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Biology 107_Exam 3

by: Sarah Tarr

Biology 107_Exam 3 Biology 107

Sarah Tarr
GPA 2.87
Cell Biology and Genetics
William Davis

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Hey, Check out this awesome Study guide for the upcoming exam. Good Luck, hope it helps.
Cell Biology and Genetics
William Davis
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Tarr on Wednesday April 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 268 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology and Genetics in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 04/08/15
Concept 133 Study Guide 0 Meiosis replication of chromosome in interphase o Meiosis 1 No DNA replication Homologous chromosomes separate Haploid cells with duplicated chromosomes Prophase 1 0 Exchange of DNA from sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes Crossover Metaphase Anaphase o Meiosis 2 Sister chromatids separates Haploid cells with unduplicated chromosomes Anaphase 2 0 Sister chromatid separate Telophase 2 and Haploid daughter cells form 0 lnterphase 0 Pair of homologous chromosome in diploid parent cell 0 Duplicated homologous chromosome 0 Metaphase part of Mitosis sister chromatids have equal connections to opposite mitotic poles 0 Vocabulary o Cohesins a protein that holds sister chromatids together 0 Locus positions of a gene on a speci c chromosome 0 Character variation ina an organism that is inherited eye color 0 Synapsis joining of homologous chromosomes together during Prophase 1 of meiosis Chiasma holds homologous together Variation term given to describe how offspring appear different than their parents or each other 0 Synaptonemal Complex holds homologs together lightly like zipper o Gameters only generates in haploid cells in animals Produces by meiosis and no cell division Form diploid zygote Genetic variation in offspring o Rearrangement of DNA new combination of genes on a single chromatid o Asexual producers have mechanisms such as Random mutation Incorporation of foreign nucleotide sequence Mendelian Genetics Vocabulary o Blending hypothesis idea that genetic material from two parents blends together Particulate hypothesis idea that parent pass on discrete genes Characterheritable feature that varies among individuals Distinct and alternative forms are characteristics that Mendel tracked Trait different form of a character 00 OOOO o Truebreeding plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self pollinate P generation True breeding parents F2 generationHybrid offspring o Hybridization mating of two contrasting true breeding varieties 0 Dominant trait higher ratio 0 Recessive trait lower ratio 0 heritable factor gene 0 Genotype organism s genetic makeup o Monohybrids a cross that offspring produce in o Monohybrid cross cross between heterozygotes o Bacteria and archaea o Adapt to environment 0 Live in variety of habitats o 3 domain of life 0 Prokaryotes Unicellular Common cell shapes 0 Rod bacilli Spiral Spherical cocci 0 Cell Walls features 0 Capsules sticky layer of protein Protection and binding 0 Fimbriae attachment to other cells 0 Motility Taxis Flagella o Gram Staining tell difference between bacteria 0 Gram negative Stainpink Lipopolysaccharides Outer membrance o Gram Positive Stainpurple Peptidoglycan o Binary Fission cell replication 0 Division in prokaryotic cells Occurs rapidly in bacteria Transformation Elongation Conjunction Transduction bacterium picks up an antibiotic resistance gene through infection by a phage o Antibiotics 0 Kill bacteria by cell wall formation gene expression and other targets 0 Come from fungi and bacteria 0 Resistance Mutation in genes allow bacteria to 0 Reduce drug uptake 0 Remove drug from cell c Inactive or degrade drug 0 Alter or make more target Mutation genes can be passed by genetic transfer OOOOO 0 Order of cell wall features during movement of antibiotic outside of Gram Positive bacterium Capsule Peptidoglycan Cell membrane 0 Nutrition vocabulary o Phototrophs gets energy from plant 0 Chemotropism gets energy from chemicals 0 Autotrophs Heterotrophs no organic carbon is need ill Him I ll Maim Nulritinnal Mrs an Mic 3 Elmrug iUUi iil Carlinm quotileumr 131nm u fijyii ialiil39l39li All ll ll RESP F39I iBIZZJUFI IEElFil L iH39I i 39 HIE EliEDI H i H H I iiuhri i m 39In39rriI39lllilil39i lnmu III39I39E39EI39T IEH I ILJ l ii 0 Oxygen Metabolism o Obligate Aerobes require energy 0 Obligate Anaerobe no energy is needed 0 Facultative anaerobes uses oxygen but some don t 0 Viruses o Obligate intracellular parasites 0 Have DNA and RNA genome and protein coat 0 Viral genomes o DNARNA single or double stranded 0 Viral capsid 0 Protein shell made out of capsomere proteins 0 Diverse in shape and size spikes or tails 0 Viral Envelope 0 Membrane around capsid 0 Contains viral glycoprotein o Eukaryotic Double Strand DNA Viruses 0 Virus goes into host cell and coat is removed 0 Host is use to replicate viral genome and express viral proteins 0 Particles of the virus assemble themselves 0 Virus exist the host cell 0 Bacteriophages virus that infect bacteria 0 Causes lytic and lysogenic cycle production Lytic cycle quickly produces in host and cause host cell to be destroy Result in host cell lysis Bacteria block infection 0 Virulent phages attach to host bacterium Lysogenic cycle infect host cell and remain dormant inside cell for long penod Temperate phages easy way to switch on lytic cycle to raise growth temperature of the host 0 Become lytic 0 Does not destroy host cell 0 RNA viruses 0 Viral RNA serve as mRNA mRNA template and genomic DNA template 0 Retroviruses does not follow Central Dogma of Molecular Biology RNADDNADRNADProtein Require RTase synthesis complementary DNA from RNA


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