Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Final Exam: Physical Anthropology Introduction to Anthropology What is Anthropology? ∙ It is the study of human- beings. ∙ **NOT THE STUDY OF DINOSAURS** Subfields of Anthropology Cultural Anthropology ∙ Study of the diversity among cultures. ∙ Ethnography: Studying of a specific culture/ society. ∙ Ethnology: Cross-cultural study usinWe also discuss several other topics like Is syntax relatable to grammar?
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g ethnographic data. Linguistic Anthropology ∙ Study of change in a language for social or cultural reasons. ∙ Sociolinguistics: The variations of social and linguistic relevance. Archaeological Anthropology ∙ Study of the remains of a society. o Materials include: Mostly garbage, artifacts, and burial sites. o Famous sites include: Macchu Pichu, Peru Tatankhamun, Egypt Biological/ Physical Anthropology ∙ “What causes differences among different populations?” ∙ Topics of Biological/Physical Anthropology: o Genetics o Fossils o Osteology o Forensics o Paleopathology What makes humans so unique?? ∙ Bipedalism o Long legs and short arms. This has no always been true. ∙ Non- honing Chewing o Teeth do not sharpen when they are chewed with. o *The first trait to tell whether hominin or not* ∙ Complex Culture and Tools o Complexity over time ∙ Hunting o Increase of calorie intake with more hunting. Developed bigger brains and bodies. ∙ Speech o Vocalization AND Language ∙ Domestication of FoodDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Led to the domestication of plants too. Lucy ∙ Human-like shape ∙ Climbing with long arms ∙ Bipedalism ∙ Chimp-size brain ∙ No projecting canine Chapter 1: Origins of Evolutionary Thought Key Words: ∙ Hypothesis: An explanation for an observation made that needs to be tested. ∙ Theory: Explains existing observations and also predicts new ones. ∙ Law: Universally accepted fact; a proved theory becomes a law. ∙ Catastrophism: The World’s landscapes are formed from catastrophes. ∙ Artificial Selection: Selection based on human interference. ∙ Natural Selection: Selection based on nature. People That Impacted Evolutionary Thought: Aristotle (4th century B.C) ∙ “Fixity of species” o Chain of species. Nicolas Copernicus (1473- 1543) ∙ Earth-centered solar system to Sun-centered solar system. Archbishop James Usher (1581- 1656) ∙ Calculated date of creation based on the book of Genesis. John Ray (1627- 1705) ∙ Made Aristotle’s thought of species chain more complex. ∙ Creates groups of plants and animals. ∙ Species and Genus terms in classification. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) ∙ Wanted to classify every living species. ∙ Created Binominal Nomenclature. ∙ Added Class and Order terms into classification. Comte de Buffon (1707- 1788) ∙ Studied the response of organisms to changes in the environment. o Bears in cold and hot environments. Polar bears and Black/ Brown bears. Erasmus Darwin (1731- 1802) ∙ He wrote poetry about evolution. ∙ He was Charles Darwin’s grandfather. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) ∙ *inheritance of acquired traits*Dr. Geoffrey Thomas o The giraffe and its long neck. Georges Cuvier (1789- 1832) ∙ Catastrophism o For example: Noah’s Ark. Thomas Malthus (1766-1875) ∙ He said that there have been big growth rates of populations than the carrying capacity. o This creates competition. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) ∙ He said geological processes have been occurring at the same rate since the start of time. ∙ Uniformitarianism Charles Darwin (1809- 1882) ∙ Influenced by Charles Lyell ∙ Studied and collected knowledge while he was on the H.M.S Beagle. o He was the ship’s naturalist. o He collected samples from the Galapagos and South America. ∙ Artificial selection and natural selection. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823- 1913) ∙ Studied Indonesia. ∙ His and Darwin’s hypothesis were very similar dealing with natural selection. o They wrote Origin of Species together. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825- 1895) ∙ He was Darwin’s wing-man. o He defended Darwin when people reacted surprised to his hypothesis. John Scopes (trial in 1925) ∙ He taught evolution in Tennessee where it was considered illegal ∙ He was found guilty but the verdict was overturned. The Basic Processes of Natural Selection 1. There is biological variation. 2. Competition occurs. 3. There is variability, some in which are better than other traits. 4. Traits become inherited. 5. Traits become successful overtime. 6. Population of species begin to evolve. *Individual people do not evolve* Chapter 2 and 3: Genetics DNA and Mendel Key Words: ∙ Somatic Cells: Body cells. ∙ Gamete Cells: Sex cells. ∙ Double Helix: Uncoiled DNA. ∙ Nucleotide: Basic structural unit of DNA.Dr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Replication: DNA copies and replicates. ∙ Mitosis: During replication only with somatic cells. ∙ Meiosis: During replication only with gamete cells. ∙ Protein Synthesis: RNA carries information from DNA. ∙ Transcription: DNA is copied into mRNA. ∙ Translation: mRNA is translated into sequence of amino acids. ∙ Genes: Segments of DNA that code for specific proteins. ∙ Alleles: Describes traits (dominant or recessive). ∙ Chromosomes: They carry DNA. ∙ Diploid: Contains two complete sets of chromosomes (46). ∙ Non-junctive Errors: When chromosomes do not separate properly. ∙ Genotypes: Unique combination of genes. ∙ Phenotypes: Characteristics physically shown. ∙ Dominant: expressed trait. ∙ Recessive: Non- expressed trait unless they are present in both copies. ∙ Recombination: Rearrangement of genes when cross- over occurs during meiosis. ∙ Linkage: Linked genes are not likely to separate because they are found on the same chromosome. ∙ Polygenic Traits: Physical trait cause many genes. ∙ Polytrophy: When multiple traits are affected by one gene. ∙ Parthenogenesis: Both chromosomes are passed along during Mitosis. DNA ∙ Nucleotide o Adenine and Thymine (thymine changes to Uracil when dealing with RNA) o Guanine and Cytosine The Functions of DNA 1. Replication a. Mitosis: i. Production of somatic cells. ii. Begins with 23 cells and replicates into 46 chromosomes (diploid). b. Meiosis: i. Production of gametes. ii. Cell divides into 4 daughter cells (haploids). 2. Protein Synthesis a. Transcription: i. Happens in the nucleus. ii. DNA uncoils. iii. RNA strands match with DNA 1. (no thymine) b. Translation:Dr. Geoffrey Thomas i. Happens in the ribosome. ii. The RNA is grouped in 3’s matching up with anticodons creating amino acids. Chromosome Abnormalities: ∙ Monosomy o Tuner Syndrome One X chromosome. ∙ Trisomy o Down’s Syndrome 47 chromosomes instead of 46 Mutations ∙ Bad Mutations: o Point Mutation: Amino acid is changed at active site. o Insertion Mutation: Shift in amino acids. Lethal ∙ Neutral Mutations: o Point Mutation: Codon replaces amino acid, causing no shift in sequence. o Point Mutation: Change to amino acid outside protein. ∙ Good Mutations: o Point Mutation: Amino acid is changed at active site of protein increasing fitness. Mendel ∙ Explanation for variation. o Inherited characteristics are in pairs controlling specific functions of organism. o One part of the pair is dominant while the other one is recessive and is hidden. ∙ Mendel’s Law of Segregation: o There is an equal chance of boy/ girl when gametes are separated because it is random. ∙ Mendel’s Law of Individual Assortment: o Gametes form while pairs are independently sorted. The Red Queen Hypothesis ∙ With clones from asexual reproduction, it is easier for parasites and pathogens to attack because they are used to the same genotype; With sexual reproduction, there are new genotypes every generation making it hard for parasites and pathogens. Chapter 4: Forces of Evolution and Speciation Key Words: ∙ Immigration: Moving into a place. ∙ Emigration: Moving out of a place. ∙ Point Mutation: Affects a few nucleotides in a sequence. ∙ Substitution: Bases are changed.Dr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Insertion: Extra DNA is added. ∙ Deletion: Part of a chromosome is deleted. ∙ Altruistic Behavior: The less related, the less of an effort to do a behavior. ∙ Fitness: Producing the most offspring. ∙ Direct Fitness: The number of surviving offspring. ∙ Indirect Fitness: The direct fitness times the fitness of the kin. ∙ Niche: A group surviving a certain way. ∙ Hybrid Zones: Separation of a niche. ∙ Taxonomy: Organizing species ancestry. ∙ Phylogeny: Tree of descendants. ∙ Systematics: Construction of a species tree. ∙ Cladogenesis: There is a line that represents the original population and then there are branches. ∙ Anagenesis: Variability of a species from thousands of years ago up until today. ∙ Morphology: The physical characteristics. ∙ Genetic Similarity: The homologous traits. ∙ Homologous: Similar traits because of common ancestors. ∙ Analogous: Similar traits but no common ancestor. Four Ways Change Occurs: 1. Selection: a reduction of variability. a. Modes of Selection: i. Stabilizing Selection: 1. The average is reinforced. ii. Directional Selection: 1. Traits are pushed in a direction. a. Example: giraffe necks. iii. Disruptive Selection: 1. Creates two totally different populations. 2. Genetic Drift: variability is random a. Bottleneck Effect: i. The population suffers a random disaster causing the loss of most of the population, creating variability. b. Founder Effect: i. A small population migrates somewhere new. 1. Example: colonization 3. Gene Flow: causes variability to move around. a. Immigration b. Emigration 4. Mutation: *Only thing that adds variability to the population* a. Point Mutation b. Substitution c. InsertionDr. Geoffrey Thomas d. Deletion Darwin’s Finches ∙ 14 species derived from 1 original. 1. Existing was a struggle to the Finches. a. Constant drought. 2. There was competition for variation. a. Bigger beaked birds had better chances at survival. 3. Inheritance a. Offspring inherited the characteristics. Sexual Selection ∙ The whole point was to maximize reproductive success. Kin Selection ∙ Vigilantly towards offspring. ∙ Hamiltion’s Rule o Altruistic Behavior rb>c Species ∙ No single concept can classify everything Biological Concept: ∙ Used most of the time ∙ Offspring are able to grow up an reproduce themselves because they are the same species. Ecological Concept: ∙ When two populations breed, their offspring is sterile, which keeps distinctiveness. Fitness ∙ Direct and Indirect Reproductive Isolation: ∙ Premating/ Prezygotic: o Before mating takes place. ∙ Postmating/ Prezygotic o After mating but no fertilization occurs. Example: mule ∙ Postmating/ Postzygotic: o After mating and fertilization occurs. Speciation ∙ Allopatric Speciation: o There is a geographical obstacle that creates one population to split in two. Character displacement occurs. Phenology Patterns ∙ Cladogenesis o Daughter Species ∙ AnagenesisDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Small changes over time. ∙ Morphology ∙ Genetic Similarity ∙ Convergence o Homologous o Analogous Ancestor Characteristics 1. Early Development a. Human embryos have tails. 2. Early characteristics in fossils a. Similar characteristics in ancestors i. Example: body shape 3. Out- Groups a. Similarities in different species. Chapter 5: Population Genetics and Modern Human Variation Key Words: ∙ Population genetics: Studying the genetic variation between organisms. ∙ Microevolution: Evolutionary change within a species. ∙ Discrete Variation: a noticeable difference. ∙ Continuous Variation: not clear differences. ∙ Adaptability: Positive changes in an environment to survive. ∙ Acclimation: short- term changes in response to environmental changes. ABO Blood Types- Polymorphism ∙ Type B: o Central Asia ∙ Type A: o Small unrelated populations ∙ Type O: o Indigenous and South American populations. Maternal Fetal Incompatibility ∙ A mother with a O blood type can have problems with a second baby and on because the body sees it as a virus. Lactose Digestion ∙ Lactose intolerance is very high among pastoral populations. o Not really found in European populations. Due to microevolution Sickle Cell Anemia ∙ In areas of Malaria o Africa ∙ Heterozygous people are the ones living to reproductive age. Types of Variation: ∙ Discrete VariationDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Continuous Variation ∙ Environmental Variation o Defined by culture Causes of Variation ∙ Within groups o Environmental ∙ Among Groups o Genetic Body Types: ∙ Variability due to genetics and nutrition ∙ Bergman’s Rule: o In cold climates, humans have heavier body masses. ∙ Allen’s Rule o In cold climates, humans have shorter limbs. Drift in Group Variation ∙ Usually due to religion o Amish Creates an isolated population with very similar characteristics. Racism ∙ It was believed people were different races in earlier times. ∙ Linnaeus o Homo sapiens afer (Africans) o Homo sapiens americanus (American Indians) o Homo sapiens asiaticus (Asians) o Homo sapiens europeanus (Europeans) o Homo sapiens ferus (Wild Men) ∙ Johann Blumenach o Caucasoid o Negroid o Mongoloid o American Indian o Australoid ∙ Eugenics Movement o Sterilization Jews by the Nazis ∙ C. Loring Brace o Clines Done by phenotypes and politics. ∙ Polygenetic “Race” o Skin color ∙ Genetic Race o Variations within populations. Lewontin: blood groupsDr. Geoffrey Thomas Kelethford: genetic markers and DNA *Race is culturally constructed* ∙ Not biological o It is a way to justify superiority Chapter 6: Primates Key Words: Locomotion: Way of getting around Nocturnal: Active at night Diurnal: Active during the day Dentition: Makeup of teeth Prehensile: Able to grab on to things Defining a Primates ∙ Mammals o Warm- blooded o Sociable o Reduced smell o Better vision Eyes are not spread apart Protective eye socket Nocturnal or Diurnal o Long lives Not many babies Longer gestation Growth and development is longer Bigger brains o Locomotion varies Response to body types o Hands and Feet Grasping o Dentition Eating and weaponry ∙ Incisors ∙ Canine ∙ Premolars ∙ Molars o Primate Taxonomy Shared Ancestry ∙ Prosimians and Anthropoids o Strepsirhine and Haplorrhine ∙ Strepsirhines o 1 Claw o Smell reliance Wet nose o Quick growthDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Dental comb 2-1-3-3 o Tapetum Lucidum Reflects light ∙ Allows them to see better o Attached upper lip o Found in: Asia Africa o Lemurs Madagascar Leapers ∙ Long legs Smaller (Nocturnal)/ Bigger (Diurnal) Eats fruits and vegetables Matriarchal o Loris’ India, Asia, Africa Slow Eats insects Poisonous Nocturnal Solitary o Galagos Africa Leapers Nocturnal Solitary ∙ Haplorrhines o Majority are larger o Reduced smell Dry nose o Better vision Fully enclosed eye socket o No claw o Diurnal No eye shine o Tarsiers Nocturnal HAS GROOMING CLAW Can’t move eyes o Monkeys Platyrrhine (New World) ∙ South AmericaDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ 2-1-3-3 ∙ Diurnal ∙ Closed eye socket ∙ Short snout ∙ No dental comb ∙ Upper arm mobility is restricted ∙ Callitrichid o Vertical clinging o Eats insects o Family grouped o Twins usually become the offspring ∙ Cebid o Rest of the New World monkeys o Prehensile tails o Eats fruits and leaves Catarrhine (Old World) ∙ South Asia and Africa ∙ No prehensile tail ∙ 2-1-2-3 ∙ Ischial callosities o Hard skin on butt ∙ No 360 degrees shoulder mobility ∙ Gelada o Lip flicking ∙ Hamadryads o Live on cliffs o Savannah Baboon ∙ Colobines o Arboreal o Smaller groups o Black and White Colobus Live in canopies o Langurs Bachelorette groups Infanticide by alpha o Macaques Vocals Long noses ∙ Hominins o Apes and Humans 2-1-2-3 y-5 ape or human ∙ humans don’t have projecting caninesDr. Geoffrey Thomas Use of arms to move around ∙ 360 degrees’ motion Bipedalism; knuckle-walking Long time for development Diurnal o Hylobatidae SE Asia Gibbons and Siamangs Monogamous Eats fruit o Pongidae Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) ∙ Borneo and Sumatra ∙ Fist Walk ∙ Solitary o Only time male or female come together is for mating Not enough mating Gorilla gorilla ∙ Central Africa ∙ Very big ∙ Always eating ∙ Knuckle- walking ∙ Family- Unit ∙ Sexual dimorphism o Silverback Male ∙ Nests o Hominidae Pantroglodytes (Chimps) ∙ Middle Africa ∙ Use resources to get food o Nuts, ants, termites ∙ Knuckle- walking ∙ Violent o Against other males ∙ Omnivorous ∙ Alpha males Pan paniscus (Bonobo) ∙ Cousin of chimps o Smaller ∙ South of Zaire River ∙ Females are alphaDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Use of sex to resolve conflict ∙ Very little violence ∙ Omnivorous Homo Sapiens ∙ Limbs and grasping- hands ∙ Omnivorous ∙ Vison is much better ∙ Bigger brains ∙ Bipedal Chapter 7: Primate Behavior Key Words: Basal Metabolism: energy at rest Active Metabolism: Twice the basal metabolism Growth Rate: The need of more food because of development Reproductive Effort: Females requiring more energy during pregnancy and lactation Frugivore: Only eating fruits Folivore: Only eating leaves Insectivore: Only eating insects Herbivore: Only eating herbs Solitary: lonesome Monogamy: Male and female Polyandry: Two males and female Polygyny: One male and multiple females Promiscuous: Groups with bonds Scramble Competition: Battling for resources Contest Competition: Monopolized competition; Alpha usually wins Phenotypic Cueing: Distinguishing by facial features Estrus: Characteristics change during ovulation Receptivity: Soliciting by males Proceptivity: Actively seeking out males Intersexual Selection: Females choose a male to mate with Intrasexual Selection: There is male-male competition to mate with females Infanticide: The killing of offspring Social Organization ∙ Food Resources o Energy Basal Metabolism Active Metabolism Growth Rate Reproductive Effort *the larger the body size, the metabolic costs are slower* Bigger animals will eat more vegetation ∙ Quantity over qualityDr. Geoffrey Thomas Smaller animals will eat more, including other insects ∙ Quality over quantity ∙ Example: Tarsier eating insects o Diet Specialized digestion system ∙ Relying on certain foods o Protein Depends on environment: ∙ Frugivore ∙ Folivore ∙ Insectivore ∙ Herbivore Food Distribution ∙ Depends on where the food is o Develops social organization Females go where the food is ∙ Males follow Mating Groups ∙ Solitary o Example: Orangutan ∙ Monogamy o A single male will defend the female Compassion o Little sexual dimorphism o Evolution of Monogamy: Both female and male are needed Female spatial distribution o Example: Gibbons ∙ Polyandry (Andy- boys name) o Each find their own territory o Offspring are usually twins Example: Tamarins ∙ Polygyny (Ginny- girls name) o Advantages for females because they choose Which male has ∙ The most territory ∙ Best genes ∙ Males have to: o Defend females Costs vs. benefits Have resources ∙ Multi/ Multi without bonds o PromiscuousDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Multiple partners Males can’t tell offspring ∙ Raised by only female Sperm competition ∙ Multi/ Multi with bonds o Male with multiple females o Males somewhat care for offspring o Moderate dimorphism o Territoriality Defending of resources Mate Defense ∙ Defending females from other males o Predation Hard time watching out for nocturnal animals ∙ Responses: o Alarming o Hiding o Ganging up on predators o Alarming other groups o Costs of being social Competition o Benefits to being social Resource defense Protection o Competition Scramble competition Contest competition o Dominance It is clear who is dominant What determines dominance: ∙ Who remains in the birth group o Female and male philanthropy Avoids incest o Food Sharing and Kin Selection ∙ Usually mother of kin ∙ Sometimes kin are shared ∙ Phenotypic Cueing o Grooming and Kin selection ∙ Hygienic ∙ Reinforces bonds ∙ Takes time and energy ∙ Sometimes done to receive something in exchange o Primate Female StrategiesDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Resources o For infants Lactation and food ∙ Certain body fat and energy to: o Ovulate o Be pregnant ∙ Estrus ∙ Receptivity o Pawlowski ∙ Proceptivity o Time of genital swelling o When not ovulating, not interested in sex Except for humans and bonobos o Female Reproductive Success and Rank ∙ Higher ranking females having higher reproductive success o Trade-offs ∙ Resources o Having enough for the first offspring before having another o Sexual Selection on Males Intersexual selection o Example: male peacock feathers ∙ Intrasexual selection o Majority of females have offspring but only some males have offspring o Sexual Dimorphism Body Size o Chimps have sperm- competition o Male Reproductive Strategies Infanticide o By alpha males Runaway Sexual Selection (Theory) o Preferred trait gets passed along when there is variability Choosy females o Primate Culture Do primates have theory of mind? o Sense of self and others Chapter 8: Dating Techniques Key Words: ∙ Taxonomy: What happens to the remains ∙ Principle of Superposition: older sentiment is at the bottomDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Principle of Faunal Succession: Older (fauna) remains are in the older layers ∙ Lithostratigraphy: Comparing rock sites ∙ Biostratigraphy: Finding non- modern species ∙ Tuffs: Volcanic layers Taphonomy ∙ Burial ∙ Geological Process ∙ Biological Process ∙ Becoming inorganic minerals Fossilization ∙ Organic materials are replaced by inorganic materials o Most do not become fossils Aid Fossilization ∙ Remains have to be covered quickly by sentiment o Exposure to scavengers o Near water helps Principles of Stratigraphy ∙ Relative age o Principle of Superposition o Principle of Principle of Faunal Succession Dating Techniques ∙ Relative Technique o Comparing age “Older than that one” ∙ Absolute Techniques o Actual dates ∙ Cross- dating o Lithostratigraphy o Biostratigraphy Faunal correlations ∙ Use current key species to determine if remains found relates to try and find out relative time Absolute techniques ∙ Tuffs o Between 2 eruptions ∙ Paleomagnetism o Flip in magnetic poles ∙ Chronometric Dating (Absolute) o Counting number of years Usually BP era ∙ 1950- present Results are in standard deviationDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ +/- ∙ Probability o A lot of errors Size of standard deviation ∙ The smaller the standard deviation, the bigger room for error ∙ Radiometric Techniques o Based on ideas of decay o Radioactive Decay *Radioactive isotopes go from an unstable isotope to a stable state* Half-life Length of time for half of a sample to decay o Every isotope is different o Potassium- Argon Dating At least 100k years old o Potassium- 40 wants to be Argon- 40 Volcano o Argon- Argon Dating Smaller sample Argon- 40 to Argon 39 o Destroyed in testing of sample process ∙ Fission Track Dating o Micas Pottery is usually the sample o Spontaneous fission of Uranium- 238 o Fission Tracks How long it will take to accumulate is tested ∙ Uranium Series Dating o Caves Flowstones, stalactites, stalagmites, etc. o Decay of radioactive uranium Creates daughter isotopes ∙ Radiocarbon Dating o Carbon- 14 to Nitrogen- 14 o Calibration Assuming that Carbon- 14 is constant in the atmosphere ∙ But: o It can fluctuate o Rate of decay may not be constant Skewed result o Use of standard deviation for results Calibration curve ∙ BC and BP dates o Standard errorDr. Geoffrey Thomas The smaller the gap, the less accurate o Limitations of Carbon- 14 dating Bigger sample is better Sample is destroyed in testing process Cross contamination ∙ Needs to be sent to multiple labs Only about 50k years back ∙ Luminescence Dating o From crystalline minerals o Thermoluminescence Heated ∙ Electron Spin Resonance o For dating teeth mostly Sample is heated up and the electron energy is measured Environment ∙ Climate has changed over the course of millions of years o Africa Used to be woodland/ savannah and now is a desert/ grassland o Species adapt Ocean Cores and Ice Sheets ∙ Sample from sea floor o Layers Foram inifera ∙ They absorb oxygen in the ocean and help form sentiments when they die o Oxygen- 18 and Oxygen- 16 During an interglacial era, there is an equal amount of oxygen- 16 and oxygen 18 ∙ Oxygen- 16 will evaporate but will return right back to the oxygen During an ice age, Oxygen- 16 freezes in the ice after evaporating ∙ Ocean becomes rich with Oxygen 18 Chapter 9: Fossil Primates Key Words: ∙ Molecular Clock: Estimates the time between two groups sharing a species How the Primate Species Evolved? ∙ Natural Selection Mesozoic Era (225- 65 millions years ago) ∙ Dinosaurs and tiny insect- eating animalsDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Late Triassic period In Jurassic Period, there were the first marsupial and placental mammals ∙ Plants started to produce pollen o Lured birds Sudden Change ∙ Extinction of dinosaurs o More opportunities for mammals ∙ K-T Boundary o Giant crater (chixulub) in Yucatán Peninsula “Abrupt global cooling” o Replacement of mammals o New Cenozoic era caused pushed animals to North and South poles Paleocene Era and Origin of Primates ∙ Plesiadapiforms o Hard to tell if they were the first “real” primates Lacked postorbital bar Gap between anterior teeth ∙ Diastema o Very important evolution Grasping hands and feet Ancestors took advantage of changing resources ∙ Started eating insects ∙ Visual predators Early Primates: Eocene (54 million years ago) ∙ First “true” primates o Bony characteristics of primates today ∙ “Cold snap” and many species went extinct o Front eye sockets More protection o Opposable big toe o Nails (no claw) o Reduction of smell and increase in vision Adapoids (strepsirhine) ∙ Branched out o Mostly Old World ∙ Resemble modern Strepsirhines o Tooth comb ∙ Suggests Loris’ and lemurs split Omomyoid (haplorrhine) ∙ More diverse ∙ More nocturnal ∙ Ate insects and leavesDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Leapers ∙ Guessed Strepsirhine- Haplorrhine split was 58 million years ago o Environmental Available resources ∙ Avoided competition First Monkeys ∙ Grand Coupure o Created challenges and opportunities Adapoids and omomyoids disappeared ∙ Monkeys o Enclosed eye socket o Smaller snouts o Less teeth o Larger body ∙ Anthropoids in China Eocene o 45 million years ago ∙ Anthropoids in Pakistan o 32 million years ago ∙ Both created Fayum Tree o Advanced features Size started from small and became bigger o Parapithecidae Resembles South American Squirrel Monkey Leapers and Quadrupeds Fruit Eaters 3 premolars before split between New World (3 premolars) and Old World o Oligopithecidae (Oligopithecus and Catopithecus) Small Quadrupeds Fruit eaters Advanced frontal bone and postorbital closure 2:1:2:3 o Propliopithecidae (genus: Aegyptopithecus) Largest Resembles Howler Monkeys in South America 2:1:2:3 New World Monkeys (split 40 million years ago) ∙ From North American Eocene o Possibly from adapoids or omomyoids ∙ 5 major subfamilies ∙ Evolved parallel to New World Monkeys ∙ 3 premolars like catarrhinesDr. Geoffrey Thomas Old World Monkeys ∙ Common ancestor with Apes 25 millions years ago o 2 premolars ∙ Earliest fossil evidence was in Napak, Uganda o 19 million years ago Victoriapithecidae family ∙ Long snout ∙ 6-11 lbs ∙ Long incisors o Seed and fruit eater ∙ Cercopithecine and Colobine split 14-16 million years ago o Many were medium- large size o Dentation was similar to baboons Favored Feature of Anthropoids ∙ Greater chewing efficiency o Allowed for a bigger body size ∙ Vision Early Apes ∙ Dental Apes (y-5) o Ape like teeth, monkey like skeleton ∙ Climate o Forested Africa ∙ Earliest Dental Apes (genus: Proconsul; 18-20 million years ago) o Y-5 o Limbs for running o Long torso ∙ Mortopithecus bishop o Believed to be last common ancestor of Great Apes ∙ Sivapithecus (late Miocene) o Similar to Orangutan Concaved faces Quadrupedal ∙ Giantopithecus o Fibrous diet ∙ Ouranopithecus o Wide space between eye sockets o Lacks cranial anatomy that African Great Apes and humans had ∙ Dryopithecus/ Hispanopithecus o Close to Proconsul and Gibbons ∙ Oreopithecus o May have been bipeds Divergent big toe o Isolated habitat on Mediterranean IslandDr. Geoffrey Thomas No predators ∙ No fossil evidence of lineage connected to Gorillas, Bonobos, or Chimpanzees Divergence of Monkeys and Apes ∙ Monkeys o Narrow thorax; deep ∙ Apes o Wide thorax; not deep Brachiation ∙ Arm positioned far from midline ∙ Shifts of climate (forest vs. non- forest) o In Miocene there was global drying Changed diet Primate Diversity in Miocene ∙ New niches from climate shift o New areas and resources ∙ Reproduction is quicker (r- selected) o Could colonize faster ∙ Reproduction is slow (k- selected) o Apes One group survived issues that came to be ∙ Eventually humans Molecular Evolution of Primates ∙ Molecular Clock ∙ Common Ancestor 1. Calibrated with date from fossil record from one “node” of the family tree Determines molecular rate of change 2. Constant Rate of Change ∙ Relative Rate Test o Genetic difference between primate species Can look at variability in rates of change in genes Primate Molecular Phylogeny ∙ Evolution of beta- globin o Gene sequences over 60 primate species Molecular Phylogeny and Human Origins ∙ Hominins (5 million years ago; 1967- Sarich and Wilson) o But Ramapithecus (15 million years ago) ∙ 1997- Maryellen Ruvolo o Humans are more related to Chimps than they are to Gorillas Chapter 10: Becoming Human Key Words: ∙ Forum Column: where the spinal cord and brain meetDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Nuchal Plane: Surface area for the attachment of the neck muscles ∙ Femoral Condyles: enlarged portion that forms at the top of the knee joint (femur) Bipedalism ∙ Only humans today o Balancing body weight Structure in skeleton allows this o Spine (vertebral column) Cervical vertebrae (neck) Thoracic vertebrae (thorax) Lumbar vertebrae (lower back) Sacrum and Coccyx (pelvic) ∙ Quadrupeds have C- shape ∙ Bipeds have S- shape Amount of weight increases down the spine in a biped ∙ Vertebrae is bigger toward the lumbar region Vertebral bodies are equal on quadrupeds Forum Magnum ∙ Bipeds: underneath the skull ∙ Quadrupeds: back of the skull Nuchal Plane ∙ Bipeds: faces downward ∙ Quadrupeds: Rearward; tilted o Pelvis and Birth Canal Biped: faces downward Quadruped: pelvis has a short ilium; wide pelvis (Pelvis has 2 innominate bones with 3 bones: ischium, ilium, pubis) o Legs Biped: Longer ∙ Increases stride length ∙ Efficient walking ∙ Femoral condyles ∙ Legs are angled due to a wider pelvis Quadruped: legs are straighter ∙ Narrower Pelvis o Feet Biped: ∙ Tarsals, metatarsal, and phalanges ∙ Heel first and big toe pushes off the ground o Dorsiflexion Shorter toes ∙ ArchesDr. Geoffrey Thomas Quadruped: ∙ Shorter tarsals and longer phalanges o Arms Biped: ∙ Carrying objects ∙ Shorter arms and longer legs Quadruped: ∙ Long arms o Swinging and knuckle- walking Bipedal Body Plan ∙ Natural Selection o Survival and Reproductive Benefits Locomotion of Last Common Ancestor ∙ Sir Arthur Keith (1923) o Humans may have descended from Apes, not knuckle-walkers ∙ Thorpe (2007) o Behaviors like Orangutans walking upright when grabbing on to branches above them, could have been a precursor Why Bipedalism Evolved ∙ Energy efficiency ∙ Walk more efficiently o (Peter Rodman and Henry McHenry) ∙ Food resources became spread out and walking upright was more efficient (Isbell and Young) o To maintain group size ∙ Ecological Influences o Changing environments in Africa More distance between food resources ∙ Increased travel Greater ability to see over tall grass ∙ Dietary Influences o Walking on trees (Russel Tuttle) o Short- distance shuffling (Cliff Jolly) Seeds o Feeding on the largest branches of fruit trees (Craig Stanford) o Picking small fruit from fruit trees (Kevin Hunt) ∙ Sexual Selection and Mating o Males asserting their dominance (Jablonski and Chaplin) “Look more impressive) o Energy efficiency of walking (Lovejoy) Men carrying food Human Behavior ∙ Brains grew really big o Increased intelligenceDr. Geoffrey Thomas Better problem solving Technical Intelligence ∙ Extract food and resources from natural environment ∙ Chimps use tools to crack nuts o “Cultural traditions best explained diversity of tool cultures” (McGrew) ∙ Humans with first stone tools (2.5 million years ago) Ecological Intelligence ∙ Navigation to find food o Monitoring fruiting status of trees ∙ Cognitive map (Charles Menzel) Social Intelligence ∙ Increasing brain size to cope with complex social relationships (also called Machiavellian Intelligence) o Social “service- economy” chimps engage in (Frances DeWall) ∙ Large cerebrum or neocortex (Byrne and Whiten) ∙ Theory of Mind o Chimp evaluation (Tomasello) Reached point without knowing why Exam 3 Guide Physical/ Biological Anthropology Chapter 10: Becoming Human Key Words: ∙ Forum Column: where the spinal cord and brain meet ∙ Nuchal Plane: Surface area for the attachment of the neck muscles ∙ Femoral Condyles: enlarged portion that forms at the top of the knee joint (femur) Bipedalism ∙ Only humans today o Balancing body weight Structure in skeleton allows this o Spine (vertebral column) Cervical vertebrae (neck) Thoracic vertebrae (thorax) Lumbar vertebrae (lower back) Sacrum and Coccyx (pelvic) ∙ Quadrupeds have C- shape ∙ Bipeds have S- shape Amount of weight increases down the spine in a biped ∙ Vertebrae is bigger toward the lumbar region Vertebral bodies are equal on quadrupeds Forum Magnum ∙ Bipeds: underneath the skullDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Quadrupeds: back of the skull Nuchal Plane ∙ Bipeds: faces downward ∙ Quadrupeds: Rearward; tilted o Pelvis and Birth Canal Biped: faces downward Quadruped: pelvis has a short ilium; wide pelvis (Pelvis has 2 innominate bones with 3 bones: ischium, ilium, pubis) o Legs Biped: Longer ∙ Increases stride length ∙ Efficient walking ∙ Femoral condyles ∙ Legs are angled due to a wider pelvis Quadruped: legs are straighter ∙ Narrower Pelvis o Feet Biped: ∙ Tarsals, metatarsal, and phalanges ∙ Heel first and big toe pushes off the ground o Dorsiflexion Shorter toes ∙ Arches Quadruped: ∙ Shorter tarsals and longer phalanges o Arms Biped: ∙ Carrying objects ∙ Shorter arms and longer legs Quadruped: ∙ Long arms o Swinging and knuckle- walking o Hands and Wrists 54 different bones ∙ Carpals ∙ Metacarpals ∙ Phalanges Bone ∙ Spongy Bone o Red bone marrow ∙ Compact bone ∙ PeriosteumDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Yellow bone marrow Axial Skeleton ∙ Skull ∙ Vertebral Column ∙ Rib Cage Appendicular Skeleton ∙ Arms (upper limbs) o 60 bones 54 in hands and wrist ∙ Legs (lower limbs) o 60 bones 52 in ankles and feet ∙ Shoulder Girdle/ Pectoral Girdle o Clavicle and Scapula ∙ Hip Girdle/ Pelvic Girdle o 2 bones Dentition ∙ Chimp o Projecting incisors o Large canine Large gap o Larger snout o U- shaped teeth position ∙ Ramapithecus o Large canines Gap U- shaped teeth position ∙ Australopithecus o Smaller canines o Smaller snout o Small gap in front of canine o U- shaped teeth position ∙ Human o Short snout o Small canines o NO gap in front of canine o Teeth position is more rounded Bipedal Body Plan ∙ Natural Selection o Survival and Reproductive Benefits Locomotion of Last Common Ancestor ∙ Sir Arthur Keith (1923) o Humans may have descended from Apes, not knuckle-walkers ∙ Thorpe (2007)Dr. Geoffrey Thomas o Behaviors like Orangutans walking upright when grabbing on to branches above them, could have been a precursor Why Bipedalism Evolved ∙ Energy efficiency ∙ Walk more efficiently o (Peter Rodman and Henry McHenry) ∙ Food resources became spread out and walking upright was more efficient (Isbell and Young) o To maintain group size ∙ Ecological Influences o Changing environments in Africa More distance between food resources ∙ Increased travel Greater ability to see over tall grass ∙ Dietary Influences o Walking on trees (Russel Tuttle) o Short- distance shuffling (Cliff Jolly) Seeds o Feeding on the largest branches of fruit trees (Craig Stanford) o Picking small fruit from fruit trees (Kevin Hunt) ∙ Sexual Selection and Mating o Males asserting their dominance (Jablonski and Chaplin) “Look more impressive) o Energy efficiency of walking (Lovejoy) Men carrying food Human Behavior ∙ Brains grew really big o Increased intelligence Better problem solving Technical Intelligence ∙ Extract food and resources from natural environment ∙ Chimps use tools to crack nuts o “Cultural traditions best explained diversity of tool cultures” (McGrew) ∙ Humans with first stone tools (2.5 million years ago) Ecological Intelligence ∙ Navigation to find food o Monitoring fruiting status of trees ∙ Cognitive map (Charles Menzel) Social Intelligence ∙ Increasing brain size to cope with complex social relationships (also called Machiavellian Intelligence) o Social “service- economy” chimps engage in (Frances DeWall) ∙ Large cerebrum or neocortex (Byrne and Whiten)Dr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Theory of Mind o Chimp evaluation (Tomasello) Reached point without knowing why Chapter 11: Early Hominins Key Words: ∙ Locomotion: The way of moving ∙ Sexual Dimorphism: distinct differences between males and females ∙ Robust: big Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumai) (7 mya) ∙ Found in Chad (2002) ∙ Earliest hominin ∙ Frame o No projecting canine o Biped o Thick enamel ∙ Derived characteristics of humans ∙ Common ancestor with chimps o 5-7 mya Orrorin tugenesis (6 mya) ∙ Tugen Hills, Kenya (2001) ∙ 12 fossils found o Biped features o Arms/ fingers for climbing ∙ Woodland area habitat Ardipithecus ramidus (4.5 mya) ∙ Awash, Ethiopia ∙ Frame of fossils o Thick enamel o Curved fingers Ardipithecus kadabba (5.8 mya) ∙ Awash, Ethiopia ∙ Took 9 years to chisel out fossil o Small canines and bipedalism ∙ Opposable big toe ∙ NOT a knucklewalker ∙ Pelvis of a biped ∙ Small brain Proliferation of Hominins (4 mya) Australopithecinecus anamensis ∙ Found in Kenya ∙ Derived trends o Large molars o Tick enamelDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Bipedalism (angled femur) o NO opposable big toe o Big back teeth ∙ Primitive traits o Long arms, short legs o Pelvis is wide o Ape- like skull o Receding chin o Upper- body like a chimp, lower- body like a human Australopithecinecus afarensis (4-3 mya) ∙ Found in: Hadar, Ethiopia and Omo Kenya o LUCY! (plus others) Wider pelvis Chimp-sized ∙ 4 feet tall ∙ Brain No projecting canine; thick enamel; very big molars ∙ Diastema and cusp Bipedalism ∙ Arched foot; NO opposable big toe Back of skull was similar to a chimp Sexual Dimorphism ∙ Males were much larger o Close to gorilla ratio May have been uni- male; multi- female ∙ Arboreal o Chimp from waist up Long arms; very muscular Long fingers (climbs a lot) o Human from waist down o Locomotion Bipedal ∙ Less efficient climbing Australopithecus africanus ∙ Found in South Africa ∙ Taung Child ∙ Sexual dimorphism o Canine ∙ Teeth are more modern o No diastema ∙ Bigger brain ∙ Like Lucy o Chimp- sizeDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Long arms, short legs Kenya platyops ∙ Found in East Africa ∙ Only one found o Very distorted o Found same time as Lucy ∙ Flat face Australopithecus garhi (2.5 mya) ∙ Found in Ethiopia ∙ Prognathic face o Large molars Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.5 mya) ∙ Robust o Enormous face o Sagittal crest o Huge molars o Flared zygomatic ∙ Entire head had muscle for chewing Australopithecus boisei (2-1 mya) ∙ Found in Tanzania ∙ Robust o Molars 5 times bigger than humans o Huge chewing muscles ∙ Same size brain ∙ Shape of nasal bones and brow ridges o No nasal pillars Australopithecus robustus ( 2- 1 mya) ∙ Robert Brown o South Africa ∙ Biped o No robust ape skull ∙ Cranial capacity o 500- 550 cc ∙ 70-90 pounds ∙ Nose and brow ridge o Bony pillars near the nose ∙ Ate a lot of protein o Consistent with a grassland inhabitant Insect and termites Cohabitation ∙ 2 species occurring at the same time o Same habitat o Same diet o Same behaviorsDr. Geoffrey Thomas *Creates competition* ∙ Australopithecine species o Same habitat ∙ Ecological relationships o To see how early hominins lived, look at Great Apes Chimps and gorillas coexisting ∙ Nests o One on the ground, one in the trees ∙ Food o One leaves, one fruits Tools and Intelligence ∙ Australopithecus o Dim- witted Without tools ∙ Great Apes o Tools from materials around them ∙ Osteodontokeratic Culture o Raymond Dart Use of bones, teeth, and horns from animals ∙ Earliest evidence of tool use o Possibly Australopithecus ghari Ethiopia ∙ Hand and anatomy of robust australopithecines o Capable of tool production ∙ Australopithecines must have been as sophisticated as Great Apes o Requires cognitive skills to make tools Ancestors and Descendants ∙ Splitting of South and Eastern African lineages o South Africa Africanus Robustus Sediba Homo sapiens o East Africa Afarensis Anamenesis Kenyaanthropus platyops Ghari Aethiopithecus Boisei Homo sapiens ∙ Robust australopithecines are too specialized to be ancestors of genus homoDr. Geoffrey Thomas Chapter 12: Origin and Evolution of the Genus homo Key Words: ∙ Canine fossa: indentation on maxilla above the canine root Climate and The Evolution of Homo in the Pliocene and Pleistocene ∙ Due to changing climate ∙ Pliocene o Ice in the North and South ∙ Pleistocene o Cyclic glaciation Genus Homo ∙ What Homo has differing from australopithecines o Larger braincase o Smaller face Not as projecting o Smaller teeth o Larger body o Bipedalism ∙ Some say the species derived from a single species (homo habilis) or from multiple (homo habilis and homo rudolfensis) Early Genus Homo ∙ Homo habilis o Louis and Mary Leaky Stone tools Looked at difference between homo and australopithecines ∙ Smallest homo o Brains 1/3 smaller o Smaller teeth o May have longer upper limbs ∙ Homo erectus o Extensive cranial and post- cranial enlargement Early Tool Use ∙ Stone tools are referred as “tool industry” o Particular way made ∙ Oldowan o Earliest in Tanzania o Tools used: Cores ∙ Lumps of stone Flakes ∙ Small fragments from core o Used as cutting and scraping tools Tough animal hides Hammerstones ∙ Crack open bonesDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Bone marrow o Butchering sites in Oldowan Mammal bones o Quarrying sites Where hominins went to obtain raw material for tools o Home base Brought carcasses back home Ate remains in safety area and not at butchering site ∙ Glynn Issac Hunting vs. Scavenging ∙ Hominins and hyenas are the only ones known to be able to break bones o Bone marrow and meat ∙ Tool use for exploiting resources ∙ Scavenging carcasses o Nutrition for early hominins African Exodus ∙ Expansion out of Africa o No specific reason ∙ Accepted reason: They were mobile o Scavenging o Going where the food is ∙ Competition Dmanisi, Georgia- Homo erectus ∙ First African Diaspora o Oldest site out of Africa (1. 75 mya) ∙ Discovered Homo Erectus o Anatomy Long legs, short arms Smaller brain Pre molar and molar tooth structure Java, SE Asia- Homo erectus ∙ 1. 8 mya ∙ Pithecanthropus erectus/Java man o Large brain o Robust braincase (calvaria) ∙ Latest surviving in Homo erectus China- Homo erectus ∙ “Peking Man” o 800 kya o Not a living site Europe- Homo erectus ∙ Many resemble Homo sapiens and Homo erectus o Oldest is 1.2 myaDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Homo antecessor o Common ancestor of Neanderthal and Homo sapiens o Canine fossa Floves (800 kya) ∙ Hobbit o 7 individuals Island dwarfism Homo erectus (The oldest 1.9 mya) ∙ Larger brain and body size than Homo habilis ∙ Different diet o More meat ∙ Acheulean tools o Only African members o Bifacial hand axes and cleavers o 140 kya- 1.6 mya o Cutting edges are not longer o Homo erectus and Archaic Homo sapiens ∙ Sexual Dimorphism ∙ Based on cranial anatomy division into 2 species: o Africa: Homo ergaster o Asia: Homo erectus Chapter 13: Neanderthals Key Words: ∙ Bergmann’s Rule: Larger species are found in colder regions and smaller species are found in warmer regions. ∙ Allen’s Rule: Species living in a colder environment have shorter appendages than those living in warmer climates. Hominid Evolution (Late Pleistocene) ∙ 600 kya ∙ Neanderthals rise in Europe ∙ Homo heidelbergeesis (archaic homo sapiens) Boxgrove, England (500 kya) ∙ Animal remains and tools were found ∙ Hunted game o Speared horse remains ∙ Robust tibia o Shin Modern size ∙ Teeth used as tools Kabrye (Broken Hill), Zambia (400- 200 kya) ∙ Huge brow ridge ∙ Huge face o Big brain (1325 cc) o Occipital bun (possibly)Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Neanderthals Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain (500- 350 kya) ∙ “Pit of Bones” o About of 30 individuals Disposed ∙ Single stone tool o Quartzite handaxe Large Gaming Jersey, France ∙ Herded game off cliffs o Mammoths and rhinos Butchered with stone tools Schöningen, Germany (400 kya) ∙ Wooden spears (8) o Tools used other than stone Classical Neanderthal (27- 150 kya) ∙ Europe, Middle East, and West Asia ∙ Neanderthal o 1856, Feldhofer, Germany o Neander Valley (Neaderthal) o La chapelle- aux saints Marcellin Boule 1911 Arthritis Environment ∙ Glacial ∙ Mega fauna o Wooly rhino, wooly mammoth, etc ∙ Gigantism o Cave hyena, cave lion, etc Anatomical characteristics ∙ Large braincase o Long and narrow ∙ Occipital bun ∙ Ear canal shape differs ∙ Post crania o Robust o Heavily muscled o Barrel Chest Growth and Development ∙ Short maturation Cold Adaptation ∙ Adapted to the cold well o Bergmann’s and Allen’s Rules ∙ Use of resources to stay warmDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Animal hides Red Hair ∙ mc1r gene Speech ∙ hyoid bone resembles humans Mousterian Industry (150- 30 kya) ∙ Levallois flake Types of Tools ∙ Sidescrapers o 1-2 working edges ∙ Points o End of spear ∙ Burins o Engraving ∙ Denticulate o Drills ∙ Back Knife ∙ Teeth Shanidar 1- Iraq ∙ “Withered” right upper arm o Couldn’t use it? ∙ Fracture of left orbit and cheekbone Habitats for Neanderthals ∙ Rock shelters and caves Vilas Ruivas, Portugal (60 kya) ∙ Late Mousterian ∙ Earliest hearths Levant Kebara, Israel (60 kya) ∙ Most complete Neanderthal site ∙ Cranium missing ∙ 25k stone tools Amud, Israel (70-50 kys) ∙ 1750 cc brain o “Slight difference” than original Neanderthal species ∙ Very tall Tabun, Israel (200-41 kya) ∙ Thousands of stone tools *Levant sites are a mixture of Neanderthals and Early Modern Humans* Rituals and Behaviors ∙ Buried dead ∙ Artwork Chapter 14: Early Modern HumansDr. Geoffrey Thomas Key Words: ∙ Ochre: earthly pigment used when burying the dead Modern Human Anatomical ∙ More of a projecting chin ∙ Smaller face ∙ Bigger brow ridge ∙ Canine fossa ∙ Large braincase Behavior ∙ Symbolic o Burials and rituals ∙ Tools o Aurignacion Blades ∙ Smaller tools First Modern Humans (200 kya) ∙ Sites o Omo Partial skull o Herto Cranium o Mungo, Australia (60-40kya) Art and ritual Ochre o Cro-Magnon, France (30-32 kya) Burials o Doine Vestonice, Czech Republic (28 kya) Upper Paleolithic Art and burial (triple burial) Huts with kiln o Arene Candide, Italy (20 kya) Mammoth ivory Burials are prominent Eras ∙ Middle Pleistocene 700-125 kya ∙ Upper Pleistocene 125-10 kya ∙ Middle Paleolithic 300-40 kya ∙ Upper Paleolithic 40-10 kya ∙ Aurgnacian 40-28 kya ∙ Chatelperronian 35- 29 kya Aurignacian ∙ A lot of artDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Artifacts Culture ∙ Bone tools o Blades Last Neanderthals St. Lesaire, France (36 kya) ∙ Rock shelter ∙ Oval burial ∙ 10k years overlapped with modern humans Ebro River, Spain Lagar Velho, Portugal (28- 24 kya) ∙ Child burial o Ochre ∙ Cranium o Receding chin ∙ Short distal limbs ∙ Trinkaus and Ruff o Head (modern human) but rest is Neanderthal Chatelperronian (35- 29 kya) ∙ Neanderthals o Central/ Southern France and Spain ∙ Tools influenced by aurigncian o Different techniques Why Neanderthals went extinct ∙ Climate change ∙ Cannibalism ∙ Diet ∙ Competition Theories on Modern Human Origin ∙ Multi- regional evolution o Milford Wolpoff (1984) Every human is derived from homo erectus ∙ They left Africa (1.8 mya) At some point, there were Neanderthals and humans together Ripple Effect ∙ Out of Africa o Chris Stringer (1988) Earliest Homo sapiens are from Africa Cladogenic event (200-100 kya) ∙ “Eve” No gene flow Cannonball EffectDr. Geoffrey Thomas Genetics ∙ Africa had the most variability o Then the Middle East, Asia, and Europe ∙ “Eve” o 200 kya o Mutation rate is constant ∙ Nuclear DNA o Neanderthals Closer to the Eurasian populations than African ∙ Hybridization/ Assimilation o Combination Lagar Velho ∙ Interbreeding o Not sure about fertility though *Most accepted model* Chapter 15: Evolution of Brain and Language Key Words: ∙ Cerebellum: Controls balance and voluntary movements ∙ Cerebrum: Controls the higher functions of the human brain ∙ Paleoneurology: Endocast for size and structure of a brain ∙ Encephalization Quotient: Brain size expected from body size ∙ Creoles: Language evolving usually out of colonial situations ∙ Pidgens: Where communication is needed but there isn’t enough time available to learn it ∙ Mythogram: Representation of mythic structure Brain Size ∙ Modern humans have an average of 1350 cc ∙ Dimorphism o Males have larger brains Does not mean intelligence o Encephalization quotient Hominin Transitions ∙ Phase 1: Early Hominids o Same brain size as apes Smaller body ∙ Phase 2: Early Homo and Homo erectus o Smaller body/ Larger brain Homo erectus have greatest change in encephalization ∙ Phase 3: Homo sapiens and Neanderthals o Archaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals Large bodies o Modern Homo sapiens Smaller bodies/ Big brainsDr. Geoffrey Thomas Brain Reorganization ∙ Visual cortex gets larger ∙ Olfactory bulb reduces ∙ Frontal lobe gets larger o Intelligence increases o Larger portion of human brain ∙ Homo sapiens have “globe- shaped brain” o Affects size of temporal and parietal lobes Language ∙ One-way brain- size increased ∙ Complexity o Ideas o Thoughts ∙ Increase in reproductive success o Spoken Anatomical changes o Semantic Meaning to words o Phonemic No biological limit to phenomes o Grammatical Subconscious structure ∙ Lateralized o Most in left hemisphere Right- handed people ∙ Localized o Broca’s Area Speech Comprehension of speaking o Wernicke’s Area Comprehension of speech o Angular gyrus Comprehension of writing Language in the Throat ∙ Control of breath during speech ∙ Low position of larynx ∙ Hyoid bones in Neanderthals and Chimps are indistinguishable How Language Evolved? ∙ Motherese o Sounds between mother and child Instead of carrying the child around everywhere while collecting food, etc. ∙ Replacement of GroomingDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Hairless hominens Grooming isn’t as essential Deceiving more easily ∙ Symbols and Sex o Pairbonding Male/ Female ∙ Attraction ∙ Intelligence evolving Brian size, Intelligence, and Language ∙ Social Behavior o Tools and Material Culture ∙ How culture is defined: o Symbolic o Learned o Changes o Holistic o Shared o Integrated ∙ Variations of language o Creoles o Pidgens Art ∙ Unique and Abstract o Depicting society o Symbolic of concepts ∙ Earliest o Makapansagat, South Africa (3 mya) Africanus o Berekhat Ram, Israel (230 kya) Homo erectus Female figurine is possible o Blombos Cave, South Africa (77 kya) Modern humans Engraved hematite o Zambia cave paintings (35 kya ) Upper Paleolithic Art ∙ Hohenfels, Germany (35- 40 kya) o Women ∙ Bruiquel, France (18 kya) o Atlatl ∙ La Madeline, France (12 kya) o Atlatl ∙ Vogelherd, Germany (38 kya) ∙ Venus of Wilendorf, AustriaDr. Geoffrey Thomas o No faced- women ∙ Hohlenstein, Stadel, Germany (32 kya) o Lion Man Upper Paleolithic Cave Art ∙ Mostly in Central/ Southern France and Northern/ Eastern Spain o Chauvet, France (20- 30 kya) ∙ Similarities o Not living areas No animal remains Theories for Art ∙ For the Aesthetic/ L’Art Pour L’ Art (19th century) o There was plenty of leisure time ∙ Sympathetic Hunting Magic (Early 20th century) o Abbé Henri Brueil Power over animals Protection from dangerous animals ∙ Leroi- Gourhan o Mythogram Shows structure of Upper Paleolithic society Not always in location/ combinations that theories predict ∙ Shamanistic Explanation o David Lewis Williams (2002) “Altered states of consciousness” ∙ Hallucinations “Visions” o “Man’s place in nature” Burials increased Chapter 18: Bioarcheology and Forensic Anthropology Key Words: ∙ Bioarcheologists: specialized in human osteology ∙ Forensic anthropologists: specialized in studying human remains ∙ Stature: Length of bones ∙ Body mass: Diameter of femoral head ∙ Periosteum: Connective tissue ∙ Ossify: To mineralize ∙ Microcephalic: Small- brained ∙ Taphonomy: What happens to remains from death until discovery Life, Death, and the Skeleton ∙ Bioarcheologists o How recent humans lived and died o Skeletal remains at archeological sites Holocene ∙ Forensic anthropologistsDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Skeletal remains Crime scenes War zones ∙ Reveal history in their life ∙ How they died o Detecting possible age, sex, and ancestry o Use of principles of biological profiles of population compared to the past Bioarcheologists ∙ Cultural influences o How individuals lived o Skeletal Biology Legal/ Criminal investigations Forensic anthropologists ∙ Circumstances of death ∙ Recent context o Past 50- 100 years Field Recovery Methods ∙ Good contextual information o Key information from scenes Crucial ∙ Sites found in: o Forensic anthropology Usually accidental Cadaver dogs can be used ∙ Usually recent crime scenes o Bioanthropologist Sometimes accidentally Usually from area of interest ∙ Datum Point o Fixed position o Area of interst ∙ Grid system o Relative to datum Laboratory Processing, Curation, and Chain of Custody ∙ Detailed examination in laboratory o For forensic anthropology Chain of custody ∙ Evidence file ∙ Can’t be tampered with o Cataloged remains ∙ There must be very experienced osteologists o Have to detect human variationDr. Geoffrey Thomas Decay on bone The Biological Profile ∙ Bioarcheologists study profile because: o Interested in individual’s life o Natural and cultural selective pressures ∙ Forensic anthropologists study profile because: o Identification o Cause of death ∙ Assessing Age o Limb bones Long bones ∙ Epiphyses o Not present at birth o Easier in children o In adults, it’s hard to tell age because growth has stopped Relies on a generation of parts ∙ Public symphysis o More quickly for females Child birth Sex ∙ Pelvis and Skull o Childbirth for women Longer pubis Broader sacrum; shorter o Adult skulls Body and facial hair ∙ Male skulls are more robust ∙ Brow ridges are less robust in women o Sciatic notch Ilium (pelvis) Wider in females Ancestry ∙ Place of geographic ∙ Not very accurate ∙ Bioarcheologists o Comparing frequencies among populations with cultural attributions of ethnicity Example: Head binding ∙ Forensic Anthropology o Where bones may belong o Ability to detect origin can be very helpful ∙ Phenotypic patterns in race determination o Nasal index o Cephalic indexDr. Geoffrey Thomas Cranial shape o Nasal spine o Prognathism Extended lower jaw o Eye orbit shape Round of Square o Zygomatic orientation Medium/ Large/ Retreating/ Projecting Height and Weight ∙ Stature o “Climatic pressures” o More accurate with population estimates o Summing heights from all the bones Complete skeleton needed Can be used for unknown individuals ∙ Body Mass Paleopathology ∙ Ancient diseases and their affects o Trauma o Degenerative disorders o Metabolic disorders o Congenital disorders ∙ Syphillis ∙ Cancer ∙ Trauma o Fractures Broken bone ∙ 2 fragments Healing ∙ Osteoblastic activity o Woven bone around fracture Calus forms o Lamellar bone replaces woven bone Replaced by compact bone If alive after trauma, they are healing/ are healed o Common fractures Perry ∙ Ulnar fracture o Defending against violence Smith ∙ Radial fracture o Falling onto wrist (flexed- backwards) Colles ∙ Radial fractureDr. Geoffrey Thomas o Falling onto extended arm o Infection Osteomyelitis ∙ Bacteria in bone/ bone marrow o Deprives blood supply Limbs and Spine Periostitis ∙ Inflammation of periosteum surrounding bone o Usually chronic o Intentional deformation Cranial deformation ∙ Cradle boarding ∙ Skull binding ∙ Tumpline Trepanation ∙ Cutting hole o Culture specific ∙ Degenerative Joint Disease o Arthritis Inflammation in joints Osteoarthritis ∙ “Wear and tear” o Spine, knees, hands and hips ∙ Indian Knoll Kentucky ∙ Archaic Native Americans Ankylosing spondylitis ∙ Ligaments in spine ossify o Immobilization Metabolic Disorders ∙ Vitamin D deficiency o Exposure to sun is very important ∙ Rickets o Loss of rigidity in bones Possibly in Homo erectus o Osteomalasia In adults ∙ Dangerous in females o Affects pelvis and legs ∙ Vitamin C deficiency o Brittle bones Removes collagen ∙ Iron deficiency (anemia) o Prorotic hyperostosisDr. Geoffrey Thomas Too much spongy marrow in children Expand areas of red marrow o Crania orbitalia Overgrowth of eye orbits ∙ Stress indicators o Enamel hypoplasia Faults in growth pattern for permanent teeth o Harris Lines Deposition of Calcium ∙ Stopped because of malnourishment Congenital Disorders ∙ Genetic o Gigantism Excessive secretion from pituitary gland NDS1 gene o Achondroplasia Abnormal cartilage formation ∙ Shortened bones o Long bone o Recessive o Dwarfism Pituitary gland tumor o Microcephalic o Hydrocephalic Mistaken drainage system ∙ Cerebral spinal fluid Expansion of cranial bones o Spinabifida Malfusion in lower vertebra ∙ Overlying spinal cord o Sacrum o Spinal cord can protrude from spinal column High in Irish populations ∙ Radiation ∙ Light- skinned o Folic depletion ∙ Infectious Diseases o Syphilis o Various types Tertiary (8-12) ∙ Affects skull and organs Secondary Syphilis ∙ Open sores o Canes sicca Dr. Geoffrey Thomas Bone being constantly eaten away and healed over o Little accounts of syphilis in the Old World 1494/1495 ∙ Invasion of French in Naples o Prostitutes Columbian Exchange Theory ∙ Came back to the New World ∙ Cancer o Uncontrollable o Grow and Divide Damage to the DNA o Metastis Cancer cells travel to other parts of the body ∙ Replace normal tissue o Primary bone cancer When cancer starts at the bone ∙ Bone Tumors o Bone Ostoma, Osteosarcoma o Cartilage Chrondroma, Chondrosacoma o Marrow Meningioma, Angiosarcoma o Fibrous Tissue Fibroma, fibrosacroma o Tumor types Benign ∙ Osteoma, osteochrondroma Malignant ∙ Osteosarcoma, CHrondrasarcoma o Greeks identified cancer first Hippocrates- “Father of Medicine” o Ancient treatments Egypt ∙ Papyrus Ebers o Spells and fumigation Greece ∙ Surgical and topical treatments History ∙ Campbell Greig De Morgan (1811-1876) o Cancer ∙ Theodor Boveri (1862- 1915) o Genetic basis of cancerDr. Geoffrey Thomas ∙ Marie Curie (1867-1934) o First non- surgical treatment for cancer ∙ Osteosarcoma o Extends into bone cortex o Starts in Osteoblasts 40- 60% malignant tumors ∙ Taphonomy o Perimortem trauma Events that occurred around the time of death No signs of healing ∙ But fresh when broken o Postmortem Trauma Events after death No signs of healing War Crimes ∙ Identifying victims in mass disasters o (D) isaster (M)ortuary (T)eams Emergency response teams o Examples: 9/11 Oklahoma City bombing