Study guide for Marine Bio Final Exam There will be 2 multiple choice questions from every group presentation. Below is a guide for the lectures. Lecture 1 – History 1) Be able to explain the first marine bio theories (azoic, bathybius) 2) Be able to explain the ice cube experiment and how it relates to thermohaline circulation Don't forget about the age old question of university of nebraska lincoln math
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(Know the relationship between temperature, salinity, and density) Lecture 2 – Ocean structure 1) Know the differences between open ocean versus marginal seas 2) Understand how continents move on plates, where new seafloor crust is made and where it’s destroyed (plate tectonics) 3) Understand what causes temperature variations by latitude, by depth and by season 4) Know what salinity is and how it’s measured 5) Be able to explain why salinity changes with latitude 6) Understand where oxygen is produced and consumed in the ocean and why there are oxygen minimum zones in the ocean 7) Understand how light attenuates with depth Lecture 3 – Circulation 1) Understand the basic principles of Coriolis effect 2) Be able to describe thermohaline circulation Lecture 4 – Ecological interactions 1 1) Know the basics of a wave, how they form, why they break in shallow water a. You do not need to know any of the equations 2) Be able to describe in very basic terms why we have tides and the difference between spring tides and neap tides 3) Know what an estuary is 4) Be able to give one marine example of territoriality, predation, commensalism, mutualism, parasitism and competition 5) Understand the basic principle of optimal foraging (I gave an example with crabs selecting intermediate sized mussels) 6) Be able to give one marine example of crypsis Lecture 5 – Ecological interactions 2 1) Understand the differences between source populations and sink populations 2) Know what a foundation species is and be able to give one marine example3) Understand how predation and/or disturbance relates to competition Lecture 6 – Responses to env. change 1) Understand the effect temperature has on marine organisms and the challenges faced by those organisms that can regulate their body temperature (homeotherms) and those that cannot (poikilotherms) 2) Know the basics of countercurrent exchange and how it relates to blood vessels in marine mammal fins as well as blood vessels in fish gills Lecture 7 – Reproduction 1) Understand the advantages/disadvantages of being gonochoristic versus hermaphroditic 2) Know when it would be advantageous to be protandrous versus protogynous. Be able to give one marine example of each. 3) Be able to describe when sexual reproduction is favorable to asexual reproduction and visa versa Lecture 8 – Plankton 1 1) Know the definitions of plankton and the different types (phyto-,zoo-,mixo-), holoplankton, meroplankton 2) Be able to differentiate between the major groups of microbial plankton: a. Viruses b. Bacteria c. Cyanobacteria d. Diatoms e. Dinoflagellates f. Coccolithophores Lecture 9 – Plankton 2 1) Be able to differentiate between copepods and krill and describe their place/importance in food webs 2) Know the differences among the major group of cnidarians (Siphonophores, Scyphozoans, Hydrozoans), how they capture prey, and how they are different from Ctenophores (comb jellies) in this regard 3) Describe diel vertical migration and the various hypotheses to explain it. Also be able to tell me which hypotheses are generally the most accepted. Lecture 10 – Nekton 1 1) Understand the difference between plankton and nekton 2) Give reasons as to why many fish exhibit “schooling behavior”Lecture 11 – Nekton 2 1) Know the difference between Mysticeti and Odonotoceti cetaceans 2) Be able to distinguish among the Pinnipeds (Seals, Sea Lions, Walruses) Lecture 12 – Phytoplankton blooms 1) Be able to describe the conditions leading to a Spring phytoplankton bloom a. Know the terms compensation depth, critical depth, mixing depth and how they are related 2) Describe the difference between open ocean blooms and near shore blooms in regards to benthic influences (benthic-pelagic coupling) 3) Be able to comprehend a PvsI curve 4) Understand the role of the microbial loop in the food web and how viruses short-circuit this loop Lecture 13 – Food webs 1) Be able to explain phytoplankton succession and why diatoms dominate early, followed by dinoflagellates and finally picocyanobacteria. 2) Know the concepts of primary production, secondary production, food chains vs food webs 3) Be able to describe trophic transfer and why transfer between trophic levels is incomplete. Know how the different factors (number of trophic levels, transfer efficiency, primary production) relate to production at highest level. Why is this information useful from an economics standpoint? 4) Know the general areas of in the ocean of high primary productivity versus low primary productivity (just the ones we discussed). Lecture 14 – Benthos 1 1) If I give you a carbon and energy source you should be able to tell me the metabolic classification of an organism (e.g. cyanobacteria get carbon from CO2 and energy from light so they are photoautotrophs). 2) Know the major differences between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes. 3) Be able to describe the relationship among salt marsh grass (Spartina), the snail Littoraria, and fungi in salt marshes. 4) What is a Lichen? What are the two types of organisms involved? What kind of symbiosis is this? 5) How do seagrasses differ than seaweeds?Lecture 15 – Benthos 2 1) Be able to match a description to each of the following major groups of organisms (just the ones below): a. Porifera b. Cnidaria c. Mollusca d. Echinodermata e. Arthropoda Lecture 16 – Tidelands 1 1) Understand the factors influencing horizontal and vertical zonation in the rocky intertidal. What are abiotic/biotic factors and where do these factors dominate typically? 2) What are the advantages/disadvantages of living in the high intertidal versus the low intertidal (e.g. if physiological stresses are high and growth is low in the upper intertidal, why do some organisms thrive there?). 3) What are some physiological adaptations of organisms to deal with different stresses in the intertidal (e.g. oxygen, heat/desiccation, wave stress, etc)? 4) Be able to describe Connell’s experiment. What sets the upper and lower range of Cthalamus and Semibalanus? 5) What is the relationship between competition and predation? How did Paine demonstrate this with Mytilus and Pisaster? Lecture 17 – Tidelands 2 1) Why is zonation not as distinct in intertidal soft-sediments as it is on hard surfaces like the rocky intertidal? 2) What is an adaptation of Spartina to living in anoxic sediments? How do fiddler crabs enhance Spartina growth? 3) How are the factors affecting vertical zonation in a slat marsh different than that of the rocky intertidal (in other words, where do abiotic factors dominate versus biotic factors)? 4) Where are mangroves found? How are mangroves similar and different than salt marshes? 5) Know why there is a “no mans land” of species diversity in a certain salinity range in an estuary. Lecture 18 – Subtidal 1 1) Why are sea grasses so important? (e.g prevent coastal erosion, provide habitat/nursery/protection, high primary production, larval recruitment etc)2) What are the factors that have led to a worldwide decline in sea grass communities? 3) Where are kelp forests generally found? 4) Be able to describe the community structure in a kelp forest and how Otters are extremely important in maintaining healthy kelp forests. 5) Be able to describe the trophic cascade that occurred in kelp forests off of Alaska due to over fishing, leading to the forests becoming urchin barrens. 6) Why do shallow water kelps off of the North Pacific have less chemical defenses than kelps at deeper waters or kelps off of Asia and Australia? Lecture 19 – Subtidal 2 1) Know the benefits of the coral/zooxanthellae symbiosis 2) Understand why coral reefs are restricted to warm, shallow, clear water 3) Understand the role of parrotfish on coral reefs. Be able to explain where the white sandy beached of the Caribbean come from Lecture 20 – Deep Sea: Everything from lecture 20 is fair game