Questions 1. What is Chemistry? 2. What are the types of Chemistry? 3. What is matter? 4. Name the properties of matter. 5. Name the states of matter. 6. What are homogeneous matter? Heterogeneous matter? 7. Distinguish between a pure substance and a mixture. 8. What is an element? 9. What is a compound? 10. Name the types of energy. 11. What is temperature? 12. What is the eqWe also discuss several other topics like What is an “open and obvious” hazard?
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uation for kinetic energy? 13. How do the electric and magnetic fields work to create Electromagnetic Radiation? 14. Define the relationship between wave and frequency. 15. Name the units of atomic structure and their charges/mass amounts. 16. What is the Bohr Model of the Atom? How does it differ from the Quantum Mechanical Model? 17. What are the maximum number of electrons per sublevel (s, p, d, f)? 18. How do you configure an electron using the shell sublevels? 19. Name 3 types of metals. 20. What are the properties of metals? 21. Distinguish between multiple bond types. 22. What are polar covalent bonds? 23. What are ionic bonds? 24. What are metallic bonds? 25. What are hydrogen bonds? 26. Know how to name covalent compounds/prefixes for compounds. 27. What are Cations? What are Anions? 28. Know how to formulate and name ionic compounds. 29. What are isotopes? 30. What are the versions of hydrogen isotopes? 31. Why is Hydrogen’s mass number not exactly 1? 32. What is Radioactive Decay 33. What is a halflife? 34. What are radioisotopes? 35. Name the difference between fission and fusion. 36. What is enrichment and how is it useful in bombs? 37. How many Carbon atoms are in [(C2H6)3]? How many Hydrogens? 38. What is the unit of measurement for moles? 39. What is Avogadro’s number for Molar Mass? 40. What is the difference between Formula Mass and Molar Mass?41. What are the properties of Acids? Bases? 42. Is HCl + H2O = Cl + H3O+ an Acid or a Base? 43. What is the difference between a Strong Acid/Base and a Weak Acid/Base 44. What would the pH value be for a hydrogen ion concentration of 102(1x102)? 45. Is a pH value of 9 acidic or basic? 46. What does Oxidation do? What does Reduction do? 47. Give an example of Oxidation. 48. What are Hydrocarbons? 49. Name the Alkanes from Methane to Hexane. 50. Define Alkane, Alkene, and Alkyne 51. What is an Alkyl Group? Name some. 52. What are Isomers? 53. What is the difference between an Isomer and an Alkyl Group? 54. What functional group is COH a part of? 55. What functional group is OCOH a part of? 56. What functional group is OCOC a part of? 57. What functional group is NH2 a part of? 58. What are Halogenated Hydrocarbons? Give an example. 59. What are Freons? 60. What is a Polymer? What makes up a Polymer? 61. What is Addition Type in Synthetic Polymers? What does this process look like? 62. What is Condensation Type? What does this process look like? 63. What is Crosslinking? 64. What are Elastomers? 65. What is the Glass Transition Temperature? 66. What do Plasticizers do for Elastomers? 67. What are the four types of biological molecules? 68. What is the main feature of amino acids? 69. What are strings of joined amino acids called? 70. What are proteins? 71. What are the 3 levels of structure of proteins/amino acids? 72. What are enzymes? What do they do? 73. Are mirror images of molecules superimposable? 74. What is a carbohydrate/its main feature? 75. What are the different types of carbohydrates? 76. What do each of the types from Question 9 mean? 77. What are lipids? What is a fatty acid? 78. What is a steroid? 79. What 3 parts make up a Nucleic Acid? 80. What is DNA? What is RNA? 81. What is the difference between Nucleic Acid and Nucleotide? 82. What was the Human Genome Project? 83. What are the reasons for eating? 84. What is the primary source of energy for humans?85. What are vitamins? What are the 2 types? 86. What are essential fatty acids and essential amino acids? 87. What are the 4 reasons for food additives? 88. What is the Glycemic Index? 89. What is the French Paradox? 90. What are the parameters of toxicology? 91. What is LD50 and what does it stand for? 92. What is a heavy metal poison? 93. What are carcinogens? Mutagens? Teratogens? 94. What are neurotoxins? 95. What is a corrosive poison? 96. What are Designer Drugs? 97. What does the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) tell you? 98. What are the laws of thermodynamics? 99. What is a fuel? 100. How is energy released? 101. What is the composition of coal? Natural gas? Petroleum? 102. What products come out of the combustion of coal? Natural gas? Petroleum? 103. What is the Octane Rating? 104. How does the FourStrokeCycle work? 105. What is compression ratio? 106. What are the major methods for generating energy? 107. What are Solar Cells? Fuel Cells? 108. What is the difference between a Nuclear Power Plant and Fossil Fuel? 109. What is Energy Returned on Energy Invested? 110. What are the two main components of air? 111. What is a pollutant? 112. What are the major air pollutants? 113. What are the roles of the atmosphere? 114. What are cause of indoor air pollution? 115. How does air contribute or react to fossil fuel combustion? 116. What is Ozone/the Ozone Layer? 117. What is Global Warming? What is the cause of this? 118. What is Heat Trapping? 119. What is the Greenhouse Effect? 120. How is Acid Rain made? 121. What role do chlorofluorocarbons play in the Ozone Layer? 122. What are the three kinds of water? 123. What are the respective contents of dissolved minerals in each of the types of water mentioned above? 124. What is an aquifer? 125. What is the function of a septic tank? How is it set up? 126. What is Aerobic Degradation? What is Anaerobic Degradation? 127. What are some water pollutants?128. What are some methods of purifying water? (coal, softening, chlorine, ion exchange) 129. What is the Mission of the EPA? 130. What does the EPA manage? 131. What is sustainable development? 132. Have we reached sustainable development? 133. What needs to be taken into consideration in order to achieve this? Answers 1. The study of matter and energy. 2. Physical, Organic, Inorganic, Analytical, & Biochemistry 3. The composition of everything 4. Has mass and takes up space 5. Solids, Liquids, and Gases (Vapors) 6. Homogeneous matter is uniform throughout and cannot be visually distinguishable. Heterogeneous matter is not uniform and can be distinguished by the parts that compose it. 7. Pure substances are one kind of element or substance. Mixtures are a combination of substances. 8. An element is composed of one type of atom. 9. A compound is composed of two or more elements. 10. Kinetic, Potential, and EM Radiation 11. A measure of the average kinetic energy of a system 12. ½ mass x (velocity)2 13. They allow vibrations to occur over the y and z axis of the EM field. 14. The longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. 15. Protons (1+, 1amu); Neutron (0, 1amu); Electron (1, 1/1837amu)16. The Bohr Model is a planetary model, where electrons orbit the nucleus, and had fixed values where they could jump higher and come back down to release energy. The Quantum Mechanical Model uses the idea of Quantum numbers to travel from one sublevel to another (s, p, d, f). 17. s=2, p=6, d=10, f=14 18. You start at 1s2, and move from that to 2s2, and keep going until the sum of the exponents equal the atomic number of the element you are configuring. For example, Oxygen would be 1s2, 2s2, 2p4 (2+2+4=8). 19. Metals, nonmetals, metalloids 20. Malleable, have luster, ductile, conduct electricity 21. Single (2 electrons, 1 pair being shared); Double (4 electrons, 2 pairs being shared); Triple (6 electrons, 3 pairs being shared) 22. Uneven sharing of electrons because of a difference in electronegativity between the bonding atoms 23. When one atom completely takes as electrons from the other atom, it becomes a negative ion, and leaves the other a positive ion (i.e. salts) 24. Electrons moving frequently among metal atoms 25. Electrostatic attraction that occurs between a Hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom on one molecule, with another highly electronegative atom on a nearby molecule. 26. Examples (Water=H2O, Ammonia=NH3, Methane=CH4); 17 are Mono, Di, Tri, Tetra, Penta, Hexa, and Hepta 27. Cations are positive ions (H+, K+, Mg+2, etc.) and Anions are negative ions (F, Cl, etc.) 28. To formulate ionic compounds, take the charge and number of each element, switch it to the other element, and put it at the bottom. For example, Ca+2 + Po43 would be Ca3(PO4)2 29. Different forms of the same element (ex. Hydrogen1, Hydrogen2, Hydrogen3) 30. Hydrogen1 (Protium), Hydrogen2 (Deuterium), Hydrogen3 (Tritium) 31. Because of the fact that there is not only H1, but also a little bit of H2 and H3 in Hydrogen, the mass number is just a smidge over 1.32. Process where a nucleus emits particles (alpha, beta, positron) or EM radiation (xrays, gamma rays) in order to become a more stable nucleus. 33. Time required for ½ of the isotope to decay (NOT ½ the lifetime) 34. A radioactive isotope 35. Fission is making less massive nuclei from more massive nuclei (atom splitting), while Fusion is making more massive nuclei from less massive nuclei (atom combining) 36. Increasing the content of an element in an atomic bomb to make it more unstable and easier to explode the atom. 37. Since there are 2 Carbon atoms in the compound, and three of those compounds, there are 6 Carbons altogether. 38. Grams 39. 6.02 x 1023 40. Formula Mass is in amu, while Molar Mass is in grams 41. Turn Litmus Red (indicator) Donate H+ ions (Hydrogen Ion) Acids Generate H3O+ ions (Hydronium Ion) Turn Litmus Blue Accept H+ ions Bases Generate OH ions (Hydroxide ions) 42. Acid. It donates a H+ ion and produces H3O+. 43. A Strong Acid or Base will have an ionization process in which all reactants become products. A Weak Acid or Base will have an ionization process in which not all reactants become products and actually give back to the reactants, forming equilibrium. 44. 2 45. Basic. Anything above 7 is Acidic. 7 is Neutral. Anything below 7 is Basic. 46. Oxidation adds oxygen atoms and loses electrons, while Reduction loses oxygen and gains electrons. 47. C + O2 = CO2 (adds Oxygen)48. Hydrocarbons are Carbonbased compounds that connect with Hydrogen. 49. Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane 50. Alkane has a single carbon to carbon bond; Alkene has a double carbon to carbon bond; Alkyne has a triple carbon to carbon bond. 51. Alkyl groups are those structures that are of a certain element or compound but are not complete, so as to enable them to attach to other bonds. Some include Methyl and Ethyl. 52. Isomers are compounds that can have different empirical structures while keeping the same molecular structure, or number of each atom. 53. Isomers are complete and are the exact same compound, just in different structural form. Alkyl groups are a part of that compound, but are not complete and therefore are different form the original compound. For example, Methane and a compound from the Methyl Group are different. 54. Hydroxyl 55. Carboxyl 56. Ester 57. Amine 58. Compounds containing Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, etc. from the Halogens on the Periodic Table. An example is CHCl3 (Chloroform). 59. Freons completely replace Hydrogen atoms with Halogens. 60. A Polymer is a set of macromolecules with regular repeating units. They are made up of Monomers. 61. Addition Type is a stepwise process of building monomers into polymers. If you have a monomer, and that monomer becomes a diradical (having two unpaired electrons), they will add together. The product of that equation will then add to the original monomer, and so on. 62. Condensation Types form from condensation reactions and have H2O as a product. The process is simply putting the two compounds together and leaving an H2O out. 63. Crosslinking is where polymer chains are linked together.64. Elastomers are materials that will return to their original shape after being deformed. 65. The Glass Transition Temperature is the temperature above which an elastomer is soft (elastic) and below which an elastomer is brittle (glasslike). 66. Plasticizers can make a brittle plastic more flexible by lowering the GTT 67. Amino Acids/Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids 68. Amine and Carboxyl groups attached to the same group. 69. 2—Dipeptide; 3—Tripeptide; 4—Tetrapeptide; etc. 70. Polymers made up of amino acids. 71. 1st level—sequence of amino acids; 2nd level—coiling of the peptide/protein; 3rd level— twisting of the coil 72. Proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. 73. No, because they are on opposite sides. 74. Carbon that is “hydrated” or has what attached. 75. Monosaccharaides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides 76. Monosaccharides cannot be split into smaller carbohydrates by hydrolysis; Disaccharides can be split into 2 smaller carbohydrates by hydrolysis; Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers 77. Lipids are biological molecules that are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Fatty acids are long chains of carboxylic acids (add to glycerine to get a fat). 78. Hexagonal shaped molecules that enhance body by releasing hormones. 79. Pentose, Amine Base, and Phosphate 80. DNA is a double stranded nucleic acid with deoxyribose in both the cell nucleus and mitochondria. RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid with ribose that is both a messenger and transfer of genetic information 81. Nucleotides are monomers of Nucleic Acids (they make up Nucleic Acids).82. The mapping of all Human genes to find the estimate of how many are in the body (>30,000). 83. Energy and building material (biological molecules). 84. Carbohydrates 85. Nutrients that prevent diseases of proficiency. There are Watersoluble and Fatsoluble. 86. Fatty acids and amino acids that are not made by the body directly and so have to be ingested (eaten) to be obtained. 87. Improve nutritional content, Alter color, Prevent spoilage, and Enhance flavor 88. Measure of how fast a source of glucose (carbohydrate) is converted to blood glucose where glucose has the value of 100. 89. French people had lower indexes of mortality due to high blood cholesterol as compared to U.K. and U.S. 90. Dose, Chemical nature of substance, How you are exposed 91. Lethal Dose for 50% of Test Population; measurement of how much one would need to take for a substance to be lethal. 92. Metals of large atomic masses (ex. Mercury, lead, copper) 93. Carcinogens are toxins that can cause cancer. Mutagens are toxins that cause mutations in DNA. Teratogens are toxins that induce birth defects. 94. Nerve poisons that interfere with neurotransmission. 95. Toxins that break down peptides and Proteins, leaving a chemical burn. 96. Manufactured drugs by altering the chemical substance of narcotics, stimulants, and other drugs to make them produce similar effects. 97. It contains basic information about the characteristics, limits, and potential hazards of a chemical. 98. The 1st Law is that Energy is not created or destroyed but is converted from one form to another (conservation of Energy). The 2nd Law is that the disorder of any system always increases.99. A material that releases energy via oxidation. Examples are coal and oil. 100. Oxidation, adding Oxygen and releasing heat energy. 101. Carbon, Methane, and Hydrocarbons, respectively 102. Carbon dioxide and water vapor 103. A measure of a fuel’s PreIgnition Behavior (Engine Knock). 104. First I the intake of fuel, then the compression of the fuel. The third step is ignition (fast burning of fuel), and then the exhaust of combustion products. 105. The Maximum Cylinder Volume/Minimum Cylinder Volume. 106. Electric Generator, Coalburning Power Plant (Steam Engine), Nuclear Power Plant, and Breeder Reactor. 107. Solar Fuel Cells are made up of semiconductive materials like computer chips. Fuel Cells are made up of Hydrogen and Oxygen. 108. A Nuclear Power Plant heats water by fission of uranium, while Fossil Fuels burn chemicals to create heat. 109. Ratio of energy given back for energy put into the reaction. 110. Nitrogen and Oxygen 111. A substance is pollutant when it is present where it should not be or present at concentrations higher than it should be. 112. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons, Sulfur Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, Ozone, Lead 113. Allows us to breath; Manages temperature swings between night and day (leveling) 114. Some causes are stoves, heaters, furnaces, paint, gas, and carpeting. 115. Air plays many roles, including mixing with light to create O3 and trapping chemicals and fuels in the Troposphere. 116. Ozone (O3) is a part of the Ozone Layer, which absorbs harmful wavelengths ofUV and has photochemical reactions. 117. The increase in average atmospheric temperature because of increasing Greenhouse content. 118. Human Produced Greenhouse Gases 119. The atmosphere trapping heat using Greenhouse Gases. 120. Cars and Power Plants make NOx and Sox; NOx and SOx are Oxidized to make SO3 and NO2; SO3 and NO2 mix with H2O to form H2SO4 and HNO3; Acid rain Falls 121. They used to be responsible for Stratospheric Ozone Reduction Substitute Compounds (Chlorofluoro Hydrocarbons are now used). 122. Salt Water, Fresh Water, and Highly Purified Water 123. Salt=highest content; Fresh=lower than Salt; Highly Purified=none 124. An underground, rocky layer bearing water 125. A septic tanks decompose organic matter; at the bottom is sludge, in the middle is liquid sewage, and at the top is scum. 126. Aerobic Degradation is the decomposing of organic matter using oxygen; Anaerobic Degradation is the decomposing of organic matter without oxygen. 127. Bacteria, waste, and viruses 128. Activation of coal, Water softening, Chlorine, Ion Exchange 129. Responsible for cleaning up contaminated sites and responding to environmental emergencies, oil spills, and natural disasters, focusing on visible, lasting differences in communities. 130. Same as 132. 131. Sustainable development is the use of renewable resources as they are renewed, and using nonrenewable with the understanding that someday a renewable substitute will be required. 132. We have not reached it yet.133. We have to take into consideration the effects of today’s decisions on future generations and whether or not our actions do what they are intended to do.