Final Exam Study Guide
1. What is physiology?
2. What are the characteristics of living things?
3. Define Homeostasis.
4. What are the levels of organization in the body?
a. Hint: there are 6 levels
5. What 4 types of tissue are in the body?
a. What are examples of each?
6. What percent of the average adults’ body is water?
7. What are the 3 methods of homeostatically regulating organisms? 8. What is the main method for regulating homeostasis?
a. What are the components of this system?
9. What are the 3 germ layers in the body?
10.What is the requirement for being a cell?
11.Name the 4 categories of Organic molecules.
12.What is transcription?
13.What is translation?
14.If all cells have the same DNA, why don’t they all have the same function? 15.What processes produce energy in the cell?
a. Where do they all take place?
b. Which process produces the most energy?
16.What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
17.What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
18.What 2 major systems control and regulate the body?
19.What is it called when a vesicle binds with the membrane and releases its
contents outside the cell?
20.What is it called when a piece of the membrane pinches off into the cell with Don't forget about the age old question of Why does methylation turn dna into heterochromatin?
21.What are specificity, saturation, and competition?
If you want to learn more check out How to measure overall economy?
22.What is the purpose of the Golgi Complex?
23.What is the purpose of the Mitochondria?
24.What is the purpose of the Nucleus?
25.What is produced by the Electron Transport Chain besides energy? 26.What is the structure of the cell membrane?
27.Movement of glucose is an example of what type of transport? 28.What makes up the cell membrane?
29.What are the different types of membrane proteins?
30.What does membrane permeability depend on?
31.What is the main system for regulating homeostasis?
32.What is Ficks Law of Diffusion?
33.What affects the movement of ions across the membrane?
34.What is osmosis?
35.What is Tonicity?
36.Is the concentration of sodium higher? Inside or outside the cell? a. Where is the concentration of potassium higher?
37.What are the mechanisms for transporting molecules into and out of the cell?
38.What homeostasis factors are regulated by the internal environment? 39.What is the resting membrane potential?
40.What is secondary active transport?
41.List the different categories of chemical messengers. If you want to learn more check out What is fascism?
43.What are most hormones derived from?
44.Which part of the sarcomere stays the same width during muscle
45.Which type of skeletal muscle has high myoglobin content, lots of
mitochondria, red color and used oxidative phosphorylation? a. What are the characteristics of the other skeletal muscle types? 46.How are fast-oxidative muscle fibers and slow-oxidative muscle fibers
47.What are the roles of ATP in muscle contraction?
48.How many neurons are in the neuron chain of the autonomic nervous
49.What is a hormone? We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate implicit cost?
50.What is a neurotransmitter?
51.The buildup of what causes muscle fatigue?
52.What part(s) of the spinal cord does the sympathetic nervous system come
53.What part(s) do the parasympathetic nervous system come from? 54.What 3 proteins form the thin filament of skeletal muscle? 55.What protein forms the thick filament?
56.Where is the calcium stored in the muscle?
57.What are steroid hormones formed from?
58.What are the 2 processes for building muscle?
59.What is the process by which skeletal muscles contract?
60.What delimits the sarcomere in muscles?
61.What is the period after action potential where another action potential
cannot start called?
62.What are the 3 ways neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft? 63.What are the types of glial cells? (hint: there’s 4)
64.What neurotransmitter is released by preganglionic parasympathetic and
a. What about Post ganglionic sympathetic fibers?
65.How long does a single action potential last?
66.What are the 3 energy sources for skeletal muscle?
67.What are the 6 hormones from the Anterior Pituitary Gland? a. What are their purposes?
68.What are the 2 hormones secreted from the Posterior Pituitary Gland? a. What are their functions?
69.What are the 3 types of Hormone to Hormone interactions? 70.Which 2 proteins form smooth muscle?
71.What hormones are secreted by the hypothalamus?
72.Which lipoprotein has the lowest amount of cholesterol? Which has the
73.Which gland is most involved in stress response?
74.What is the biologically active form of thyroid hormone? What form is the
75.Metabolic water is produced by which nutrients?
a. Which one produces the most?
76.What is the most abundant plasma protein in the blood?
77.What are the target organs and functions of the parathyroid hormone? 78.What components make up the thyroid hormone?
79.What percentage of an animals’ weight is blood?
80.What are the different types of white blood cells?
a. How big of a percentage does each make up of WBCs?
b. What are all their functions?
81.What is erythropoietin?
82.What is its’ target organ?
83.Which hormones are secreted from the pancreas?
a. What type of cells are each hormone secreted from?
84.What is the normal pH range for the blood?
85.What 3 categories of steroids hormones are secreted from the adrenal
86.Be able to draw the growth curves for body muscle, fat, and bone on a beef
87.Where is the thyroid gland located?
88.What synthesizes thyroglobulin?
89.What effect does thyroid hormone have?
90.What are the abnormalities of thyroid function?
91.What effects do glucocorticoids have?
92.What are the 3 forms of simple sugars?
93.How many calories does 1 gram of sugar have? 1 gram of protein? 1 gram of
94.What are the 6 things found in all food?
95.What are the 2 types of diabetes?
a. How do they differ?
96.Where is most calcium stored?
97.What are the components of the circulatory system?
98.What’s the difference in an open vs closed circulatory system? 99.Where is water located in the body?
100. What transports gasses, nutrients, hormones and metabolic wastes? 101. Which type of blood cell lives 110 days and has no nucleus? 102. How do you calculate cardiac output?
103. What mineral concentration is controlled by Aldosterone? 104. Define partial pressure.
105. What is the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood? Carbon
106. What is the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood? Carbon Dioxide?
107. What is the air pressure at sea level?
108. What percentage of air is oxygen?
109. What percentage of air is nitrogen?
110. What is the functional unit of the lungs?
111. What is the functional unit of the kidneys?
112. What percentage of the blood is in the veins?
113. Define dead space in the lungs.
114. How is carbon dioxide carried in the blood?
115. What are the 4 basic renal processes during blood filtration? 116. Why can’t humans drink seawater?
117. Which vein carries the oxygenated blood?
118. Where is the loop of Henle located?
119. What forces are involved in Glomerular Filtration rate? 120. How does vasodilation affect filtration?
121. What type of waste does Amino Acid metabolism produce? 122. Where is the cecum located?
123. What is the main energy requirement for in kidney’s? 124. Which blood vessel type maximizes diffusion rates and why? 125. What are the 4 steps in external respiration?
126. What are the 2 types of breathing? What are the differences between
127. What is the function of the excretory system?
128. What are the functional parts of the renal tubule?
129. Which hormone controls water reabsorption?
130. What are the 4 basic digestive processes?
131. Are humans carnivores, omnivores, or herbivores?
132. What is the effects of testosterone before birth?
133. What is the precursor of prostaglandins?
134. How much cooler than the rest of the body are testes supposed to be for proper spermatogenesis?
135. What is the site of fertilization?
136. How long is the gestation period for cows? Horses? 137. How long is the estrus cycle for cows? Horses?
138. What is the peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland?
1. Physiology is the study of the normal mechanical, physical and biochemical processes of animals and plants
2. Living things organize themselves using energy and raw materials from their surroundings (metabolism), maintain integrity in the face of disturbances (maintain homeostasis), and reproduce.
3. Homeostasis – the ability to maintain integrity in the face of disturbances 4. Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, body system, and organism level 5. 4 types of tissue – Epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous a. Epithelial - skin
b. Connective – tendons, blood, lymph
c. Muscular – Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle
d. Nervous – neurons
7. Regulators, conformers, avoiders
8. Negative Feedback
a. Sensor, Integrator, Effector
9. Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
10.To be a cell it must have a cellular membrane
11.Organic Molecules – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids 12.Transcription is when a gene is copied into a pre-messenger RNA by RNA polymerase, then the pre-messenger RNA is processed into messenger RNA by removing non-coding sequences and adding signal sequences 13.Translation is when mRNA leaves the nucleus and delivers a coded message to a ribosome. Ribosomal RNA translates the mRNA code into amino acid sequences. Transfer RNA transfers the appropriate amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosome to be added to the protein under
14.Different genes are expressed in different tissues or at different times through the regulation of individual genes with promoters and
15.Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain associated with oxidative phosphorylation
a. Glycolysis – cytoplasm, Citric acid cycle – mitochondrial matrix, ETC – inner mitochondrial membrane
b. Electron Transport chain produces the most
16.The cell volume increases, to the point of destruction
17.The cell volume decreases, causing crenation
18.Endocrine and Nervous system
21.They are the characteristics of carrier-mediated transport systems 22.The Golgi Complex transports, modifies and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles for transport throughout the cell.
23.The mitochondria is the power house of the cell.
24.The nucleus controls the cell and all its functions. It also holds the DNA. 25.The electron transport chain also produces water.
26.The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer.
28.The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids and proteins for transport 29.Integral proteins and Peripheral proteins
30.Membrane permeability depends on size, force, and lipid solubility 31.The Endocrine system
32.The rate at which diffusion occurs depends on Concentration gradient, permeability, surface area, molecular weight, distance and temperature. 33.Electric charge
34.Osmosis is the movement of water across the membrane from an area of low concentration to high concentration.
35.Tonicity is the effect of the solute concentration on cell volume. 36.Sodium concentration is higher outside the cell
a. Potassium concentration is higher inside the cell
37.Diffusion, Active Transport, Passive Transport, and carrier-mediated transport
38.Concentration of energy-rich molecules, concentration of O2 and CO2, concentration of waste products, pH, concentration of water, salt, and other electrolytes, volume, pressure, temperature, social parameters 39.-70 mV (millivolts)
40.Secondary Active Transport is the simultaneous transport of a nutrient molecule and an ion across the plasma membrane by a co-transport protein.
41.Paracrines, neurotransmitters, hormones, neurohormones, pheromones, and cytokines
42.Binding of hormone to its receptor activates a G protein. The activated alpha subunit links with adenylyl cyclase in the membrane. The activated adenylyl cyclase converts intracellular ATP to cyclic AMP. Then the cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A. The protein kinase A phosphorylates intracellular proteins, leading to the cellular response.
43.Most hormones are derived from protein.
44. The A band
46. Fast muscle fibers and slow muscle fibers are different in the speed at which they contract, myosin-ATPase activity and their resistance to fatigue. Fast has a lower resistance to fatigue, higher myosin-ATPase activity and faster contraction time. Slow-oxidative fibers also have a lower glycogen content that fast.
47. Power stroke, Active transport of Ca2+, and Detachment of Myosin and Actin
48. It’s a 2 neuron chain
49. Hormones are signal molecules delivered by circulatory fluids
50. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that communicate information between neurons.
51. The buildup of lactate/lactic acid.
52. Sympathetic – Thoracic and lumbar
53. Parasympathetic – cranial and sacral
54. Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Actin
56. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
58. Hypertrophy – increase in size of myofibrils Hyperplasia – increase in number of cells
59. First and action potential arrives at the terminal which stimulates the release of Acetylcholine. This diffuses across the cleft and triggers an action potential in the muscle fiber. The action potential moves across the surface membrane and into the fibers interior through the T-tubules. This triggers the release of Calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Next calcium binds to the troponin on the thin filaments. Calcium binding to troponin causes tropomyosin to change shape, moving from its position blocking the binding sites on the actin. Next the myosin cross bridges attach to actin at the now exposed binding sites. The binding triggers the cross bridge to bend, pulling the thin filament over the thick filament toward the center of the sarcomere. This power stroke is powered by energy provided by ATP. After the power stroke the cross bridge detaches from actin. If calcium is still present then the cycle starts again with the power stroke. When the action potentials stop, calcium is taken up into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Without the presence of calcium, tropomyosin moves back over the myosin binding sites on the actin. This causes the contraction to stop and the thin filaments slide back to their relaxed positions.
60. The Z-lines delimit the sarcomere.
61. The refractory period
62. They are inactivated by specific enzymes, diffuse away from the cleft, or are transported back into the axon terminal
63. Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Ependymal cells, and microglia 64. Acetylcholine
65. 1-2 msec
66. Oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and phosphagens
67. Growth Hormone – stimulates growth, Thyroid stimulating hormone – stimulates thyroid hormone secretion from thyroid, Adrenocorticotropic hormone – stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal cortex, Follicle stimulating hormone – regulates gamete production, Luteinizing hormone – regulates sex hormone secretion, Prolactin – stimulates milk production by mammary glands
68. Vasopressin – enhances retention of water by kidneys, Oxytocin – social bonding, contraction of uterine smooth muscle and ejection of milk from mammary glands
69. Permissiveness – 1 hormone is needed for other hormones effect, Synergism – action of several hormones’ combined effect is greater than separate effects, Antagonism – presence of 1 hormone losses the other hormone’s receptor
70. Myosin and Actin
71. Oxytocin, Somatostatin, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, Growth hormone-releasing hormone, Thyrotropin releasing hormone
72. HDL – lowest LDL- highest
73. Adrenal gland
74. Bio active – T3 Most secreted – T4
75. Fat, Carb, water
77. Kidneys and skeletal system to increase calcium absorption and reabsorption
78. Tyrosine and iodine
80. Lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
a. Neutrophils – 50-70%, Eosinophils – 2-4%, Basophils – less than 1 %, Monocytes – 2-8%, Lymphocytes – 20-30%
b. Neutrophils – mark pathogens, Eosinophils – eat marked pathogens, Basophils – send signals to expand blood vessels for more blood flow,
Monocytes – eat cell as macrophage, Lymphocytes – T lymphocytes defend against foreign cells and coordinate the immune response and B lymphocytes - produce and distribute antibodies
81. Erythropoietin – protein that signals bone marrow to increase production of RBC
82. Bone marrow
83. Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide
a. Beta cells – insulin, Alpha cells – glucagon, Delta cells –
somatostatin, F cells – pancreatic polypeptide
85. Sex steroids, Mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids
86. Should be Z shape with muscle on top, fat as the slanting up line and bone as the bottom line
87. Below the larynx
88. Thyroglobulin is synthesized by thyroid follicular cells
89. It increases basal metabolic rate
90. Hypothyroidism – low thyroid activity (lower metabolic rate) and hyperthyroidism – high thyroid activity (higher metabolic rate)
91. Glucocorticoids have metabolic effects, permissive action, enhanced memory, adaption to long-term stress, and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects
92. Glucose, fructose, galactose
93. Sugar – 4,000 calories or 4 Calories, Protein – 4,000 calories or 4 Cal, fat – 9,000 or 9 Cal
94. Water, vitamins, minerals, carbs, fat, protein
95. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
a.Type 1 requires administration of insulin and Type 2 have normal insulin levels but insulin receptors don’t function properly
96. In the skeletal system
97. Fluid that carries transported molecules and cells, a pump to move fluids, and vessels to carry fluid between the pump and body tissues
98. In an open system blood moves through vessels into extracellular spaces while in a closed system blood is pumped through the body and eventually returns to the heart
99. In intracellular compartments and extracellular areas
101. Red Blood cells aka erythrocytes
102. Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
104. The individual pressure exerted independently by a particular gas within a mixture of gases
105. O2=100 mmHg/ CO2= 40mmHg
106. O2= 40 mmHg/ CO2 = 46mmHg
107. 760 mmHg
113. The volume of air, which remains in the conducting airways and is not available for gas exchange.
114. Attached to hemoglobin, dissolved in blood, in bicarbonate molecules 115. Secretion, tubular reabsorption, osmoconcentration, glomerular filtration
116. We aren’t able to concentrate our urine enough to get rid of the massive amount of salt we take in with the sea water. We have to get rid of more water to get rid of the salt than we are able to take in with the sea water.
117. Pulmonary vein
118. The medulla of the kidney
119. Plasma-colloid osmotic pressure, Glomerular capillary blood pressure, net filtration pressure, bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure 120. Increases filtration rate, increases blood flow to glomerulus, increases filtration pressure
121. Nitrogenous wastes
122. At the junction of the large and small intestines
123. Reabsorption of Na+ ions
124. Capillaries because diffusion distance is short, surface area is high and permeability is high
125. Ventilation, respiratory exchange, circulation, cellular exchange 126. Flow through – flow of fresh medium though one opening and out another- more efficient than tidal breathing
a. Tidal breathing – external medium moves in and out of the same opening – is only brought in half the time and mixes with depleted medium
127. Get rid of waste from the body
128. Bowman’s capsule, Proximal tubules, Loop of Henle, Distal Tubule, Collecting duct, Juxtaglomerular apparatus
130. Motility, Secretion, Digestion, Absorption
131. This answer is up to you. You will have to do research on the subject and decide, but you must be able to support your answer with evidence. 132. Masculinization of the reproductive tract and external genitalia, and descent of the testes into the scrotum.
133. Arachidonic Acid
134. 3-5 degrees Celsius
136. Cows – 283 days Horses – 11 months
137. Cows – 18-24 days Horses – 21 days
138. Gonadotropin releasing Hormone (GnRH)