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OSU - ANIMSCI 2200 - Study Guide - Final

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OSU - ANIMSCI 2200 - Study Guide - Final

School: Ohio State University
Department: INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE
Course: Introductory Animal Sciences
Professor: Pasha Peffer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, Animal Science, introductiontoanimalscience, animal, and animalsciences
Name: intro animal science final exam study guide
Description: these notes cover most of the final and then some extra. use this study guide as a tool for the final, but also consult your book and power points/ notes from class.
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
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background image Final Exam study guide  • Chapter One Importance of Animals Key points: We rely on animals for food, clothing, knowledge, energy, power, status,  transportation,  companionship, entertainment, service and capital Development complex of the human brain: we originally ate a plant base diet, so had a large  gut. Once we found out how to eat and digest meat, out  gut shrank and digestion was less labor  intensive, and also took less  energy. This energy then went to the brain. •Meat/ dairy consumption: our diet should contain low-fat meat as well as  dairy products such  as milk  Yogurt and cheese. In the US, 99% consume animal products (this includes eggs, honey, gelatin,  etc.) 27% of the US’s calories (on average) are from animal products, excluding  animal fats  17% of the worlds calories (on average) are from animal products excluding  animal fats. Meat and milk is the greatest contribution to animal products consumed in  the us and world  wide Developed countries consume at least twice the amount of meat and egg  product when  compared to least developed countries, this  pattern of economic status influencing food choice  is also seen in each  individual country as well. Worldwide goat is the most consumed meat Today chicken, beef and pork are the most consumed meats in the US, with  pork being the  number one consumed meat.  Milk consumption has decreased overall but cheese consumption has  increased. Milk in the us is mostly consumed from cattle, but in India over 60% of people get their milk  from water buffaloes. Other animals used in milk production are: yaks, goat, sheep, camel, mare,  sow, reindeer and  llama  •Other uses for animals beyond food:
background image Fiber: Many types of fibers can be collected from animals including wool, from sheep, mohair  and cashmere from goats, angora from rabbits and other  fibers from llamas, alpacas, camels  and yaks. Many animal fibers are being replaced by cotton or synthetic fibers. Globally, wool is the most used animal fiber, representing 5% of the textile  fiber production. Land management and transportation: animals all across the globe are used  as erosion control,  range or pasture management including plant diversification and
noxious weed control.
Many grazing animals can be sustained on land which otherwise would have  not been cultivated Draft animals are vital especially in Africa and Asia, where most of the land is  not able to be  cultivated by machine. Up to 25% of the land relies on  animals to cultivate the land.  Transportation using animals is also important; some areas in the united  states have limited  number of cars so rely on animals for transportation.  In Sub-Saharan Africa, donkey driven carts have been on the rise, and are  expected to stay in  demand in the future. Some animal fats can be refined and used as fuel for cars. Research: animals have contributed to over 50% of the scientific discoveries  and 2/3 of the  Nobel piece prizes  Rats and mice are the most used animals in research, but other animals used  are non- human  primates, dogs, cats, pigs horses, etc. By FEDERAL LAW animal testing MUST be conducted before human trials are  conducted. Rats and animals are used due to convenience; they take up a small amount  of space, reproduce  fast and are easy to maintain. Pigs have contributed quite a bit too, due to our similarities with them; we  have had heart  studies and obesity studies done on pigs which correlate  to humans. This also includes heart  disease. Sheep studies have been used in fetal development studies, and chickens are helping in studies  with ovarian cancer.  It is important to use animals for research; no animal is a perfect model for  humans. The results  we get from these studies may give us insight to 
background image possible results, but until the clinical trials are  conducted there is not  “for sure” reaction.  Chapter Two Domestication: Key points:  Humans are not solely responsible for the domestication process; evolution  and genetics have  some place in. the first stage of evolution is the longest stage of development, and is  considered the origins of  animals and their continuing ability over time,  while domestication is considered fixed  evolutionary behaviors  and production is the most recent stage of development through  selective  practices. All domesticated animals have similar traits, which allowed humans to  interrupt their natural  hierarchy, also some animals are impossible to  domesticate (note the difference between feral,  wild, tame and  domesticated). •Origin of animals: Todays animals appeared during the Cambrian period  (540 million years  ago), also known as the Cambrian explosion. Mammals appeared during the Triassic period (250 Million years ago) Birds appeared during the Jurassic period (150 Million years ago) Humans appeared during the tertiary period (65 million years ago) which was also viewed as the  period of land bridges that linked north America to Asia. Pig, cow and horse ancestors appeared about 53 million years ago. Principles of Evolution: Evolution is the process by which changes occur over  SUCCESSIVE  GENERATIONS; BOTH animals GENETICS and its ENVIRONMENT  are important for evolution. Biologist whom started to study evolution include, Charles Darwin, William  wells, Patrick  Mathews and Alfred Wallace. Animals will evolve as the inherently possess the ability to vary, reproduce in  excess, and are  exposed to a continually changing environment.  Darwin created the idea of natural selection, and that animals can gradually  change  morphologically over time to adapt to their environment. Natural selection also works on existing genetics, and cannot introduce  variation.  Natural selection is increased however, because animals in general have a  tendency to  reproduce and overpopulate beyond environmental sustainability. Adaptations are modifications that are maintained through natural selection.
background image Horses are a great example; they use to have feet, but slowly their feet  developed into hoofs Evolution during domestication: during domestication an animal’s SOCIAL  environment is the primary force acting on existing variation. Despite only aiming for social, some physical attributes still follow such as,  floppy ears, curled  tails, white head spotting, this is due for selecting for a single 
trait. 
The original trait being selected for was tameness and docility towards  humans, but it originated  with natural selection. Artificial selection would play a 
role later in the domestication factor.
Fox-farm experiments showed the effects of artificial selection, and how fast  artificial selection  can take effect. Domestication moves beyond taming: most animals are unable to be  domesticated; for  example, Of the 148 hooved animal species, only 14 are 
currently domesticated.  
Fish are still working on being domesticated, while some animals we keep as  pets are not  considered domesticated such as snakes and other exotics. According to DARWIN, domestication required breeding of animals in  captivity, was goal  oriented, increased reproductive success of the animal, brought 
about atrophy or reduction in 
organ systems, enabled greater demonstration of  adaptability, and was a process facilitated by  subjugation to humans. Tame is the acceptance of humans for a brief period of time, and will not last  generations. It is   only temporary. The offspring of tame animals will show  wild behaviors even if their parents do not. Genetically there are absence of 
domestic markers. 
Feral animals are animals where were at one point domesticated but through  generations of not  having human contact have started to go towards their wild 
state.
Major species of domesticated individuals include cows, pigs, sheep, horses  and goats. Minor  species include donkeys, water buffalo, reindeer, llama  alpaca, camels, and yaks. Behaviors that support domestication are large social groups with a  hierarchal structure,  promiscuous mating with male dominance, signal  reproductive readiness through postures,  prosocial young, short flight distance  and low reactivity to humans, herbivores or omnivores,  low stress response to  confinement.  Domestication where and when?:Wolfs were one of the firsts animals to be  domesticates,  estimated about 17-15 thousand years ago.
background image Domestication events tended to occur where food was more scarce, and  hunting was not always  most optimal. In the tropics very few if no domestication events occurred because the  climate allows for  hunting all year round, and animals didn’t have to connect with 
humans.
Most of the evidence of domestication occurred towards Mesopotamia.  Pigs have had the most domesticated events out of all the domesticated  animals. The stages of domestication: 1. Control over animals in the wild
2. Control over captive wild animals
3. Breeding of captive animals
4. Morphological changes in captive animals
Welfare and behavior Nutrition & the early years  -first nutritional study evidence in the Book of Daniel (2500-2400 years ago) -Hippocrates made the first references to the medicinal properties of food and
that proper amounts of nourishment was key to be healthy
-origins of nutrition as a science began during the chemical revolution in the 
late 1700’s
-Antoine Lavosier defined life as a chemical process -1886 Francois Magendie discovered diversity was key to proper  nutrition by conducting experiments with dogs, and only feeding some one 
nutrient category which passed away and others all the nutrient categories 
which lived. 
- Weende identified food components in the 1860’s, also providing  approximant analysis of feed   Nutrition: The sum of the processes in an animal by which feed (or food) 
substances are consumed, metabolized, assimilated, and waste products 
eliminated ULTIMATELY, Supports growth, tissue maintenance and repair, and 
extension of products
-Food is an item that supplied nutrients in its natural state -feed is food that is supplied to an animal system (often processed)  Nutrients: Any chemical element or compound in the diet that supports 
maintenance of life processes and extension of growth, reproduction, and 
lactation.

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School: Ohio State University
Department: INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE
Course: Introductory Animal Sciences
Professor: Pasha Peffer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, Animal Science, introductiontoanimalscience, animal, and animalsciences
Name: intro animal science final exam study guide
Description: these notes cover most of the final and then some extra. use this study guide as a tool for the final, but also consult your book and power points/ notes from class.
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
22 Pages 100 Views 80 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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