Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - HNFE 3824 Exam 4 Study Guide - Study Guide

Created by: Sydney Notetaker Elite Notetaker

> > > > Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - HNFE 3824 Exam 4 Study Guide - Study Guide

Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - HNFE 3824 Exam 4 Study Guide - Study Guide

0 5 3 74 Reviews
This preview shows pages 1 - 4 of a 20 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Thorax Ribs 7 true ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage 5 false ribs 2 floating ribs Costal cartilage More flexible than bone Sternum Manubrium Body Xyphoid process Thoracic Articulations Sternocostal Sternum and rib (gliding) Costochondral Rib and costal cartilage Interchondral Between costal cartilages Intersternal Between manubrium, body and xphoid process Costovertebral joints Costovertebral Facet articulates with a joint surface between adjacent vertebrae (pivot joint) Costotransverse Costotransverse articulates with transverse process (gliding joint) Why are costovertebral joints so important? These joints allow us to inhale and exhale When you inhale your ribs go up and out Intercostal muscles Origin: upper rib Insertion: lower rib Action: External: lift lower rib up and out Increases thoracic volume § Internal: move lower rib down and in Decreases thoracic volume § Diaphragm Origin Sternum Lower ribs Insertion Central tendon Innervation Phrenic nerve Action Increase thoracic volume Air movement Increased volume, decreased pressure Air moves in Decreased volume, increased pressure Air moves out Other Respirator Muscles All compress the abdominal cavity and force expiration Rectus abdominus Transverse abdominus Obliques Rest Passive expiration Relaxation of diaphragm and intercostals Active inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and external intercostals Exercise Forced expiration and inspiration Inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and intercostals § Expiration Contraction of internal intercostals, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus § Heimlich Maneuver Pushes diaphragm up and increases thoracic pressure and if thoracic pressure is increased enough it can remove whatever is blocking the
airway
Actions of the respiratory muscles Diaphragm Fibers shorten and pull central tendon down External intercostals Lift the ribs up and out § Relaxation Elasticity returns diaphragm and ribs to resting position § Genioglossus Depresses and protrudes tongue Geniohyoid Elevates and displaces hyoid arch anterior Sternohyoid Displaces hyoid arch anterior Obstructive Sleep Apnea Snoring Hypoxemia Sleepiness hypertension Apnea Mandibular Advancement Orthodontic device Pulls chin forward to open airway § Nasal breathing Mainly at rest Oral nasal breathing Breathing through nose and mouth During exercise Animal with very active Genosglossus  muscle? dogs Shoulder Shoulder complex structure Glenohumeral joint True shoulder joint Ball and socket joint Scapula Medial and axial border (lateral) Sternonavicular joint Gliding joint with disk Doesn't have true axis of rotation but it triaxial Ligaments Interclavicular Between the two clavicles § Costoclavicular Attaches to first rib § Sternoclavicular Movements Anterior/posterior (protraction/retraction) Superior/inferior (elevation/depression) Rotation Sternoclavicular Saddle type joint Movements described as passive No muscles act directly on the joint AC Joint Movements Upward and downward  rotation Looking at the body in the frontal plane § Horizontal plane adjustments Protraction and retraction Protraction- they separate Retraction- they come back together They move around the thorax around the longitudinal axis in the horizontal plane § Sagittal Plane Elevation/depression Scapula rotates around the medial lateral axis § Scapulothoracic movements Sternoclavicular and AC joint moving Elevation/depression Downward rotation at AC joint (depression) Clavicle tilts upwards and rotates around SC joint (elevation) Protraction/retraction (sc joint) AC Joint- horizontal plane adjustment Upward and downward  rotation (AC joint) Abduction  of shoulder 180 degrees of movement Part of movement is due to the glenohumeral joint § Part is upward movement of scapula § 1st 40 degrees occurs at SC joint 2nd 20 degrees is upward rotation of AC joint AC Separation Force being applied to lateral side of shoulder Not a very stable joint Aaron Rodgers 2013 Lineman falls on top of him Fractured Clavicle Broken collar bone Sternoclavicular separation Dislocation of sternoclavicular joint Can be dislocated anteriorly or posteriorly Not as common Ben Rothlesberger 2012 Posterior dislocation If it moves backwards too far it can puncture the aorta Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Compression of the arteries Pain in clavicle area Hand swelling Numbness or paralysis Causes depression of scapula when carrying heavy loads Sometimes confused with a heart attack Causes Posture (drooping shoulder/forward head) Carrying heavy loads Trauma Repetitive overhead arm movements Extra cervical rib Treatment Rest Removing first rib Muscles acting on the scapula Posterior Trapezius Levator Scapulae Rhomboid Major and minor Anterior Subclavius Only muscle that acts on SC joint § Stabilizes clavicle § Pectoralis minor Lateroposterior Serratus anterior Upward Rotation Downward Rotation Serratus anterior Upper/lower trapezius Pectoralis minor rhomboids Protraction Retraction Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Middle trapezius rhomboids Elevation Depression Levator scapulae Upper trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Lower trapezius Glenohumeral Joint Very similar to the hip joint Glenoid labrum extends socket by about 25% Ball and socket joint- triaxial movements Ligaments Coracohumeral ligament Attaches from coracoid process on scapula to the humerus just distal to the neck § Glenohumeral Glenoid labrum Combined GH and Scapula Movement Total movement 180 degrees If I have 120 degrees of GH rotation, then I would have 60 degrees of scapula 1st 40 degrees SC 2nd 20 degrees AC Always a 2:1 ratio If you go past 120 degrees then the AC joint will start to move Rotator cuff muscles Subscapularis and supraspinatus Know that they rotate the shoulder inward Infraspinatus and teres minor Know that they rotate the shoulder outward Rotator Cuff Tear Normally the supraspinatus  tendon Very common in baseball players Surgical repair Glenohumeral dislocation Humerus separates from the glenoid Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Supraspinatus and biceps brachii tendon become irritated and inflamed as it passed through the subacromial space Muscles Acting on GH joint
Flexion
Extension Anterior Deltoid Biceps Brachii Posterior deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Abduction Adduction Middle deltoid Pectoralis major Teres major Latissimus dorsi Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion
Posterior deltoid
Latissiumus dorsi Pectoralis Major Anterior deltoid Coracobrachialis What muscles are involved in full shoulder abduction? Deltoid, trapezius, rhomboids Elbow Elbow joint Hinge joint Humerus Medial and lateral epicondyles Trochlea (medial) Slightly larger than the capitulum Capitulum (lateral) Radius Located on lateral side of the arm On thumb side Small proximally and large distally Head of radius Rounded dish shape Radial tuberosity (bicipital) Where biceps muscle with attach An important site Styloid process Ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Part that forms hinge joint Radial notch Forms radioulnar joint Styloid process Coronoid process Cubitus Valgus (10-25 degrees) Carrying angle Elbow Flexion/Extension Not truly a sagittal plane movement Has some frontal plane movement Extension (valgus) Flexion (slight varus) Movements of Radioulnar joint Radius rotates in the annular ligament Supination Radial and ulnar are parallel Palm facing up Pronation Radial and ulnar are crossed Palm facing down Tennis Elbow Irritation at lateral epicondyle Overuse Golfer's elbow Aka pitcher's, little leaguer's elbow Irritation at medial epicondyle Tommy John Surgery Baseball pitchers Medial/ulnar collateral ligament tear Ball puts lots of stress on medial collateral ligament MCL gets torn They drill tunnel in the ulna and the base of the humerus and a tendon is threaded through the holes in a figure 8 pattern Cubital tunnel syndrome Compression/trauma to ulnar nerve Numbness and muscle weakness Nursemaids elbow Dislocation of radiohumeral joint Forces pull the elbow apart Muscles acting on the elbow Biceps Brachii Supination Radial tuberosity attachment helps with this § Brachioradialias Brachialis Triceps Understand that long head attaches to scapula and lateral and short head attach to the humerus Muscles acting on radioulnar joint Pronator teres Longer muscle Located up near the elbow Pronator quadratus Originates on humerus Located down at wrist Supinator Take radius and flips it back so it is parallel with the ulnar Biceps Brachii Gets stretched when in the pronation position Torque Potential Supination 25% more torque Screw tightening is clockwise Flexion supination Biceps brachii Brachialis brachioradialis Biceps brachii Supinator Brachioradialis (1/2 from pronation) Extension Pronation Triceps Pronator teres pronator quadratus brachioradialis (1/2 from supination) Foot and Ankle Structures of the foot and ankle bones Tibia fibula Talus Calcaneous Tarsals (5) Navicular (medial) Landmark of the foot § Metatarsals Phalanges Joints Tibiofibular (distal) Lateral side of ankle § Talocrural (talus, tibia, and fibula) Tibiotalar § Fibulotalar § Subtalar (talocalcaneal) Talus and calcaneous § Transverse Talus, calcaneous, and 1st row of tarsals § Ankle Sprains Inversion- lateral Most common Eversion- medial Deltoid High ankle sprain -lateral Tibiofibular joint and ligament Somewhat common Lisfranc ligament Tan color on image is the lisfranc ligament Issue Toes are hyperextended and a force is applied to the heel, which causes displacement of metatarsals and causing them to shift
forward
Toe ligament Turf toe Metatarsophalangeal sprain Hyperextension of big toe which causes the ligament to rupture § Arches of the foot Lateral Plantarcalcaneonavicular ligament Spring ligament § Plantar fascia/aponeurosis Big thick connective tissue you feel on bottom of foot § Medial arch More important Spread contact ground forces Store elastic energy The arch flattens out when there are impact forces, like when the foot hits the ground § Pes Planus Flat foot Navicular bone is inferior Pes Cavus High arch Navicular bone is superior Feiss line Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal Plantar Fascitis Strained plantar fascia Most often towards the heel end Treated with orthotics Movements of the ankle Talocrural joint Dorsi and plantar flexion Dorsi- toes go up § Plantar- toes go down § Subtalar Inversion and eversion Abduction  and adduction Toes go inward and toes go outward § B-> C movement Is dorsiflexion Plantar and Dorsi Flexion Inversion Supination Inversion and adduction plantarflexion § Eversion Pronation Abduction  and eversion Dorsiflexion § Shoe Wear Patterns Normal Stability shoe High arch Cushioned shoe supinator Flat foot Motion control shoe Pronator Pronation starts at the hip Coxa varus Genu valgus Pronation Large q angle Pronation corrected Midsole wedge Orthotics Straightens alignment of subtalar joint Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries correct foot and ankle alignment may cause reduction in ACL injuries Plantar Flexor Muscles Gastrocnemius Soleus Contract to prevent from going into dorsiflexion Maintains ankle stability Dorsi Flexor Muscles Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum, longus Extends the digits inversion Flexion/eversion Peroneus longus and brevis Passes posterior to the lateral malleolus Eversion, plantar flexion Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Shin splints Not enough arch support Over pronation Barefoot Running Not as much control of the foot Foot Stike Rear foot Land on heel first Midfoot Land flat footed Forefoot Land on ball of foot Heel may or may not hit the ground Running Looked for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them to kids in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes Barefoot Tend to be forefoot strikers § Less impact force for people that are forefoot strikes § People that ran with shoes running barefoot causes much more jarring and impact force We don't know long term effects of it Reducing Impact Running barefoot all life gives the kids much better calf muscles and proprioception Running barefoot must be done neuromuscular Wrist and Hand Structure Radius Ulna Carpals Proximal- lunate, scaphoid, triquitrum, pisiform Distal row- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate Metacarpals (5) Phalanges 5 proximal 4 middle 5 distal Thumb has two one proximal and one distal, but no middle § Joints Radiocarpal Most movement is at the joint Wrist joint Biaxial (ellipsoid) Ulnocarpal (gliding) Midcarpal (gliding) Intercarpal (gliding) Carpometacarpal Thumb (saddle- biaxial) Fingers (gliding) Metacarpophalangeal Thumb- hinge (uniaxial) Fingers- condyloid (biaxial) Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion and Extension Extension 60% radiocarpal 40% midcarpal Flexion 40% radio carpal 60% midcarpal Radial and Ulnar Deviation The proximal row of carpals slides across the radius Forearm muscles
Wrist Flexion
Wrist Extension Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris Radial deviation Ulnar deviation Flexor carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris extensor carpi ulnaris Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 2nd leading cause of workman's comp besides back injuries Nerve gets compressed and causes pain Caused by excessive wrist flexion and ulnar deviation Treatment Open or endoscopic release Transverse ligament is released Movement of the Finger joints Metacarpophalangeal (condyloid) Adduction-abduction Flexion-extension Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion- extension Grips, Grasps, and Prehension Typical power grip Adducted thumb Wrist is in ulnar deviation Typical precision group Thumb is abducted MCP flexion Wrist midway between  radial and ulnar deviation Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Flexor digitorum MCP, PIP, DIP flexion Flexor pollicus longus CM, MCP, IP flexion of the thumb Extensor Digitorum Wrist extension MCP, PIP and DIP Extensor Pollicis Abductor Pollicis Longus and brevis Thumb extension (CM, MCP, and IP) Abductor Pollicis Longus Thumb abduction Intrinsic Muscles Palmer Interossei Adduction  of fingers Dorsal Interossei Abduction  of first three fingers Lumbricales MCP Flexion, PIP and DIP extension Tendons of the finger muscles Dorsal expansion Extension of the interosseous  tendon Extensor expansion Extension of lumbricales Malleted or Dropped Finger Rupture of extensor tendon Last joint becomes swollen and the finger can not be extended fully Jersey Finger Hyperextension during flexion Partial tear of tendon Exam 4 Study Guide Saturday, December  10, 2016 2:43 PM
background image Thorax Ribs 7 true ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage 5 false ribs 2 floating ribs Costal cartilage More flexible than bone Sternum Manubrium Body Xyphoid process Thoracic Articulations Sternocostal Sternum and rib (gliding) Costochondral Rib and costal cartilage Interchondral Between costal cartilages Intersternal Between manubrium, body and xphoid process Costovertebral joints Costovertebral Facet articulates with a joint surface between adjacent vertebrae (pivot joint) Costotransverse Costotransverse articulates with transverse process (gliding joint) Why are costovertebral joints so important? These joints allow us to inhale and exhale When you inhale your ribs go up and out Intercostal muscles Origin: upper rib Insertion: lower rib Action: External: lift lower rib up and out Increases thoracic volume § Internal: move lower rib down and in Decreases thoracic volume § Diaphragm Origin Sternum Lower ribs Insertion Central tendon Innervation Phrenic nerve Action Increase thoracic volume Air movement Increased volume, decreased pressure Air moves in Decreased volume, increased pressure Air moves out Other Respirator Muscles All compress the abdominal cavity and force expiration Rectus abdominus Transverse abdominus Obliques Rest Passive expiration Relaxation of diaphragm and intercostals Active inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and external intercostals Exercise Forced expiration and inspiration Inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and intercostals § Expiration Contraction of internal intercostals, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus § Heimlich Maneuver Pushes diaphragm up and increases thoracic pressure and if thoracic pressure is increased enough it can remove whatever is blocking the
airway
Actions of the respiratory muscles Diaphragm Fibers shorten and pull central tendon down External intercostals Lift the ribs up and out § Relaxation Elasticity returns diaphragm and ribs to resting position § Genioglossus Depresses and protrudes tongue Geniohyoid Elevates and displaces hyoid arch anterior Sternohyoid Displaces hyoid arch anterior Obstructive Sleep Apnea Snoring Hypoxemia Sleepiness hypertension Apnea Mandibular Advancement Orthodontic device Pulls chin forward to open airway § Nasal breathing Mainly at rest Oral nasal breathing Breathing through nose and mouth During exercise Animal with very active Genosglossus  muscle? dogs Shoulder Shoulder complex structure Glenohumeral joint True shoulder joint Ball and socket joint Scapula Medial and axial border (lateral) Sternonavicular joint Gliding joint with disk Doesn't have true axis of rotation but it triaxial Ligaments Interclavicular Between the two clavicles § Costoclavicular Attaches to first rib § Sternoclavicular Movements Anterior/posterior (protraction/retraction) Superior/inferior (elevation/depression) Rotation Sternoclavicular Saddle type joint Movements described as passive No muscles act directly on the joint AC Joint Movements Upward and downward  rotation Looking at the body in the frontal plane § Horizontal plane adjustments Protraction and retraction Protraction- they separate Retraction- they come back together They move around the thorax around the longitudinal axis in the horizontal plane § Sagittal Plane Elevation/depression Scapula rotates around the medial lateral axis § Scapulothoracic movements Sternoclavicular and AC joint moving Elevation/depression Downward rotation at AC joint (depression) Clavicle tilts upwards and rotates around SC joint (elevation) Protraction/retraction (sc joint) AC Joint- horizontal plane adjustment Upward and downward  rotation (AC joint) Abduction  of shoulder 180 degrees of movement Part of movement is due to the glenohumeral joint § Part is upward movement of scapula § 1st 40 degrees occurs at SC joint 2nd 20 degrees is upward rotation of AC joint AC Separation Force being applied to lateral side of shoulder Not a very stable joint Aaron Rodgers 2013 Lineman falls on top of him Fractured Clavicle Broken collar bone Sternoclavicular separation Dislocation of sternoclavicular joint Can be dislocated anteriorly or posteriorly Not as common Ben Rothlesberger 2012 Posterior dislocation If it moves backwards too far it can puncture the aorta Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Compression of the arteries Pain in clavicle area Hand swelling Numbness or paralysis Causes depression of scapula when carrying heavy loads Sometimes confused with a heart attack Causes Posture (drooping shoulder/forward head) Carrying heavy loads Trauma Repetitive overhead arm movements Extra cervical rib Treatment Rest Removing first rib Muscles acting on the scapula Posterior Trapezius Levator Scapulae Rhomboid Major and minor Anterior Subclavius Only muscle that acts on SC joint § Stabilizes clavicle § Pectoralis minor Lateroposterior Serratus anterior Upward Rotation Downward Rotation Serratus anterior Upper/lower trapezius Pectoralis minor rhomboids Protraction Retraction Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Middle trapezius rhomboids Elevation Depression Levator scapulae Upper trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Lower trapezius Glenohumeral Joint Very similar to the hip joint Glenoid labrum extends socket by about 25% Ball and socket joint- triaxial movements Ligaments Coracohumeral ligament Attaches from coracoid process on scapula to the humerus just distal to the neck § Glenohumeral Glenoid labrum Combined GH and Scapula Movement Total movement 180 degrees If I have 120 degrees of GH rotation, then I would have 60 degrees of scapula 1st 40 degrees SC 2nd 20 degrees AC Always a 2:1 ratio If you go past 120 degrees then the AC joint will start to move Rotator cuff muscles Subscapularis and supraspinatus Know that they rotate the shoulder inward Infraspinatus and teres minor Know that they rotate the shoulder outward Rotator Cuff Tear Normally the supraspinatus  tendon Very common in baseball players Surgical repair Glenohumeral dislocation Humerus separates from the glenoid Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Supraspinatus and biceps brachii tendon become irritated and inflamed as it passed through the subacromial space Muscles Acting on GH joint
Flexion
Extension Anterior Deltoid Biceps Brachii Posterior deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Abduction Adduction Middle deltoid Pectoralis major Teres major Latissimus dorsi Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion
Posterior deltoid
Latissiumus dorsi Pectoralis Major Anterior deltoid Coracobrachialis What muscles are involved in full shoulder abduction? Deltoid, trapezius, rhomboids Elbow Elbow joint Hinge joint Humerus Medial and lateral epicondyles Trochlea (medial) Slightly larger than the capitulum Capitulum (lateral) Radius Located on lateral side of the arm On thumb side Small proximally and large distally Head of radius Rounded dish shape Radial tuberosity (bicipital) Where biceps muscle with attach An important site Styloid process Ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Part that forms hinge joint Radial notch Forms radioulnar joint Styloid process Coronoid process Cubitus Valgus (10-25 degrees) Carrying angle Elbow Flexion/Extension Not truly a sagittal plane movement Has some frontal plane movement Extension (valgus) Flexion (slight varus) Movements of Radioulnar joint Radius rotates in the annular ligament Supination Radial and ulnar are parallel Palm facing up Pronation Radial and ulnar are crossed Palm facing down Tennis Elbow Irritation at lateral epicondyle Overuse Golfer's elbow Aka pitcher's, little leaguer's elbow Irritation at medial epicondyle Tommy John Surgery Baseball pitchers Medial/ulnar collateral ligament tear Ball puts lots of stress on medial collateral ligament MCL gets torn They drill tunnel in the ulna and the base of the humerus and a tendon is threaded through the holes in a figure 8 pattern Cubital tunnel syndrome Compression/trauma to ulnar nerve Numbness and muscle weakness Nursemaids elbow Dislocation of radiohumeral joint Forces pull the elbow apart Muscles acting on the elbow Biceps Brachii Supination Radial tuberosity attachment helps with this § Brachioradialias Brachialis Triceps Understand that long head attaches to scapula and lateral and short head attach to the humerus Muscles acting on radioulnar joint Pronator teres Longer muscle Located up near the elbow Pronator quadratus Originates on humerus Located down at wrist Supinator Take radius and flips it back so it is parallel with the ulnar Biceps Brachii Gets stretched when in the pronation position Torque Potential Supination 25% more torque Screw tightening is clockwise Flexion supination Biceps brachii Brachialis brachioradialis Biceps brachii Supinator Brachioradialis (1/2 from pronation) Extension Pronation Triceps Pronator teres pronator quadratus brachioradialis (1/2 from supination) Foot and Ankle Structures of the foot and ankle bones Tibia fibula Talus Calcaneous Tarsals (5) Navicular (medial) Landmark of the foot § Metatarsals Phalanges Joints Tibiofibular (distal) Lateral side of ankle § Talocrural (talus, tibia, and fibula) Tibiotalar § Fibulotalar § Subtalar (talocalcaneal) Talus and calcaneous § Transverse Talus, calcaneous, and 1st row of tarsals § Ankle Sprains Inversion- lateral Most common Eversion- medial Deltoid High ankle sprain -lateral Tibiofibular joint and ligament Somewhat common Lisfranc ligament Tan color on image is the lisfranc ligament Issue Toes are hyperextended and a force is applied to the heel, which causes displacement of metatarsals and causing them to shift
forward
Toe ligament Turf toe Metatarsophalangeal sprain Hyperextension of big toe which causes the ligament to rupture § Arches of the foot Lateral Plantarcalcaneonavicular ligament Spring ligament § Plantar fascia/aponeurosis Big thick connective tissue you feel on bottom of foot § Medial arch More important Spread contact ground forces Store elastic energy The arch flattens out when there are impact forces, like when the foot hits the ground § Pes Planus Flat foot Navicular bone is inferior Pes Cavus High arch Navicular bone is superior Feiss line Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal Plantar Fascitis Strained plantar fascia Most often towards the heel end Treated with orthotics Movements of the ankle Talocrural joint Dorsi and plantar flexion Dorsi- toes go up § Plantar- toes go down § Subtalar Inversion and eversion Abduction  and adduction Toes go inward and toes go outward § B-> C movement Is dorsiflexion Plantar and Dorsi Flexion Inversion Supination Inversion and adduction plantarflexion § Eversion Pronation Abduction  and eversion Dorsiflexion § Shoe Wear Patterns Normal Stability shoe High arch Cushioned shoe supinator Flat foot Motion control shoe Pronator Pronation starts at the hip Coxa varus Genu valgus Pronation Large q angle Pronation corrected Midsole wedge Orthotics Straightens alignment of subtalar joint Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries correct foot and ankle alignment may cause reduction in ACL injuries Plantar Flexor Muscles Gastrocnemius Soleus Contract to prevent from going into dorsiflexion Maintains ankle stability Dorsi Flexor Muscles Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum, longus Extends the digits inversion Flexion/eversion Peroneus longus and brevis Passes posterior to the lateral malleolus Eversion, plantar flexion Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Shin splints Not enough arch support Over pronation Barefoot Running Not as much control of the foot Foot Stike Rear foot Land on heel first Midfoot Land flat footed Forefoot Land on ball of foot Heel may or may not hit the ground Running Looked for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them to kids in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes Barefoot Tend to be forefoot strikers § Less impact force for people that are forefoot strikes § People that ran with shoes running barefoot causes much more jarring and impact force We don't know long term effects of it Reducing Impact Running barefoot all life gives the kids much better calf muscles and proprioception Running barefoot must be done neuromuscular Wrist and Hand Structure Radius Ulna Carpals Proximal- lunate, scaphoid, triquitrum, pisiform Distal row- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate Metacarpals (5) Phalanges 5 proximal 4 middle 5 distal Thumb has two one proximal and one distal, but no middle § Joints Radiocarpal Most movement is at the joint Wrist joint Biaxial (ellipsoid) Ulnocarpal (gliding) Midcarpal (gliding) Intercarpal (gliding) Carpometacarpal Thumb (saddle- biaxial) Fingers (gliding) Metacarpophalangeal Thumb- hinge (uniaxial) Fingers- condyloid (biaxial) Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion and Extension Extension 60% radiocarpal 40% midcarpal Flexion 40% radio carpal 60% midcarpal Radial and Ulnar Deviation The proximal row of carpals slides across the radius Forearm muscles
Wrist Flexion
Wrist Extension Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris Radial deviation Ulnar deviation Flexor carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris extensor carpi ulnaris Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 2nd leading cause of workman's comp besides back injuries Nerve gets compressed and causes pain Caused by excessive wrist flexion and ulnar deviation Treatment Open or endoscopic release Transverse ligament is released Movement of the Finger joints Metacarpophalangeal (condyloid) Adduction-abduction Flexion-extension Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion- extension Grips, Grasps, and Prehension Typical power grip Adducted thumb Wrist is in ulnar deviation Typical precision group Thumb is abducted MCP flexion Wrist midway between  radial and ulnar deviation Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Flexor digitorum MCP, PIP, DIP flexion Flexor pollicus longus CM, MCP, IP flexion of the thumb Extensor Digitorum Wrist extension MCP, PIP and DIP Extensor Pollicis Abductor Pollicis Longus and brevis Thumb extension (CM, MCP, and IP) Abductor Pollicis Longus Thumb abduction Intrinsic Muscles Palmer Interossei Adduction  of fingers Dorsal Interossei Abduction  of first three fingers Lumbricales MCP Flexion, PIP and DIP extension Tendons of the finger muscles Dorsal expansion Extension of the interosseous  tendon Extensor expansion Extension of lumbricales Malleted or Dropped Finger Rupture of extensor tendon Last joint becomes swollen and the finger can not be extended fully Jersey Finger Hyperextension during flexion Partial tear of tendon Exam 4 Study Guide Saturday, December  10, 2016 2:43 PM
background image Thorax Ribs 7 true ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage 5 false ribs 2 floating ribs Costal cartilage More flexible than bone Sternum Manubrium Body Xyphoid process Thoracic Articulations Sternocostal Sternum and rib (gliding) Costochondral Rib and costal cartilage Interchondral Between costal cartilages Intersternal Between manubrium, body and xphoid process Costovertebral joints Costovertebral Facet articulates with a joint surface between adjacent vertebrae (pivot joint) Costotransverse Costotransverse articulates with transverse process (gliding joint) Why are costovertebral joints so important? These joints allow us to inhale and exhale When you inhale your ribs go up and out Intercostal muscles Origin: upper rib Insertion: lower rib Action: External: lift lower rib up and out Increases thoracic volume § Internal: move lower rib down and in Decreases thoracic volume § Diaphragm Origin Sternum Lower ribs Insertion Central tendon Innervation Phrenic nerve Action Increase thoracic volume Air movement Increased volume, decreased pressure Air moves in Decreased volume, increased pressure Air moves out Other Respirator Muscles All compress the abdominal cavity and force expiration Rectus abdominus Transverse abdominus Obliques Rest Passive expiration Relaxation of diaphragm and intercostals Active inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and external intercostals Exercise Forced expiration and inspiration Inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and intercostals § Expiration Contraction of internal intercostals, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus § Heimlich Maneuver Pushes diaphragm up and increases thoracic pressure and if thoracic pressure is increased enough it can remove whatever is blocking the
airway
Actions of the respiratory muscles Diaphragm Fibers shorten and pull central tendon down External intercostals Lift the ribs up and out § Relaxation Elasticity returns diaphragm and ribs to resting position § Genioglossus Depresses and protrudes tongue Geniohyoid Elevates and displaces hyoid arch anterior Sternohyoid Displaces hyoid arch anterior Obstructive Sleep Apnea Snoring Hypoxemia Sleepiness hypertension Apnea Mandibular Advancement Orthodontic device Pulls chin forward to open airway § Nasal breathing Mainly at rest Oral nasal breathing Breathing through nose and mouth During exercise Animal with very active Genosglossus  muscle? dogs Shoulder Shoulder complex structure Glenohumeral joint True shoulder joint Ball and socket joint Scapula Medial and axial border (lateral) Sternonavicular joint Gliding joint with disk Doesn't have true axis of rotation but it triaxial Ligaments Interclavicular Between the two clavicles § Costoclavicular Attaches to first rib § Sternoclavicular Movements Anterior/posterior (protraction/retraction) Superior/inferior (elevation/depression) Rotation Sternoclavicular Saddle type joint Movements described as passive No muscles act directly on the joint AC Joint Movements Upward and downward  rotation Looking at the body in the frontal plane § Horizontal plane adjustments Protraction and retraction Protraction- they separate Retraction- they come back together They move around the thorax around the longitudinal axis in the horizontal plane § Sagittal Plane Elevation/depression Scapula rotates around the medial lateral axis § Scapulothoracic movements Sternoclavicular and AC joint moving Elevation/depression Downward rotation at AC joint (depression) Clavicle tilts upwards and rotates around SC joint (elevation) Protraction/retraction (sc joint) AC Joint- horizontal plane adjustment Upward and downward  rotation (AC joint) Abduction  of shoulder 180 degrees of movement Part of movement is due to the glenohumeral joint § Part is upward movement of scapula § 1st 40 degrees occurs at SC joint 2nd 20 degrees is upward rotation of AC joint AC Separation Force being applied to lateral side of shoulder Not a very stable joint Aaron Rodgers 2013 Lineman falls on top of him Fractured Clavicle Broken collar bone Sternoclavicular separation Dislocation of sternoclavicular joint Can be dislocated anteriorly or posteriorly Not as common Ben Rothlesberger 2012 Posterior dislocation If it moves backwards too far it can puncture the aorta Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Compression of the arteries Pain in clavicle area Hand swelling Numbness or paralysis Causes depression of scapula when carrying heavy loads Sometimes confused with a heart attack Causes Posture (drooping shoulder/forward head) Carrying heavy loads Trauma Repetitive overhead arm movements Extra cervical rib Treatment Rest Removing first rib Muscles acting on the scapula Posterior Trapezius Levator Scapulae Rhomboid Major and minor Anterior Subclavius Only muscle that acts on SC joint § Stabilizes clavicle § Pectoralis minor Lateroposterior Serratus anterior Upward Rotation Downward Rotation Serratus anterior Upper/lower trapezius Pectoralis minor rhomboids Protraction Retraction Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Middle trapezius rhomboids Elevation Depression Levator scapulae Upper trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Lower trapezius Glenohumeral Joint Very similar to the hip joint Glenoid labrum extends socket by about 25% Ball and socket joint- triaxial movements Ligaments Coracohumeral ligament Attaches from coracoid process on scapula to the humerus just distal to the neck § Glenohumeral Glenoid labrum Combined GH and Scapula Movement Total movement 180 degrees If I have 120 degrees of GH rotation, then I would have 60 degrees of scapula 1st 40 degrees SC 2nd 20 degrees AC Always a 2:1 ratio If you go past 120 degrees then the AC joint will start to move Rotator cuff muscles Subscapularis and supraspinatus Know that they rotate the shoulder inward Infraspinatus and teres minor Know that they rotate the shoulder outward Rotator Cuff Tear Normally the supraspinatus  tendon Very common in baseball players Surgical repair Glenohumeral dislocation Humerus separates from the glenoid Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Supraspinatus and biceps brachii tendon become irritated and inflamed as it passed through the subacromial space Muscles Acting on GH joint
Flexion
Extension Anterior Deltoid Biceps Brachii Posterior deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Abduction Adduction Middle deltoid Pectoralis major Teres major Latissimus dorsi Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion
Posterior deltoid
Latissiumus dorsi Pectoralis Major Anterior deltoid Coracobrachialis What muscles are involved in full shoulder abduction? Deltoid, trapezius, rhomboids Elbow Elbow joint Hinge joint Humerus Medial and lateral epicondyles Trochlea (medial) Slightly larger than the capitulum Capitulum (lateral) Radius Located on lateral side of the arm On thumb side Small proximally and large distally Head of radius Rounded dish shape Radial tuberosity (bicipital) Where biceps muscle with attach An important site Styloid process Ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Part that forms hinge joint Radial notch Forms radioulnar joint Styloid process Coronoid process Cubitus Valgus (10-25 degrees) Carrying angle Elbow Flexion/Extension Not truly a sagittal plane movement Has some frontal plane movement Extension (valgus) Flexion (slight varus) Movements of Radioulnar joint Radius rotates in the annular ligament Supination Radial and ulnar are parallel Palm facing up Pronation Radial and ulnar are crossed Palm facing down Tennis Elbow Irritation at lateral epicondyle Overuse Golfer's elbow Aka pitcher's, little leaguer's elbow Irritation at medial epicondyle Tommy John Surgery Baseball pitchers Medial/ulnar collateral ligament tear Ball puts lots of stress on medial collateral ligament MCL gets torn They drill tunnel in the ulna and the base of the humerus and a tendon is threaded through the holes in a figure 8 pattern Cubital tunnel syndrome Compression/trauma to ulnar nerve Numbness and muscle weakness Nursemaids elbow Dislocation of radiohumeral joint Forces pull the elbow apart Muscles acting on the elbow Biceps Brachii Supination Radial tuberosity attachment helps with this § Brachioradialias Brachialis Triceps Understand that long head attaches to scapula and lateral and short head attach to the humerus Muscles acting on radioulnar joint Pronator teres Longer muscle Located up near the elbow Pronator quadratus Originates on humerus Located down at wrist Supinator Take radius and flips it back so it is parallel with the ulnar Biceps Brachii Gets stretched when in the pronation position Torque Potential Supination 25% more torque Screw tightening is clockwise Flexion supination Biceps brachii Brachialis brachioradialis Biceps brachii Supinator Brachioradialis (1/2 from pronation) Extension Pronation Triceps Pronator teres pronator quadratus brachioradialis (1/2 from supination) Foot and Ankle Structures of the foot and ankle bones Tibia fibula Talus Calcaneous Tarsals (5) Navicular (medial) Landmark of the foot § Metatarsals Phalanges Joints Tibiofibular (distal) Lateral side of ankle § Talocrural (talus, tibia, and fibula) Tibiotalar § Fibulotalar § Subtalar (talocalcaneal) Talus and calcaneous § Transverse Talus, calcaneous, and 1st row of tarsals § Ankle Sprains Inversion- lateral Most common Eversion- medial Deltoid High ankle sprain -lateral Tibiofibular joint and ligament Somewhat common Lisfranc ligament Tan color on image is the lisfranc ligament Issue Toes are hyperextended and a force is applied to the heel, which causes displacement of metatarsals and causing them to shift
forward
Toe ligament Turf toe Metatarsophalangeal sprain Hyperextension of big toe which causes the ligament to rupture § Arches of the foot Lateral Plantarcalcaneonavicular ligament Spring ligament § Plantar fascia/aponeurosis Big thick connective tissue you feel on bottom of foot § Medial arch More important Spread contact ground forces Store elastic energy The arch flattens out when there are impact forces, like when the foot hits the ground § Pes Planus Flat foot Navicular bone is inferior Pes Cavus High arch Navicular bone is superior Feiss line Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal Plantar Fascitis Strained plantar fascia Most often towards the heel end Treated with orthotics Movements of the ankle Talocrural joint Dorsi and plantar flexion Dorsi- toes go up § Plantar- toes go down § Subtalar Inversion and eversion Abduction  and adduction Toes go inward and toes go outward § B-> C movement Is dorsiflexion Plantar and Dorsi Flexion Inversion Supination Inversion and adduction plantarflexion § Eversion Pronation Abduction  and eversion Dorsiflexion § Shoe Wear Patterns Normal Stability shoe High arch Cushioned shoe supinator Flat foot Motion control shoe Pronator Pronation starts at the hip Coxa varus Genu valgus Pronation Large q angle Pronation corrected Midsole wedge Orthotics Straightens alignment of subtalar joint Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries correct foot and ankle alignment may cause reduction in ACL injuries Plantar Flexor Muscles Gastrocnemius Soleus Contract to prevent from going into dorsiflexion Maintains ankle stability Dorsi Flexor Muscles Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum, longus Extends the digits inversion Flexion/eversion Peroneus longus and brevis Passes posterior to the lateral malleolus Eversion, plantar flexion Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Shin splints Not enough arch support Over pronation Barefoot Running Not as much control of the foot Foot Stike Rear foot Land on heel first Midfoot Land flat footed Forefoot Land on ball of foot Heel may or may not hit the ground Running Looked for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them to kids in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes Barefoot Tend to be forefoot strikers § Less impact force for people that are forefoot strikes § People that ran with shoes running barefoot causes much more jarring and impact force We don't know long term effects of it Reducing Impact Running barefoot all life gives the kids much better calf muscles and proprioception Running barefoot must be done neuromuscular Wrist and Hand Structure Radius Ulna Carpals Proximal- lunate, scaphoid, triquitrum, pisiform Distal row- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate Metacarpals (5) Phalanges 5 proximal 4 middle 5 distal Thumb has two one proximal and one distal, but no middle § Joints Radiocarpal Most movement is at the joint Wrist joint Biaxial (ellipsoid) Ulnocarpal (gliding) Midcarpal (gliding) Intercarpal (gliding) Carpometacarpal Thumb (saddle- biaxial) Fingers (gliding) Metacarpophalangeal Thumb- hinge (uniaxial) Fingers- condyloid (biaxial) Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion and Extension Extension 60% radiocarpal 40% midcarpal Flexion 40% radio carpal 60% midcarpal Radial and Ulnar Deviation The proximal row of carpals slides across the radius Forearm muscles
Wrist Flexion
Wrist Extension Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris Radial deviation Ulnar deviation Flexor carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris extensor carpi ulnaris Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 2nd leading cause of workman's comp besides back injuries Nerve gets compressed and causes pain Caused by excessive wrist flexion and ulnar deviation Treatment Open or endoscopic release Transverse ligament is released Movement of the Finger joints Metacarpophalangeal (condyloid) Adduction-abduction Flexion-extension Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion- extension Grips, Grasps, and Prehension Typical power grip Adducted thumb Wrist is in ulnar deviation Typical precision group Thumb is abducted MCP flexion Wrist midway between  radial and ulnar deviation Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Flexor digitorum MCP, PIP, DIP flexion Flexor pollicus longus CM, MCP, IP flexion of the thumb Extensor Digitorum Wrist extension MCP, PIP and DIP Extensor Pollicis Abductor Pollicis Longus and brevis Thumb extension (CM, MCP, and IP) Abductor Pollicis Longus Thumb abduction Intrinsic Muscles Palmer Interossei Adduction  of fingers Dorsal Interossei Abduction  of first three fingers Lumbricales MCP Flexion, PIP and DIP extension Tendons of the finger muscles Dorsal expansion Extension of the interosseous  tendon Extensor expansion Extension of lumbricales Malleted or Dropped Finger Rupture of extensor tendon Last joint becomes swollen and the finger can not be extended fully Jersey Finger Hyperextension during flexion Partial tear of tendon Exam 4 Study Guide Saturday, December  10, 2016 2:43 PM
background image Thorax Ribs 7 true ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage 5 false ribs 2 floating ribs Costal cartilage More flexible than bone Sternum Manubrium Body Xyphoid process Thoracic Articulations Sternocostal Sternum and rib (gliding) Costochondral Rib and costal cartilage Interchondral Between costal cartilages Intersternal Between manubrium, body and xphoid process Costovertebral joints Costovertebral Facet articulates with a joint surface between adjacent vertebrae (pivot joint) Costotransverse Costotransverse articulates with transverse process (gliding joint) Why are costovertebral joints so important? These joints allow us to inhale and exhale When you inhale your ribs go up and out Intercostal muscles Origin: upper rib Insertion: lower rib Action: External: lift lower rib up and out Increases thoracic volume § Internal: move lower rib down and in Decreases thoracic volume § Diaphragm Origin Sternum Lower ribs Insertion Central tendon Innervation Phrenic nerve Action Increase thoracic volume Air movement Increased volume, decreased pressure Air moves in Decreased volume, increased pressure Air moves out Other Respirator Muscles All compress the abdominal cavity and force expiration Rectus abdominus Transverse abdominus Obliques Rest Passive expiration Relaxation of diaphragm and intercostals Active inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and external intercostals Exercise Forced expiration and inspiration Inspiration Contraction of diaphragm and intercostals § Expiration Contraction of internal intercostals, rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus § Heimlich Maneuver Pushes diaphragm up and increases thoracic pressure and if thoracic pressure is increased enough it can remove whatever is blocking the
airway
Actions of the respiratory muscles Diaphragm Fibers shorten and pull central tendon down External intercostals Lift the ribs up and out § Relaxation Elasticity returns diaphragm and ribs to resting position § Genioglossus Depresses and protrudes tongue Geniohyoid Elevates and displaces hyoid arch anterior Sternohyoid Displaces hyoid arch anterior Obstructive Sleep Apnea Snoring Hypoxemia Sleepiness hypertension Apnea Mandibular Advancement Orthodontic device Pulls chin forward to open airway § Nasal breathing Mainly at rest Oral nasal breathing Breathing through nose and mouth During exercise Animal with very active Genosglossus  muscle? dogs Shoulder Shoulder complex structure Glenohumeral joint True shoulder joint Ball and socket joint Scapula Medial and axial border (lateral) Sternonavicular joint Gliding joint with disk Doesn't have true axis of rotation but it triaxial Ligaments Interclavicular Between the two clavicles § Costoclavicular Attaches to first rib § Sternoclavicular Movements Anterior/posterior (protraction/retraction) Superior/inferior (elevation/depression) Rotation Sternoclavicular Saddle type joint Movements described as passive No muscles act directly on the joint AC Joint Movements Upward and downward  rotation Looking at the body in the frontal plane § Horizontal plane adjustments Protraction and retraction Protraction- they separate Retraction- they come back together They move around the thorax around the longitudinal axis in the horizontal plane § Sagittal Plane Elevation/depression Scapula rotates around the medial lateral axis § Scapulothoracic movements Sternoclavicular and AC joint moving Elevation/depression Downward rotation at AC joint (depression) Clavicle tilts upwards and rotates around SC joint (elevation) Protraction/retraction (sc joint) AC Joint- horizontal plane adjustment Upward and downward  rotation (AC joint) Abduction  of shoulder 180 degrees of movement Part of movement is due to the glenohumeral joint § Part is upward movement of scapula § 1st 40 degrees occurs at SC joint 2nd 20 degrees is upward rotation of AC joint AC Separation Force being applied to lateral side of shoulder Not a very stable joint Aaron Rodgers 2013 Lineman falls on top of him Fractured Clavicle Broken collar bone Sternoclavicular separation Dislocation of sternoclavicular joint Can be dislocated anteriorly or posteriorly Not as common Ben Rothlesberger 2012 Posterior dislocation If it moves backwards too far it can puncture the aorta Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Compression of the arteries Pain in clavicle area Hand swelling Numbness or paralysis Causes depression of scapula when carrying heavy loads Sometimes confused with a heart attack Causes Posture (drooping shoulder/forward head) Carrying heavy loads Trauma Repetitive overhead arm movements Extra cervical rib Treatment Rest Removing first rib Muscles acting on the scapula Posterior Trapezius Levator Scapulae Rhomboid Major and minor Anterior Subclavius Only muscle that acts on SC joint § Stabilizes clavicle § Pectoralis minor Lateroposterior Serratus anterior Upward Rotation Downward Rotation Serratus anterior Upper/lower trapezius Pectoralis minor rhomboids Protraction Retraction Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Middle trapezius rhomboids Elevation Depression Levator scapulae Upper trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Lower trapezius Glenohumeral Joint Very similar to the hip joint Glenoid labrum extends socket by about 25% Ball and socket joint- triaxial movements Ligaments Coracohumeral ligament Attaches from coracoid process on scapula to the humerus just distal to the neck § Glenohumeral Glenoid labrum Combined GH and Scapula Movement Total movement 180 degrees If I have 120 degrees of GH rotation, then I would have 60 degrees of scapula 1st 40 degrees SC 2nd 20 degrees AC Always a 2:1 ratio If you go past 120 degrees then the AC joint will start to move Rotator cuff muscles Subscapularis and supraspinatus Know that they rotate the shoulder inward Infraspinatus and teres minor Know that they rotate the shoulder outward Rotator Cuff Tear Normally the supraspinatus  tendon Very common in baseball players Surgical repair Glenohumeral dislocation Humerus separates from the glenoid Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Supraspinatus and biceps brachii tendon become irritated and inflamed as it passed through the subacromial space Muscles Acting on GH joint
Flexion
Extension Anterior Deltoid Biceps Brachii Posterior deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Abduction Adduction Middle deltoid Pectoralis major Teres major Latissimus dorsi Horizontal extension Horizontal flexion
Posterior deltoid
Latissiumus dorsi Pectoralis Major Anterior deltoid Coracobrachialis What muscles are involved in full shoulder abduction? Deltoid, trapezius, rhomboids Elbow Elbow joint Hinge joint Humerus Medial and lateral epicondyles Trochlea (medial) Slightly larger than the capitulum Capitulum (lateral) Radius Located on lateral side of the arm On thumb side Small proximally and large distally Head of radius Rounded dish shape Radial tuberosity (bicipital) Where biceps muscle with attach An important site Styloid process Ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Part that forms hinge joint Radial notch Forms radioulnar joint Styloid process Coronoid process Cubitus Valgus (10-25 degrees) Carrying angle Elbow Flexion/Extension Not truly a sagittal plane movement Has some frontal plane movement Extension (valgus) Flexion (slight varus) Movements of Radioulnar joint Radius rotates in the annular ligament Supination Radial and ulnar are parallel Palm facing up Pronation Radial and ulnar are crossed Palm facing down Tennis Elbow Irritation at lateral epicondyle Overuse Golfer's elbow Aka pitcher's, little leaguer's elbow Irritation at medial epicondyle Tommy John Surgery Baseball pitchers Medial/ulnar collateral ligament tear Ball puts lots of stress on medial collateral ligament MCL gets torn They drill tunnel in the ulna and the base of the humerus and a tendon is threaded through the holes in a figure 8 pattern Cubital tunnel syndrome Compression/trauma to ulnar nerve Numbness and muscle weakness Nursemaids elbow Dislocation of radiohumeral joint Forces pull the elbow apart Muscles acting on the elbow Biceps Brachii Supination Radial tuberosity attachment helps with this § Brachioradialias Brachialis Triceps Understand that long head attaches to scapula and lateral and short head attach to the humerus Muscles acting on radioulnar joint Pronator teres Longer muscle Located up near the elbow Pronator quadratus Originates on humerus Located down at wrist Supinator Take radius and flips it back so it is parallel with the ulnar Biceps Brachii Gets stretched when in the pronation position Torque Potential Supination 25% more torque Screw tightening is clockwise Flexion supination Biceps brachii Brachialis brachioradialis Biceps brachii Supinator Brachioradialis (1/2 from pronation) Extension Pronation Triceps Pronator teres pronator quadratus brachioradialis (1/2 from supination) Foot and Ankle Structures of the foot and ankle bones Tibia fibula Talus Calcaneous Tarsals (5) Navicular (medial) Landmark of the foot § Metatarsals Phalanges Joints Tibiofibular (distal) Lateral side of ankle § Talocrural (talus, tibia, and fibula) Tibiotalar § Fibulotalar § Subtalar (talocalcaneal) Talus and calcaneous § Transverse Talus, calcaneous, and 1st row of tarsals § Ankle Sprains Inversion- lateral Most common Eversion- medial Deltoid High ankle sprain -lateral Tibiofibular joint and ligament Somewhat common Lisfranc ligament Tan color on image is the lisfranc ligament Issue Toes are hyperextended and a force is applied to the heel, which causes displacement of metatarsals and causing them to shift
forward
Toe ligament Turf toe Metatarsophalangeal sprain Hyperextension of big toe which causes the ligament to rupture § Arches of the foot Lateral Plantarcalcaneonavicular ligament Spring ligament § Plantar fascia/aponeurosis Big thick connective tissue you feel on bottom of foot § Medial arch More important Spread contact ground forces Store elastic energy The arch flattens out when there are impact forces, like when the foot hits the ground § Pes Planus Flat foot Navicular bone is inferior Pes Cavus High arch Navicular bone is superior Feiss line Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal Plantar Fascitis Strained plantar fascia Most often towards the heel end Treated with orthotics Movements of the ankle Talocrural joint Dorsi and plantar flexion Dorsi- toes go up § Plantar- toes go down § Subtalar Inversion and eversion Abduction  and adduction Toes go inward and toes go outward § B-> C movement Is dorsiflexion Plantar and Dorsi Flexion Inversion Supination Inversion and adduction plantarflexion § Eversion Pronation Abduction  and eversion Dorsiflexion § Shoe Wear Patterns Normal Stability shoe High arch Cushioned shoe supinator Flat foot Motion control shoe Pronator Pronation starts at the hip Coxa varus Genu valgus Pronation Large q angle Pronation corrected Midsole wedge Orthotics Straightens alignment of subtalar joint Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries correct foot and ankle alignment may cause reduction in ACL injuries Plantar Flexor Muscles Gastrocnemius Soleus Contract to prevent from going into dorsiflexion Maintains ankle stability Dorsi Flexor Muscles Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum, longus Extends the digits inversion Flexion/eversion Peroneus longus and brevis Passes posterior to the lateral malleolus Eversion, plantar flexion Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Shin splints Not enough arch support Over pronation Barefoot Running Not as much control of the foot Foot Stike Rear foot Land on heel first Midfoot Land flat footed Forefoot Land on ball of foot Heel may or may not hit the ground Running Looked for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them to kids in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes Barefoot Tend to be forefoot strikers § Less impact force for people that are forefoot strikes § People that ran with shoes running barefoot causes much more jarring and impact force We don't know long term effects of it Reducing Impact Running barefoot all life gives the kids much better calf muscles and proprioception Running barefoot must be done neuromuscular Wrist and Hand Structure Radius Ulna Carpals Proximal- lunate, scaphoid, triquitrum, pisiform Distal row- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate Metacarpals (5) Phalanges 5 proximal 4 middle 5 distal Thumb has two one proximal and one distal, but no middle § Joints Radiocarpal Most movement is at the joint Wrist joint Biaxial (ellipsoid) Ulnocarpal (gliding) Midcarpal (gliding) Intercarpal (gliding) Carpometacarpal Thumb (saddle- biaxial) Fingers (gliding) Metacarpophalangeal Thumb- hinge (uniaxial) Fingers- condyloid (biaxial) Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion and Extension Extension 60% radiocarpal 40% midcarpal Flexion 40% radio carpal 60% midcarpal Radial and Ulnar Deviation The proximal row of carpals slides across the radius Forearm muscles
Wrist Flexion
Wrist Extension Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi ulnaris Radial deviation Ulnar deviation Flexor carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris extensor carpi ulnaris Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 2nd leading cause of workman's comp besides back injuries Nerve gets compressed and causes pain Caused by excessive wrist flexion and ulnar deviation Treatment Open or endoscopic release Transverse ligament is released Movement of the Finger joints Metacarpophalangeal (condyloid) Adduction-abduction Flexion-extension Interphalangeal (hinge) Flexion- extension Grips, Grasps, and Prehension Typical power grip Adducted thumb Wrist is in ulnar deviation Typical precision group Thumb is abducted MCP flexion Wrist midway between  radial and ulnar deviation Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Flexor digitorum MCP, PIP, DIP flexion Flexor pollicus longus CM, MCP, IP flexion of the thumb Extensor Digitorum Wrist extension MCP, PIP and DIP Extensor Pollicis Abductor Pollicis Longus and brevis Thumb extension (CM, MCP, and IP) Abductor Pollicis Longus Thumb abduction Intrinsic Muscles Palmer Interossei Adduction  of fingers Dorsal Interossei Abduction  of first three fingers Lumbricales MCP Flexion, PIP and DIP extension Tendons of the finger muscles Dorsal expansion Extension of the interosseous  tendon Extensor expansion Extension of lumbricales Malleted or Dropped Finger Rupture of extensor tendon Last joint becomes swollen and the finger can not be extended fully Jersey Finger Hyperextension during flexion Partial tear of tendon Exam 4 Study Guide Saturday, December  10, 2016 2:43 PM

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: HNFE
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: HNFE 3824 Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: Covers all the material that will be on the final exam.
Uploaded: 12/10/2016
20 Pages 82 Views 65 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Recommended Documents
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - Study Guide
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Virginia Tech - HNF 3824 - Study Guide

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here