Anatomy and Physiology Speech Production: The Raw Materials Neurophysiology of Speech Respiration Phonation Vocal Tract and Resonance 1. Neurophysiology of Speech Neurophysiology of Speech ∙ Controlled by the nervous system AnatomiIf you want to learn more check out uwm art history
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cal Divisions of the Nervous System *****(both made up of neurons)***** ∙ Central Nervous System (CNS) o The CNS is divided into: Brain (Cerebral Cortex, Cerebellum, Brainstem) Spinal Cord ∙ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o The PNS is divided into: Somatic Nervous System- voluntary (Cranial Nerves and spinal nerves) Autonomic Nervous System- involuntary (Sympathetic: expends energy fight or flight) (Parasympathetic: conserves energy) Nervous System ∙ Hierarchical structure of nervous system: (top-down) o Cerebral cortex (cerebrum) o Cerebellum o Brainstem o Tracts (e.g., spinal cord) o Neurons (communicating tissue) o Glial cells (support tissue) ∙ Neuron o Functional building blocks o Communicating tissue o Transmits information Excitation- increases activity Inhibition- reduces activity o Structure of Neuron Soma: cell body Dendrite: transmits information towards the soma Axon: transmits information away from the soma ∙ Motor or efferent neuronso Carry impulses from CNS to PNS ∙ Sensory or afferent neurons o Carry impulses from PNS to CNS ∙ Example, close your lips o Motor neurons carry impulses from brain to close the lips. o Once close, sensory neurons carry impulses from PNS back to brain and brain interprets these sensory impulses ∙ Neurons -Cell body -Dendrites (receives impulses) -Axon (transmits impulses) -Synapse (juncture of the neurons) -Neurons communicate with one another by impulses o At the synapse, chemicals are released to bridge the gap. o Chemicals that are released can do 2 things 1. Facilitate firing of the next cell 2. Inhibit the firing of the next cell o So, communication among the neurons will continue or it will stop o The excitation and inhibition of these impulses are the building blocks of everything we do. o Too much excitation (dopamine) can lead to schizophrenia o Too little excitation (dopamine) can lead to Parkinson’s Disease Control of Speech in CNS ∙ Localized vs. Generalized Function ∙ Broca’s Area (temporal lobe, near the frontal lobe) o Speech production (temporal lobe) ∙ Wernicke’s Area o Speech understanding ∙ Left hemisphere of brain is dominant for speech ∙ Cranial Nerves (12) o Emerge from brainstem and activate muscles of head and neck o Vagus (X) cranial nerve injury ∙ Spinal Nerves o Emerge from cervical, thoracic, and abdominal sections of spinal cord and activate muscles for respiration. o Quadriplegia: breathing on a ventilator 2. Respiration (Power Supply for Speech and Voice [Applied Force]) Basics of Respiration∙ Biologic Function o Gas exchange (oxygen inhaled and Carbon Dioxide from blood exhaled) o Reflexive ∙ Communicative Function o Speech Respiratory Physiology ∙ Major Muscle of Inhalation: diaphragm 1. Separates abdominal and thoracic cavity. Domed position, flattens as it contracts for inhale. Opens up ribs for inhale 2. Accessory muscles: External Intercostals ∙ Muscles of Exhalation (more active in speech breathing) 1. Internal intercostals ∙ 3 Passive Forces of Exhalation 1. Elastic recoil Elasticity (lungs and chondral portion of ribs) Allows ribs and lungs to ‘snap back’ to resting position after being ‘stretched’ 2. Torque Torquing twist of a shaft while one end is held stable Torquing occurs in the rib cage during elevation Elasticity of cartilage allows it to return to its original condition after being torqued 3. Gravity Natural force, pulls ribs back to resting position after expansion Pulls abdominal organs/muscle inferiorly (allows more room for lung expansion) Affected by weight, more when lying down. ∙ Lungs o No muscular tissue in lungs 2 lobes on left, 3 lobes on right o Lung tissue is elastic Wants to collapse inward o Pleural linkage between the lungs and the ribs enables the lungs to expand and contract with the thoracic cavity. Aerodynamics and Inhalation and Exhalation ∙ Aerodynamic Components ∙ Air flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure ∙ At rest, the pressure in the lungs (alveolar pressure) equals atmospheric pressure Breath Cycle – Inhalation ∙ Expansion of Thoracic Cavity o Diaphragm Lowers 91.5 cm) o External Intercostals Elevate Robs∙ Lungs follow thoracic wall ∙ Air flows in because pressure outside the lungs is greater than pressure inside the lungs ∙ Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood (alveoli) Breath Cycle – Exhalation ∙ Elastic Recoil: stretched tissues tend to return to original length ∙ Abdominal pressure pushes diaphragm back up ∙ Ribs release with torque force in combination with gravity which lowers the rib cage ∙ Compressed thoracic cavity increases pressure within lungs – exhale ∙ Exhale because pressure in the lungs is greater than pressure outside the lungs Normal Breathing ∙ Movement in breathing should be abdominal (greater) and thoracic (lesser) with little movement of shoulders ∙ Don’t want clavicular breathing (shoulders doing the work). Respiration ∙ Quiet respiration o Inspiration = 40% of cycle duration o Expiration = 60% of cycle duration Spirometry ∙ Measurement of Respiration 1. Volumes Tidal volume – Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during any single breath cycle Residual Volume (RV) – Amount of air that remains in lungs after maximum exhalation. Must be inferred. Can’t measure directly. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – maximum amount of air that can be taking into lungs from the end inspiratory level of a normal breath cycle Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – maximum amount of air that can be expired from the end expiratory level of a normal breath cycle 2. Capacities Vital Capacity (VC) – maximum amount of air inhaled and maximum amount of air exhaled Total Lung Capacity (TLC) – amount of air the lungs are capable of holding at height of maximum inhale ∙ Typical Figures for a healthy, young, adult male standing (sea level in liters) o – TV: 0.5 – IRV: 2.5 – ERV: 2.5 – RV: 2.0 – o – VC: 5.5 – TLC: 7.5 – Respiration for Speech ∙ What’s different? o Volume of air that is inhaled is greater o Recruitment of muscles for inhalation and exhalation o Voluntary control over breathing o Inspiration = 10% of cycle duration o Expiration = 90% of cycle duration ∙ Resistance to Flow of Airo Vocal folds, vocal tract, and oral constrictions introduce a resistance to the flow of air from lungs. o When the vocal folds close subglottic pressure (Ps) is generated. (resistance to the flow of air) Subglottic pressure is the measurement of pressure within the lungs at any given volume (Ps) ∙ Measured in cm of H2O (how far a column of water would be moved) ∙ Increase in Ps; increased intensity ∙ Increase and decrease in Ps also seen with different voice qualities o Increase resistance to the flow of air in loud speech & pressed speech (Ps goes up) o Decrease resistance to the flow of air in soft speech and breathy speech (Ps down) o ~7-10 cm H2O- to sustain phonation for speech at conversational level at 60 dBSPL o The lungs handle this resistance to the flow of air by regulating muscular and nonmuscular forces to achieve the desired subglottic pressure required to blow open the vocal folds Respiration ∙ How do lung volumes change with normal breathing vs. sustained phonation vs. connected speech? o At 40% VC. Up is inhale, down is exhale (on the graph) Respiration for Speech ∙ For conversational speech, we use about 25% of our VC ∙ For loud speech, we use about 45% of our VC ∙ Respiratory requirements are minimal ∙ The control and modification of the airstream is key Norms ∙ Some typical respiratory norms: o VC: 3.5-5.0 liters in adults o Newborns, quiet breathing rate is 24-116 bpm (mean = 43) o Adults, quiet breathing rate is 16 bmp o Adults, speaking and reading aloud is 13 bpm o Maximum duration of phonation – adults, 21-26 seconds per breath What happens when the respiratory system does not function? 1. Describe Boyle’s law. How does it explain how we breathe air in and carbon dioxide out? ∙ When you inhale volume goes up, pressure goes down. When you exhale, volume goes down, pressure goes up. 2. Are muscles necessary for inhalation? ∙ Yes. The diaphragm 3. Are muscles necessary for quiet exhalation? ∙ No. Elasticity, gravity, torque. 4. What’s different for speech breathing? a. Volume of air that is inhaled is greater. Recruitment of muscles for inhalation and exhalation. Voluntary control over breathing. Inspiration = 10% of cycle duration. Expiration = 90% of cycle duration3. Phonation: Larynx and Vocal Folds (sound source) Larynx ∙ Larynx consists of cartilages, bone, muscles, and mucosa ∙ What are cartilage and bone? o Specialized types of connective tissue o Made up of cells, fibers, and an intercellular substance o Cartilage is more flexible and has less strength than bone o Two types of cartilage in larynx: hyaline and elastic 1. Hyaline is thin, but dense collagenous fibers 2. Elastic contains elastic fibers Cartilages and Bone ∙ Unpaired o Thyroid, hyaline Largest in larynx Adam’s apple Posteriorly, two “horns” or cornu (inferior-cricoid and superior-hyoid bone) o Cricoid, hyaline Second largest in larynx Articulation with thyroid cartilage key to VF elongation, allows for rocking motion o Epiglottis, elastic Spoon-shaped cartilage attaching on the anterior and interior aspect of the thyroid cartilage below the notch. Folds over the larynx during swallow to direct food into esophagus. o Hyoid bone Horseshoe shaped bone opening posteriorly at the top of the neck and base of tongue Extrinsic muscles of larynx insert into the hyoid bone to support the larynx and move it up and down, forward, and backward. ∙ Paired o Arytenoids, hyaline and elastic Positioned on either side of the midline on the supraposterior surface of the cricoid cartilage Pyramidal shape, rocking motion on cricoid Muscular process (PCA) and (LCA). Vocal process (TA) o Cuneiforms, elastic (not involved in phonation) o Corniculates, elastic (not involved in phonation) Musculature of the LarynxIntrinsic Musculature of the Larynx ∙ Inter-arytenoid (IA) Arytenoideus o Oblique o Transverse o Run between arytenoids to aid in closure o Adducts ∙ Lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA) o Fan shaped o Originates on upper border of cricoid o Inserts on posterior surface of muscular process of arytenoid o Adduction ∙ Posterior Cricoarytenoid (PCA) o Fan shaped o Originates on posterior surface lamina of cricoid o Inserts into posterior surface of muscular process of arytenoids o Abducts ∙ Cricothyroid o Fan shaped o Originates at arch of the cricoid o Inserts into inferior margin of the thyroid cartilage o Elongation of VF’s and therefore shifts in pitch ∙ Thyroarytenoid o Bundle of muscle fibers making up the true vocal fold o Originates at posterior surface of anterior larynx (angle) o Inserts at vocal process o Tension of VFs, shortening VFs Extrinsic Musculature of the Larynx ∙ Suprahyoids o Digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, stylohyoid o “sling” supporting hyoid bone and larynx o primarily pull larynx forward and up o attachments from hyoid bone to structures above the larynx ∙ Infrahyoids o Thyrohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid o Pull larynx downward o Alters resonance characteristics of voice o Attachments from hyoid bone to structures below the larynx Normal Larynx: Vocal Folds ∙ True Vocal Folds o Produce sound o White o Smooth edge o Connect to same point in front o Connect to 2 movable cartilages in the back ∙ False Vocal Folds o Don’t vibrate, pink colored ∙ Epiglottis o Covers larynx for swallowing Vocal fold architecture ∙ Epithelium ∙ BMZ ∙ Superficial lamina propria ∙ Intermediate lamina propria ∙ Deep lamina propria ∙ Thyroarytenoid muscle Where do most of the lesions occur? Superficial Lamina Propria, which includes the BMZ Vibrational wave along what layers? Epithelium, BMZ, superficial lamina propria What does the larynx do? Vegetative functions (respiration, protection of the airway during swallowing, pushing/lifting) voluntary functions (phonation necessary for communication Vibratory Cycle – Phonation ∙ Exhale ∙ Adduct vocal folds (VF do not have to be completely adducted for phonation to occur) ∙ Increase subglottic pressure ∙ Vocal folds blow apart ∙ Vocal folds snap back together To set folds into vibration ∙ Begin exhalation ∙ Adduct vocal folds ∙ Subglottal pressure (Ps): air pressure in lungs below vocal folds ∙ Ps builds up below folds, so pressure below folds is greater than pressure above folds (“transglottal pressure difference”) ∙ Pressure in oral cavity, above folds, is atmospheric ∙ Ps increases to point where it overcomes medial compression ∙ Puff of air escapes from between folds ∙ Folds are “brought back together” ∙ Exhalation continues with constant force ∙ Ps again increases, blows folds apart, air escapes, folds brought back together Bernoulli Effect ∙ Velocity of the airflow increases as it passes through the glottis (constriction) ∙ Results in negative pressure between the vocal folds, which sucks them together Vocal Fold Vibration ∙ Each repetition of pattern is one cycle of vocal fold vibration ∙ These movements of the vocal folds cause surrounding air molecules to move, which creates the sound source ∙ Vibratory cycle repeated on average: o Adult male: 125 cycles per sec (Hz) o Adult female: 225 cycles per sec (Hz) ∙ This is the “fundamental frequency” ∙ Vocal folds are also vibrating at whole-number multiples of the fundamental (harmonics) Muscular forces bring the folds together and maintain medial compressionMuscular forces DO NOT cause the vibration (muscosal wave) Vibration caused by aerodynamics at the larynx and elasticity of the vocal folds Theories of VF Vibration for Phonation ∙ The myoelastic-aerodynamic sequence of events involved in a vocal fold vibratory cycle o Muscular forces bring folds together and maintain medial compression o Aerodynamic forces blow folds apart& contribute to bringing them back together (Bernoulli effect) o Vocal folds are elastic: when displaced, snap back to original position; maintains VF motion o Exhale (Aerodynamic) o Adduct vocal folds (myoelastic) o Increase Ps (aerodynamic) o Blow vocal folds apart (aerodynamic) o Bernoulli Effect- sucks VF back together (aerodynamic/myoelast) o Repeated vibratory cycle (elastic) ∙ Body-Cover Theory o Mass and stability of Vfs provided by TA o Undulations in VF surfaces provided by the very loose and complaint epithelium and superficial lamina propria o Muscle stability and mucosal wave properties connected by the intermediate and deep layers of lamina propria o Undulations in 3 vibratory phases 1. horizontal (medial to lateral) 2. longitudinal (anterior to posterior) “zipper-like” o sound formed by these air pulses discharged into larynx o determines Fo, pressed vs. breathy voice o VFs open slowly and close quickly Vocal Fold Movement ∙ Movement is extremely rapid o 125 cycles/second for men (125 Hz) o 250 cycles/second for women (250 Hz) o Too fast for human eye to see ∙ Creates a wave from center to sides Theory related to Function ∙ Frequency of vibration depends on complex relationship of length, mass and tension of the VF ∙ Direct relationship between extent of medial compression and magnitude of AP required to force folds apart o Normal conversational loudness: Ps = 8 cm H2o o Louder voice and pressed: increased medial compression, greater Ps required o Softer voice and breathy: decreased medial compression, lower Ps required Modifying the Vocal Fold tone ∙ Fundamental frequency (Fo) pitch o Thickness is determined by VF length and tension o Mass, male vs. female o CT∙ Intensity (loudness) o Subglottal pressure increases with increased intensity Conversational speech: 7 cm H2O Low intensity: 2-3 cm H2) (60 dBSPL) High intensity: 15-20 cm H2) (115 dBSPL) o Medial compression increases with increased intensity Increased resistance of vocal folds Requires increased Ps to overcomes resistance Muscles which change intensity ∙ Increased medial compression of folds: o Lateral cricoarytenoids o Interarytenoids ∙ Increased Ps: o Muscles of inhalation and exhalation Voice Quality changes in larynx ∙ Quality o Symmetry and regularity of vibrations o Amount of closure o Pressed, breathy, normal, resonant ∙ Glottal fry, type of quality, pulsing voice. More closed than opened, very low Fo, VFs are bouncing. Applications ∙ If laryngeal resistance increases, and you want to maintain airflow, need to increase Ps (respiratory push from the lungs) ∙ LR = Ps/airflow Measuring Aerodynamic Properties of Phonation ∙ Pressure o Subglottic o Intraoral ∙ Airflow o Through vocal folds Measurement of Ps in Speech ∙ Direct speech estimates o Tracheal puncture o Sending tube between the vocal folds ∙ Indirect speech estimates o Esophageal balloon o Estimation of Intraoral Pressure Vocal tract is open tube ∙ Pneumotachograph ∙ Stimulus = voiceless plosive (stop) o Vocal folds abducted for voiceless plosive /p/ o Pressures within vocal tract and below VFs same o Pio = Ps o Pio during peak plosive reflects Ps during steady state utterancesDynamic Intraoral Pressure (Pio) / Ps ∙ Normal = 7 cm H2O ∙ High pressures (15 cmH2O and up): o Increased intensity o Increased vocal fold/articulator compression ∙ Low pressures (less than 3 cmH2O): o Glottal incompetence (poor vocal fold closure) o Velopharyngeal Incompetence (poor palate closure) Airflow ∙ Airflow through vocal folds o Tight closure, decreased airflow o Relaxed closure, increase airflow o Measured in ml/sec or l/sec ∙ Normal = 100-250 ml/sec Measuring Airflow Rate ∙ Pneumotachograph ∙ Subjective o Maximum phonation time Maximally inhale and phonate as long as possible on the exhalation (/a/) o S/Z RATIO Hold /s/ and /z/ as long as possible Results influenced by lung volume and glottal efficiency Vocal Tract Filter Acoustic Resonator Anatomy of the Filter: Vocal Tract ∙ Shaped like an “F” o Hypopharynx o Oropharynx o Nasopharynx o Oral Cavity o Nasal Cavity ∙ Tube that is open at one end and closed at the other ∙ Bony Structures, involved in resonance o Skull, vibrating board o Sinuses o Mandible o Hard palate o Teeth o Nasal cavity ∙ Soft structures involved in resonance ∙ Movable o Pharynx o Soft palate o Faucial pillars o Tongue o Lips o Epilarynx ∙ Relatively immovable o Epiglottis o Palatine tonsilso Adenoids o Mucous in nasal cavity and sinuses o Cheeks ∙ Relationship of phonation and resonance o Buzz is created at the vocal folds (Fo) o Acoustic resonance o Formant frequencies o Vocal tract transfers the buzz into the acoustic spectrum at mouth opening o The vocal tract created constrictions (places of resonant energy). You can change constrictions by moving the resonators. Unique to your anatomy and how you use it. ∙ Source-Filter Theory o Source = vocal folds vibrating; made up of Fo and harmonics o Filter = vocal tract (an acoustic resonator) Air within the vocal tract put into vibration by the source Air within the vocal tract has formant frequencies that filter the sound depending upon the length of the vocal tract o 1st formant frequency most responsive to changes in mouth opening o 2nd formant frequency most responsive to changes in the size of the oral cavity o 3rd formant frequency most responsive to changes in front versus back constriction o Interaction: constriction in the vocal tract will assist in VF oscillation o Independence: vocal tract will not influence the source CT= pitch LCA= adducts PCA= adducts IA= adducts (oblique and transverse arytenoid) TA= body of TVF pitch adduct Right and left for everything besides IA Can’t attach extrinsic muscles to the model. Only intrinsic / internal