First two weeks of webassign - basic research – fundamental research that increases our understanding of the world - Don't forget about the age old question of according to talcott parsons, which type of roles were created by the “factory of personalities?”
If you want to learn more check out uno marketing plan
Don't forget about the age old question of soc 214 study guide
If you want to learn more check out 10x9x8x7x6x5x4
We also discuss several other topics like uvm final exam schedule
Don't forget about the age old question of 3) What are the two main problems with it?
research and development – gathering knowledge with the goal of creating new products or improving existing ones - Chemists can – analyze substances to determine their chemical compositions and properties; formulate many types of new products including medicines, cosmetics, foods, cleaning products, chemicals, and paints; understand and control chemical processes, and synthesize new compounds - Caffeine is a natural chemical - Paracelsus claimed that it is the dosage that makes a substance a poison or a remedy. o Known as the father of toxicology o “toxic” substances can be harmless in small doses o “harmless” substances can be toxic in large doses - The electronegativity of halogens (e.g. chlorine) is important in creating a more reactive carbon - What property of the microbe is important to make the microbe consume a lot of CO2? Growth in a high pressure environment - Examples of subject databases- inspec, pubmed, web of science, compendex, georef - Most common Boolean operators in searchers- and, or, and not - Controlled vocabulary – when a database collects multiple articles under one Medical Subject Heading (MeSH), making easier to find - The atomic nucleus is composed of – neutrons and protons o Neutrons have a net charge of zero o Protons have a net charge of +1 o Electrons have a net charge of -1 - The modern model of the atoms shows that electrons are ground in regions called orbitals - The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number - Purpose of quantum mechanics? It allows us to predict the behavior of groups of atoms with high precision - Atoms and sub-atomic particles are ruled by probability not certainty - Predicting the charge of an ion – Calcium o Step 1: Write the noble gas electron configuration ( [Ar]4s2) o Step 2: identify how many electrons atom must gain or lose to reach a noble gas configuration = lose 2 o If calcium loses 2 electrons, its net charge will be +2 - Dalton’s atomic theory o All matter is made of atoms, which are tiny and indivisible o All atoms of a given element are identical, and atoms of different elements are different o Chemical reactions cannot create or destroy atoms, and they cannot change element into atoms of another element o A compound is a combination of two or more different types of atoms. The ratio of one type of atom to another in a given compound is fixed and can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers - Periodic table tricks o All elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons o Group number = number of valence electrons except for transitions (lanthanide and actinides) ▪ For these elements, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number plus one electron for each group from left to right o Principal quantum number Is the period number of the atom o Where are the valence electrons located? ▪ Main-group elements s and p orbitals of this shell ▪ Transition elements s orbitals of the highest quantum number shell, plus the d orbitals of the (n-1) shell ▪ Inner-transition elements: ns orbitals, plus the (n-2)f orbitals 10.3 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction 388-393 Week 13 - Rate of a rxn is the change in concentration of one of the components that occurs during a given time . Concentration in brackets  when system is at equilibrium and parenthesis () when it is not. o Rate = Δ(X)/Δt o Negative if X is one of the reactants 6.5 Kinetics (pgs. 446-454 ; Weeks 14 and 15) - ΔG is negative, reaction is spontaneous, meaning it favors the products (i.e. thermodynamics) - Rate equation o Rate = k [concentration of reactants] ; rate = [A]x[B]y o Reaction – the result of a collision between reactants o First order: rate = k[A], Second order: rate = k[A] [B], Third Order: rate = k[A]2[B] o Sum of the exponents tells you the order of the reaction - Collision theory – assumes that molecules must collide before a chlorine atom can be transferred from one molecule to the other o that the rate of the forward reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants o the rate of the reverse reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the FORMED COMPOUNDS in the reaction - Equilibrium could mean no change in the system of concentrations of reactants or products AND equal rates of forward and reverse reactions o Dynamic balance not static o Equilibrium constant: Kc = Kf/Kt Factors Affecting the Rate Constant - Larger the rate constant, the larger the reaction. - Value of rate constant depends on o Energy of activation – minimum energy required for a rate to occur between two reactants that collide o Temperature – higher temperature equals faster rate. Increase by 10 deg C doubles rate o Steric considerations – geometry and orientation of collisions - Primary explosives: small activation energies, very sensitive to shock or heat - Secondary explosives: larger activation energies, more stable, “often detonated with a very small amount of primary explosive” - Nitroglycerin in dynamite ???? nitric oxide (present in smog) ???? vasodilator ???? treatment of congestive heart failure and creation of Viagra - Catalyst – compound that speeds up reaction rate by lowering activation energy, without being consumed or affecting the reactants or products (creates alternate pathway) Kinetics versus Thermodynamics - Kinetics refers to the rate of a reaction - Thermodynamics refers to equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products - How to tell if a reaction pathway is themodynamically or kinetically favored: o products lower in energy makes it more favored by thermodynamics o products lower in activation energy are favored by kinetics o temperature plays a key role in this as well Transition States versus Intermediates - Local minimums/valleys represent intermediates - Local maxima/peaks represent transition states - Bonds are broken and formed at the same time during transition states, you cannot isolate them. - Intermediates can be isolated bc they are neither in the process of forming nor breaking bonds - Hammond postulate - “On an energy diagram, two points that are close together will represent structurally similar states. A transition state will be closer in energy to the starting materials in an exothermic process, but it will be closer to energy to the products in an endothermic process. (pg. 453)” Other test topics: 1. Atomic structure and properties 2. For scales and numbers (electronegativity, atomic radii, and ionization energy) what underlying structure and features of the atom give rise to the property? 3. What are the atomic forces to consider when discussing the energy of an electron in an atomic orbital? 4. What is effective nuclear charge and how does it influence the energy of electrons? 5. Using electronegativity to identify nonpolar, polar covalent, and ionic bonds. 6. Writing and balancing chemical equations. 7. Quantum mechanics: what is a wavefunction, what are the principal quantum numbers and what do they represent. 8. Molecular orbitals: calculate bond orders (and determine if a molecule exists or not), draw homo- and hetero-diatomic molecular orbital energy-level diagrams, orbital overlap, and orbital mixing (when do the orbitals mix in the diatomic molecules and why?) 9. σ and π bonds, what do they look like and what orbitals overlap to make the bonds? 10. Be able to draw Lewis dot diagrams and identify incorrect and correct structures. 11. Determine geometry using VSEPR of molecules. 12. Valence bond theory: determine based on the structure and geometry which bonds are hybridized. Be sure to go beyond carbon (e.g. hybridization of s, p, and d orbitals) 13. Non-covalent interactions: be able to describe, identify, and draw the different non-covalent interactions: dipole-dipole, ion-dipole, hydrogen bond, dipole-induced dipole, and London dispersion. Know the relative strengths of the interactions. 14. Enthalpy: what is it? Be able to recognize an enthalpic process. How can we calculate enthalpy of a reaction? 15. Entropy: what is it? Be able to recognize an entropic process. How can we calculate enthalpy of a reaction? 16. Free Energy: what is it? Be able to recognize a spontaneous process. How can we calculate free energy of a reaction? Draw a free energy landscape (reaction coordinate) for a reaction. Understand what the maxima and minima represent. Label with free energy, transition state, activation energy, reactants, and products. Be able to propose a transition state for a reaction. 17. Kinetics: how to use rate laws and integrated rate laws (the equations will be provided) to calculate the amount of a reactant after time has elapsed. Measuring rate orders experimentally. Measuring activation energies using Arrhenius equation and plots