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UNI / Biology / BIOL 1012 / What is cropland?

What is cropland?

What is cropland?


School: University of Northern Iowa
Department: Biology
Course: Life: The Natural World
Professor: Barton bergquist
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Life: The Natural World
Description: These notes cover very many important terms and main points from all the chapters included on this test (Chapters 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 27)
Uploaded: 12/12/2016
9 Pages 21 Views 8 Unlocks

Final Exam Study Guide

What is cropland?

Chapter 9 - Soil and Agriculture

Cropland - land used to raise plants for human use

Rangeland (pasture) - land used for grazing livestock

Traditional Agriculture - farm work was done my human and animal muscle power, as well hand tools and simple machines

Industrialized Agriculture - using modern techniques, such as big machines and pesticides; to be most efficient, fields must be planted with a single crop

Monoculture - planting only one crop

Parent Material - geological material that forms different horizons

● Horizon - each layer of soil

○ O Horizon - thin surface layer of decomposing branches, leaves and animal waste ○ A Horizon - inorganic material components mixed with organic matter from the above layer (O)

What is industrialized agriculture?

If you want to learn more check out What is humanistic?

○ E Horizon - characterized by loss of some minerals and organic matter from leaching

■ Leaching - process where solid particles suspended/dissolved in liquid are moved to another location

○ B Horizon - the subsoil, collects and accumulates minerals from above layers; contains greater amount of minerals and organic acids than the E Horizon ○ C Horizon - IF it is present, is under the B Horizon and is made of parent material minimally altered by the process of soil formation

○ R Horizon - the parent material, right above the C Horizon

● Soil profile - cross-section of horizons as a whole, from surface to bedrock Bedrock - continuous mass of solid rock that makes up the Earth’s crust

What is erosion?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the fastest growing population in texas?

Weathering - physical, biological, and chemical processes that break down minerals and rocks into smaller particles

Erosion - movement of soil from one area to another

Clay - a texture of soil that has particles that stick to one another and feels sticky when moist

Silt - sediment that is smaller than sand

Sand - have grains big enough to see by themselves, do not stick to one another Loam - soil with a pretty even mixture of the above three soil types

Desertification - losing more than 10% of a land’s productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salinization, climate change, water depletion, or other factors

Crop Rotation - alternating the crops grown in an area every season or year Intercropping - a way to protect against erosion, planting different crop types in alternating bands or another spatially mixed arrangement

Terracing - cutting level platforms into steep hillsides to contain water from irrigation and precipitation, helps minimize water erosion

Shelterbelts - row of trees or other tall perennial plants planted along edges of farm fields to break the wind and minimize wind erosion We also discuss several other topics like What is the doctrine of signatures?

Irrigation - artificial saving of water for agriculture

Waterlogging - when the water is raised high enough it saturates plant roots; this can deprive roots of access to gases, so waterlogging eventually suffocates these plants Salinization - salt buildup in surface soil layers

Chapter 11 - Biodiversity and Conservation Biology

Biodiversity - ​total sum of all organisms in an area, including their species diversity, genes, populations, and communities

Species Diversity - number/variety of species in the world or a particular region Genetic Diversity - differences in DNA composition among individuals within species and populations

Extirpation - disappearance of a particular population from a certain area, but not the entire species globally

Background Rate of Extinction - average rate of extinction that occurred before the appearance of humans

Mass Extinction - extinction of a large part of a species in a very short time period due to some extreme/rapid change or catastrophic event

Red List - a constantly updated list of species facing high risks of extinction Biophilia - hypothetical phenomenon defined as the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life

Conservation Biology - understanding the factors, forces, and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity Don't forget about the age old question of What are the basic laws of probability?

Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography - a theory initially applied to oceanic islands to explain how species become to be distributed around them

Endangered Species Act (ESA) - passed in 1973, this act forbids the government and private citizens from taking actions that destroy endangered species or their habitats Captive Breeding - capturing members of endangered species so their young can be bred and raised in controlled environments and later released into the wild

Biodiversity hotspots - an area that has especially great species diversity, particularly endemic species

Endemic - native or restricted to a certain geographic region

Community-based Conservation - getting local people to protect land/wildlife in their own region

Chapter 12 - Resource Management, Forestry, Land Use, and Protected Areas Resource Management - strategic decision making about who should extract resources and in what ways, so that resources are sued wisely and not wasted Don't forget about the age old question of What was the significance of the louisiana purchase in 1803?

Maximum Sustainable Yield - maximal harvest of a certain renewable natural resource that can be accomplished while still keeping the resource available for the future If you want to learn more check out Why are twin studies valuable in behavioral genetics research?

Ecosystem-based Management - attempt to manage the harvesting of resources in ways that minimize impact on the ecosystems and ecological processes that provide the resources Adaptive Management - systematic testing of different management approaches to improve methods over time

Forestry - professional management of forests

Second-growth - trees that are growing to replace harvested forest

Even-aged - all trees are the same age, usually with monocultures (one species) Uneven-aged - trees aren’t the same age

Multiple-use - forests be managed for recreation, wildlife habitat, mineral extraction, and other uses

New Forestry - set of ecosystem-based management approaches for harvesting timber that explicitly mimic natural disturbances

Prescribed burns - burning forests or grasslands under controlled conditions to improve health of ecosystems and return them to a more natural state, and help prevent wildfires Salvage logging - removing dead trees after a natural disturbance

● Can be ecologically destructive because the dead trees provide shelter and food for a variety of insects and animals

Bureau of Land Management - federal agency that owns/manages most U.S. rangelands National wildlife refuge - an area set aside as a haven for wildlife and also sometimes for environmental education

Wilderness areas - federal land that is off-limits to development but is open to public recreation Biosphere reserves - land with exceptional biodiversity that couples preservation with sustainable development to benefit local people

SLOSS Dilemma - debate over whether it’s better to make reserves large in size and few in number or many in number but small in size

Corridors - passageway of protected land to allow animals to travel between islands of protected habitat

Chapter 16 - The Oceans: Natural Systems, Human Use, and Marine Conservation Oceanography - study of physics, chemistry, biology, and geology of the oceans Currents - flow of liquid or gas in a certain direction

Upwelling - flow of cold, deep water toward the surface

● Occurs in areas where surface currents diverge

Downwelling - flow of warm surface water toward the ocean floor

● Occurs where surface currents converge

Continental Shelves - gently sloping underwater edge of a continent,

Pelagic - of or relating to living between the surface and floor of the ocean Benthic - of or relating to living on the bottom of a water body

Intertidal - of or relating to living along shorelines between the highest reach of the highest tide and the lowest reach of the lowest tide

Salt Marshes - flat land that is unsteadily flooded by the ocean where the tide reaches inland ● Occur along temperate coastlines and are thickly vegetated

Mangroves - tree with unique roots that curve upward to get oxygen; they also serve as stilts to support the tree

● Grow on coastlines of tropics and subtropics

Estuaries - area where a river flows into the ocean, mixing fresh and saltwater Methane Hydrate - ice-like solid consisting of methane molecules embedded in crystal lattice of water molecules

● These are being investigated as potential new source of energy from fossil fuels Harmful algae blooms - population explosion of toxic algae caused by excessive nutrient concentrations

Red tides - harmful algae bloom consisting of algae that produce reddish pigments that discolor surface water

By-catch - portion of commercial fishing catches consisting of animals caught by accident; kills thousands of sharks, fish, birds, and marine mammals each year

Marine protected areas (MPAs)- area of ocean set aside to protect marine life from fishing ● May be protected from some human activities but be open to others

Chapter 17 - Atmospheric Science and Air Pollution

Atmosphere - thin layer or gases surrounding Earth

Troposphere - bottommost layer of the atmosphere

Stratosphere - layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere

Ozone Layer - part of the stratosphere that contains most of the ozone in the atmosphere Atmospheric Pressure - weight per unit area produced by a column of air

Relative Humidity - ratio of water vapor contained in a given volume of air to the maximum amount the air could contain, for a given temperature

Convective circulation - a circular current driven by temperature differences ● In the atmosphere, warm air rises into regions with regions of lower atmospheric pressure. It expands, cools, and descends and becomes denser. It replaces the rising warm air. The air near ground level picks up heat and moisture and prepares to rise, continuing the process

Climate - weather conditions in an area in general or over a long period of time Weather - conditions like temperature, pressure, etc in a short period of time Warm front - boundary where mass of warm air displaces a colder air mass Cold front - boundary where mass of cold air displaces a warmer air mass High-pressure system - air mass with elevated atmospheric pressure, containing air that descends, usually bringing fair weather

Low-pressure system - air mass where the air moves toward a low atmospheric pressure at the center of the system and spirals upward, typically bringing clouds and precipitation Temperature inversion - departure from normal distribution where a pocket of cold air occurs near the ground, with warmer air above it

● The cold air is denser, and traps pollutants near the ground, causing smog buildup Inversion layer - in temperature inversion, the band of air where temperature rises with altitude instead of falling as temperature normally does

Hadley cells - one pair of cells of convective circulation between the equator and 30 degrees north or south

Ferrel cells - one of a pair of cells of convective circulation between 30 and 60 degrees north or south latitudes that influences global climate patterns

Polar cells - one of a pair of convective circulation between the poles and 60 degrees north or south latitude that influences global climate patterns

Coriolis Effect - deflection of north-south air currents to a partly east-west direction, caused by the faster spin of regions near the equator instead of regions near the poles. This is due to Earth’s rotation

Primary Pollutants - hazardous substance emitted into the troposphere in a form that is directly harmful

Secondary Pollutants - hazardous substance produced through the reaction of substances added to the atmosphere with chemicals usually found in the atmosphere

Criteria Pollutants - 6 pollutants for which the Environmental Protection Agency has established maximum allowable concentrations in outdoor air because of threats to human health ● Carbon monoxide

● Sulfur dioxide

● Nitrogen oxide

● Tropospheric ozone

● Particulate matter

● Lead

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - one of a large group of potentially harmful organic chemicals used in industrial processes

Toxic air pollutants - air pollutant known to cause cancer, reproductive defects, or neurological, developmental, immune system, or respiratory issues in humans

● Can cause a lot of ecological harm by affecting health of human animals and plants Industrial smog - gray-air smog caused by incomplete combustion of coal or oil when burned Photochemical smog - brown-air smog caused by light-driven reactions of primary pollutants with normal atmospheric compounds that produce a mix of over 100 different chemicals, ground-level ozone often being the most abundant among them

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - any of volatile compounds of carbon, fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. They deplete the ozone layer if released into the atmosphere

Acidic deposition - deposition of acidic pollutants from the atmosphere onto Earth’s surface by precipitation, fog, gases, or dry particles

Atmospheric deposition - wet or dry deposition on land of a variety of pollutants

Chapter 18 - Global Climate Change

Greenhouse gases - gas that absorbs infrared radiation released by Earth’s surface and then warms the surface and troposphere by emitting energy, giving rise to the greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect - warming of Earth’s surface and atmosphere caused by energy emitted by greenhouse gases

Proxy Indicators - indirect evidence, such as pollen from sediment cores and air bubbles from ice cores, of the climate of the past

Chapter 27 - Population Growth, Resource Use, and Sustainability

Natural Capital - range of natural resources provided by ecosystems that are essential resources to humans

Yield - amount of resource harvested per unit time

Rotation period - period of time required for new trees to grow and the resource amount to return to the level of previous harvest

Sustained yield - ensure a similar yield at each harvest

Ecosystem services - processes by which the environment produces resources (natural capital) such as clean air, water, timber, or fish

Swidden Agriculture - method of subsistence farming practiced primarily in tropical forested regions, also called shifting cultivation

Cultural Eutrophication - accelerated nutrient enrichment causing chemicals and environmental changes resulting in major shifts in plant and animal life

Sustainable Agriculture - maintaining agricultural production while minimizing environmental impacts

Clear-cutting - cutting down all trees in an area

Seed-tree - tree(s) left in an area to that have seeds that can regenerate the tree population Selection cutting - choosing which trees to cut down

Benefit-cost analysis - measuring, adding up, and comparing all benefits and costs of a certain project or activity

Discounting - technique employed to add and compare costs and benefits that occur at different points in time

Externalities - occur when actions of one individual (or group) affect another’s well-being, but the relevant costs aren’t reflected in the market prices

Environmental Economics - study environmental problems with the perspective and analytic tools of economics

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