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What is the phonological process?

What is the phonological process?


School: Kean University
Department: Communication Science and Disorders
Course: Dis of Phonology and Artic
Professor: Martin shulman
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: articulation, phonology, intervention, and Klein
Cost: 50
Name: 5229 Final Study Guide (Articulation)
Description: This study guide puts down all the important information we learned in class since the Midterm: difference between articulation and phonology, Klein's tips, Articulation intervention, Phonological intervention
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
10 Pages 61 Views 1 Unlocks

1 Klein

What is the phonological process?

Phonological Process: exists beyond chronological age it should have been  suppressed 

consistency doesn’t necessarily mean phonological process: articulation can  be consistent too

THIS is the ideal test for phonological processes 

Notes from step by step packets:

if 2 rule operating - cannot say the subservient rule is not occurring - 

Instead: “there has been no chance for occurrence due to the overriding  nature of the dominant rule 

if not available to occur in the target (ex: assimilation) - cannot attribute  error to assimilation

What is the profession of van riper?

when tough rule: describe the difference between target and client  


when both liquids and glides have similar errors: check first to see if it  could be gliding of liquids…. before looking at what happens to the liquids..  2 Van Riper 

Philosophy: in order to increase articulation skills, the connection between ear mouth must be accurate and work!

its about self-monitoring 

Traditional Approach:

1. Ear Training: child does NOT produce at all - EVERYTHING under this  bullet the child is NOT talking - Ensure a strong foundation - do NOT  

What is the meaning of ear training in a child?

If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of human rights?


Isolation: longer utterances - did you hear the sound and isolate  

other factors; how many times?

Stimulation: bring in other speakers - have mom and dad say them 

Discrimination: did it sound good? - have them evaluate what they  

heard: start with gross discrimination and work towards finer  


2. Discrimination: recalling, perceiving, predicting 

recalling: past: have them answer a question and then ask  

them to reflect: did you say your sound?

perceiving: present: freeze when you’re talking - did you say  

your sound? 

predicting: future: before you tell me, think about what  

you’re going to tell me - does it have your sound? what are you  

going to do for the sound to be good

2. Production Training: it should work if the auditory bombardment was  FULLY acquired If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of kashrut (kosher)?

Auditory Stimulation: model - imitate: this should work based on  

auditory bombardment

Phonetic Placement: only if auditory stimulation does NOT work: 

tell him where stuff should go SPECIFIC TO HIS ERROR: don’t tell 

him things that he’s doing right

Handout: Appendix: tips for placement

Sound Modification: if the phonetic placement doesn’t work: take a  We also discuss several other topics like What is taking moderate amounts of a substance in a way that doesn’t interfere with the functioning?

non-errored sound and produce it…. modify it in a certain way to make 

the target sound: **need to know the child’s sound inventory 

“hold the sound and do this, this, and this”

“key word” = word in which the error sound is produced  

correctly for whatever reason; give you a phonetic environment 

to modify Don't forget about the age old question of How do the sun and the solar system form?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to understand others feelings and emotions?

Motor Kinesthetic Approach: (PROMPT): manipulate their face;  

tactile feedback

3. Stabilize: isolation -> nonsense syllables -> words -> phrases -> sentences  -> conversation (structure toys to get a lot of sounds) 

increasing order of difficulty in decreasing order of structure

LOTS of work to get from isolation -> conversation: make sure  

parents understand this! 

encourage parents: when you work on it at home - set a timer - don’t  

comment on that sound outside of that timed period: do not  

ALWAYS be monitoring

4. Transfer: anywhere outside the speech room 

5. Maintenance: just remember to do it: Be there to support them

3 McDonald’s Sensorimotor 

Philosophy: after thorough testing, you will find a phonetic context that facilitates  production. When you find it, practice it over and over and over again. Then  systematically vary the context

SATPAC: computerized program that will vary the CVCVC context 


1. Establishment phase: practice the facilitating context over and  Don't forget about the age old question of What is a descriptive field study design called?

over and over again: slow motion -> change stress -> phrases -> 

sentences, etc… (4 phrases repeated 5x) 

2. Generalization phase: say the target sound in various phonetic  


use the lists to say the targets at a brisk rate (140 bpm) 

consistent feedback

varying stress and varying rate 

3. Transfer phase: using real words until conversational  

competence is achieved

Suggestion: the program suggests that if you cannot find a facilitating  

context - it’s most likely oral motor skills holding the patient back… address  that first 

*Every therapy session you should get hundred of responses… most important thing 4 Considerations for targets 

Phonological Processes:


Traditionally: better to choose something more stimulable

Non traditionally: less stimulable (if stimulable, it might come in on  

it’s own) 

Developing sounds:

traditionally: better to choose something earlier developing 

non: later developing - there’s more to change


traditionally: inconsistent: variability indicates flexibility and growth

non: consistency: indicates there is a stable underlying representation 

- RULE governed 


traditionally: has some knowledge 

non: multiple opposition: teaches the most

Explanations of the phonemes: Misarticulations (pg 251 from book) 


ex: /s/ - sagittal grooving, apico or pre-dorsal production: (tongue  

up/down production) 

Linguistic Function: This is what you have to know of your target sounds Frequency: how frequent in the language is this error? - will impact  


there’s a chart in the book

Phonotactics: arrangements of the rules for the order of sounds 

(initial, medial, final position) - frequency of the position (initial,  

medial, final) of the phoneme in the word 

Morphophonemic Functions: not just about adding phoneme to  

inventory - also equips them syntactically; /s/ is a very functional  


Minimal Pairs: often used to test the perceptual accuracy of the  

impaired production vs the norm production 

5 Phonological Processes: Intervention Approaches Phonological Processes: Different from Articulation Disorder There is never a reason to give the client phonetic instructions EVER


Stopping: talk about the airstream

Cluster Reduction: talk about the fact that sounds coexist with  

sounds right next to each other - NOT about the sounds involved 

Final Consonant Deletion: talk about the structure of syllables and  

closed versus open syllable structure

Using the sounds to teach the rules… NOT teaching the sounds 

NOT a motor disorder… they have no trouble producing the sounds

able to produce all the sounds - just doesn’t appreciate the need to do so 

AIM: establish the contrast that’s been eliminated: get them to appreciate  they eliminated a difference that needs to be there in order for us to  

understand what they mean

show them that they are the ones causing the breakdown in 


in articulation intervention - meaning/ communication breakdown  is NOT discussed

2 Minimal Pairs: 2 words differ in 1 phoneme; used in almost every version in  treatment approach 

can be used for all processes

addresses the breakdown in communication  

administering the CAPT, BBTOE (Bankson-Bernthal), Kahn Lewis led you to a  Bandaid box labelled_______.

1. Choose which target to select: hardest part: the process is the target,  NOT the sound 

2. Choose the bandaid box:

choose cards that match the following characteristics: 

transparent: cards that are easy to identify

vocab that is appropriate for the age level 

represents the entire class of sounds of the concept you are  


not just the same phonemes over and over again 

expose the child to the concept in as many ways as  


using sounds to work on the concept 

sounds are in the inventory

not teaching the sounds - just using the sounds to teach 

the process 

~12 cards: mix them up: Steps in using cards

1. auditory bombardment: 100% accurately choosing 

the word YOU produce 

2. produce it in imitation

3. CHILD production: ensure that the child  

understands that when you pick the wrong one… it’s 

HIS fault 

he/she should understand that there is a  

communication breakdown and that it is HIS  


3. Train perceptual discrimination: cards are placed randomly ->  “When I say ____, point to the card” -> if wrong: explain it further: 100%  Accuracy before moving on 

4. Train productive discrimination: clinician production still

Put cards in pairs -> Explain they are different: “When I say them, I  am going to make them sound different” -> “Now it’s your turn to say  them” 

Ensure they are establishing a difference — its ok if its not what you  are looking for, but there’s still a difference

goal: child to imitate you, and making them sound different 

it does not matter if it’s the wrong phoneme - as long as they are  

changing the rule

5. Child takes the role of the “teacher”: The client has to own it and  take responsibility for the clinician picking the wrong card 

“This time you be the teacher, and you tell me which one to point to. I’m going to do exactly what you tell me to do. … Did I get it right?” Highlight the differences that highlight the meaning that he didn’t  appreciate before. 

ENSURE the child realizes there is CONSEQUENCE to his lack of  difference in his production  

3 Minimal Opposition 

looking primarily at substitution errors work on those contrasts that are  minimally different

Philosophy: If the difference between the target sound and its production is  minimal, it should be easy to teach 


1. measure the distance: how far away from the target? 

distinctive features

place, manner, voicing 

2. other things come into play: variables to consider

how far away is the place? 

distinctive features…

3. perceptual phase 

100% accurately choosing the correct card the CLINICIAN  


no teaching necessary: there is nothing about the /r/ sound 

that the client can’t produce it easily 

4. imitation phase

whole goal is to exaggerate the difference 

all reinforcing comments were about making them sound  

different - NOTHING about the articulators or how to  

produce the sound

encourage self-monitoring 

homonym: shoe and sue: when /sh/ -> /s/ = sue and sue: contrast has been  eliminated

4 Maximal Opposition - Judith Gierut 

Maximal Opposition I

1 sound is IN the inventory, the other is NOT (that is why you are  training it… it’s being substituted by something else) 

looking at same errors as maximal opposition but targeting ones with  the most differences.

two sounds VERY different - easy to discrimminate 

Philosophy: two things that very similar may be really difficult to  teach, you’re teaching a minimal amount; teaching 2 sounds that are  very different - it’s easy to discriminate

always start very different and move to more fine-tuned

use the same work you did with measuring the distance - but instead of  choosing the closest ones, choose the furthest ones

Maximal Opposition II 

Empty Set: both sounds are NOT in the inventory and are maximally  different

not based on homonymy at all, because the sounds aren’t in the  

inventory at all 

Philosophy: if you teach 2 sounds that are maximally different, you’ll  have a greater impact

Even if not in the inventory - the phonological process will still be 


if it’s an articulation problem - there will be a motor problem, or  

tension observed, or groping

More data supports maximal opposition than minimal opposition (not much) Our goal: teach as much as possible as fast as possible!

5 Multiple Opposition - Lynn Williams 

designed for his who collapse contrasts in a similar way

works well for severely impaired kids - unintelligible 

Requirement for consideration: 4+ errors that substitute to the same  phoneme

can work on up to 4 contrasts at a time 

trying to get the child to appreciate differences that he’s just lumping together goal: introduce as much newness as possible 


1. Choose targets: 

If taught the difference between target production and errored  

production, what does the child learn about?

aka - what are all the things that the phoneme on the  

left (target) has, that the phoneme on the right (error)  

doesn’t have? 

not required to choose 4 - you don’t need to replicate  


2. Input the stimuli into nonsense syllables (basically, just put them in  front of all the vowels) 

This is the only one that takes consonant clusters into account

Keep it simple - you already have the cluster covered - select the more simple  one to cover the characteristic you are trying to work on.  

6 Cycles - Barbara Hudson

Recommended for young severely unintelligible children 

designed for 2-3 y/o - most likely age for very young unintelligible

Target processes that are active 40% of the time 

Not all processes are equal - Use this criteria

FCD (22 consonants could be in final position) - you have 22 


gliding (r or l to w or j) - not going to take as long - not as many  possibilities

stopping (9 fricatives in english) 

CR - Tons of opportunities

Philosophy: if you look at typically developing children - they don’t work on  it one at a time - they evolve over time 

most other programs take a target and work on it until mastery — level  of skill that has to be met before moving on to another target she doesn’t believe in working towards mastery 

Format is a little unusual - based on tremendous amount of stimulation and imitation - describes your therapy session completely Steps: 

1. Administer APP-R (old test) HAPP-3: give Barbara Hodson’s test:  assess to come up with PP that need attention as defined by criteria 2. Determine which one is most stimulable, next most stimulable Primary target patterns: (for those NOT stimulable)

early dvping pp 

post/ant contrasts

/s/ clusters - really improves intelligibility 


Secondary target patterns: SLIDE 

Advanced targets

complex cons seq (Masks) 

Inappropriate primary targets (never work on)

final “ing” 

weak syllable deletion - cant use for minimal  

pairs either

How would you work on that? 

have something to do with syllabic —

banging on each sylable

‘th’ phonemes 

voiced final obstruents

3. Each ex is practiced for about an hour: work on 2 examples of the  pp 

stopping of fricatives - s and sh for an hour

cycle is complete when all targets have been taught 

work on 7 more fricatives (not s or sh)

intelligible… not eloquent - just intelligible 

Session looks like:

1. Review work from previous session 

1. (for first session) Any gadget that makes your voice a little louder  - get in the kids face — auditory bombardment

words that have s or sh - say a dozen over and over again 

find them in the room

2. do arts and crafts with them while the child is engaged with you  producing the words

has to be a play activity attached to the group of words and just  

work on them

3. Play game - game based repetition 

4. Next session if still working on stopping of fricatives

probe /f/ /b/ /dg/ - if stimulable 

probe for next target if you have expired the time

5. Stimulate with amplification the same dozen words 

send words how with mom and dad

directions for parents - they say it and child imitates it EVERY  

night - but only then 

6. Review it next session and go on to next targets

7 Metaphon - Klein 

Underlying principle - work on a rule, not a sound

rule is always taught in the context of contrast 

not good/bad feedback - oh you made them sound different

no instructions about phonetic placement 

avoiding direct imitation

work on 1 rule at a time 

use the sounds to work on the rules

Use of imagery - must have the concept first, and with that understanding,  they are able to manipulate language and play with the sound 

stopping of fricatives: running vs dripping; blowing vs popping  

(continues vs short)

fronting of velars: front vs back, tippy vs throaty 

FCD: open vs closed, tail vs no tail,

CR: friendly vs lonely 

Other Notes:

age to begin - as long as they understand the concept 

well suited for group work

exclude parents - cant judge what’s important 

five -> faib at least there’s a long sounds… was paib

appropriate for adults with accent reduction 

if your client has been in speech therapy - not a good idea to work  on this…. its really different

start with a new kid that doesn’t have a preconceived notion of 

needing to know where to place stuff… 

Therapy Regiment (Stopping of fricatives)

Essentially: Perception > Production: Isolation > Nonsense 

Syllables > Words > Phrases > Conversation 

1. Semantic identification

tell me if long or short sound 

/ah/ /sh/ /b/ /k/ /s/

establish at 100% acc. at least 50 trials 

CANNOT go on until 100%

eliminates some kids - add, cog limitations, - not good kids for  


exposure to entire inventory

2. Production in nonsense syl - now you give me a short/loud sound 

not teaching an inventory - doesn’t matter if they produce the  

same ones, as long as it’s correct

if you get less than 100% - go back to step one 

3. Semantic identification in words

give the kid some words… prep a word list!! 

tell me if the sound is long or short…

“fit” - has both long and short 

“sash” - both are long sounds - so that one would work

anything less than 100% - go back to step 1 to reinforce the  


50 or so words

4. Kid is producing words 

who cares if he uses the same words…

5. Perception in phrases 

6. Production in phrases

7. Production in conversation 

It works with the kids who get it - they just get it

6 Apraxia 

Clearly over diagnosed: Fight the diagnosis

“this is a very low-incidence disorder” - Loft 


Generic description of what it is: you have the recipe, you have the tools,  you have the ingredients…. but you’re not Julia Childs… you don’t know how  to put them together, you don’t know what tool does what… Keep trying, but it  comes out different every time… what comes out is a mess and you are so 

frustrated. You can’t rely on the tools, or on your knowledge. - and you  hear it and you know thats not at all what you wanted to say 

when it comes to strength training - there is a hurdle to overcome - if child  has demonstrated weakness of muscles - that child is by definition  


Inconsistency/ Token to token variability: ability to say something over  and over again in the same way — NOT apraxia if consistent 

Connected speech is more unintelligible: more complex - more  

demanding - problem gets worse

Limited repertoire of vowels/consonants: when you see a limited 

repertoire of vowels especially, start to worry 

Groping: struggling for speech

Non speech Characteristics: not obligatory 

difficulty imitating

possible drooling 

later attainment of motor milestones

poor fine and gross motor skills 

Suprasegmental characteristics: very important


Treatment: most of the time - working on whatever sounds they do have in  the repertoire and getting them to produce them in sequences, in planned  programmed sequences… that’s the essence of the disorder - not about  

teaching new sounds… take the sounds they do have and put it in different combinations

PROMPT - chief among the ones that touch 

MIT (for kids): work on prosody

MAKES sense to apply MacDonald to apraxic: treatment with a sensory motor focus - MacDonald - transition focus - find the combination that the  child can do and systematically vary it 

7 Final Examples:

Van Riper 

“This child produces a good /r/ but slightly distorted - labilzed.

Van Riper is very general 

wants to know how to stop labilizing

labial /r/ and non-labial /r/ - all treatment targets at what the child is 

doing wrong 

Intervention: PP

What’s going to be your stimuli? For each approach? Which approach works  best? Would the client be a candidate for multiple opposition? 

If you had a mindset of _______, what would you choose to work on?

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