike down their laws. Judicial restraint 15. In general, the court ___ challenges w/ the elected branches and often ____ to act on “political questions” Avoids; refuses Chapter 15 1. The council of economic advisors was established ____. By the employment act of 1946 2. Technically, full employment means an unemployment level of about _____. 5% 3. The responsibility of fighting inflation largely falls on ____. Congress 4. When the govt. attempts to reduce inflation, it typically results in _____. Higher interest rates 5. The difference between fiscal policy and monetary policy is that fiscal policy is concerned with ____, while monetary policy is concerned with _____. Taxing and spending; controlling the money supply and interest rates 6. Budget reconciliation has the advantages of ____ and ____. Making it difficult for members to vote against the bill; preventing a senate filibuster 7. The federal reserve board’s actions ____ subject to presidential or congressional review, while the appointment terms of personnel ____ overlap with the federal election calendar. Are not; do not 8. The treasury generally prefers ___ interest rates; the federal reserve board generally prefers ___ rates. Lower; higher 9. Keynesian economics argues that the effects of an economic recession can be reduced by ____. Increasing govt. spending 10. Reducing the federal deficit by cutting spending is difficult bc. _____. A growing portion of the budget is mandatory spending 11. Regressive taxes, like the payroll tax, mean that compared to the wealthy, poor people spend ___ of their income on taxes. More 12. What does the “reserve requirement” refer to? Minimum level of money banks must always have on hand 13. When competitive situation is natural monopoly, the govt. generally ____. Regulates prices 14. In general, congress supports ____; the president supports ____. Free trade; free trade Chapter 16 1. The first significant example of federal involvement such as social policy is ____ Aid to civil war veterans 2. Social security was established under the ____; Medicare was established under the____. New Deal; New Deal 3. The principle of the “ownership society” is that _____. People have responsibility for their own welfare 4. The primary motivator for social policy is ___ Poverty 5. Under democratic presidents, the incomes of the working poor families ___ than/as under Republican presidents. Increased faster 6. Bureaucratic discretion ___ agency to agency consistency of policy provision; it ___ ability to administer policies efficiently. Decreases; increases 7. States influence policies on ____, but not _____. Medicaid; social security 8. What is the policy agenda? Set of policies political leaders view as priorities 9. Relative to private sector, public sector programs are ___ to evaluate. Harder 10. Which group of working Americans is eligible to receive social security benefits? Income is not a criterion for eligibility 11. The primary reason social security will be financially strained in the coming years is because ___ It is a pay as you go program 12. State govts. ____ have influence on Medicaid; they ___ have influence on Medicare. Do; do not 13. In president Obama’s health care plan, why was it essential to guarantee comprehensive coverage? To pool risk between sick and healthy people14. The major welfare reform of 1996 instituted the __ program, which ___ welfare spending relative to its predecessor. Temporary assistance to needy families (TANF); reduced 15. The long term fiscal problems of __ are most severe. Medicare/Medicaid