Study Guides by Beatrice Adutwumwaa
School: George mason university Course: general community health Professor: patrice winter Exam/ Exam date: 12/14/16 Date: 12/12/16
Chapter 5 :
1. what is community organizing?
The process by which community groups are helped to identfy common problems or change targets, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching their collective goals.
3.whatisthe difference between top-down and grassroots community organizing?
top-down: initiated by someone outside community grassroots: citizen of community initiated
7. what is a needs assessment? Why is it important in the health promotion programming process?
it is important to start where the people are and see what level of prevention a community has and if there was an effective intervention strategy in the past
8. what are the five major steps in program development?
1.winnable 2. simple & specific 3. unite & involve members 4. affect many people 5. part of a larger plan
14. name and briefly describe the 5 major components of program evaluation:
1. PLANNING- who? internal/external factor? timeline> 2. COLLECTING data- who? pilot test results? 3. ANALYZE the study- who? when completed? 4. REPORT results- who writes? who receives? 5. APPLYING the results- be used? continue or discontinue?
what is community organizing?
Don't forget about the age old question of Describe the prison life for men.
1. what is meant by the term coordinated school health?
an organized set of policies , procedures, and activities designed to protect and promote the health and well being of students and staff
3. why are written school health policies needed?
5. what are eight components of coordinated school health?
1. Demonstrate the knowledge and skills of health literate educator 2. Assess needs to determine priorities for school health education 3. Plan effective comprehensive school health education curricula and programs 4. Implement health education instruction 5. Assess student learning 6. Plan and coordinate a school health education program 7. Serve as a resource person in health education 8. Communicate and advocate for health and school health education
6.Theamerican academy of pediatrics recommends that at minimum schools should provide 3 types of health services. What are the 3 types o services?
1. state-mandated services, including screenings, verification of immunization status, and infectious disease reporting 2. assessment of minor health complaints, medication, administration, and care for students with special needs 3. management of emergencies and other urgent situations
7.explainthe importance pf using a standards-based health curriculum?
whatisthe difference between top-down and grassroots community organizing?
Don't forget about the age old question of "research into masculinity and femininity as flexible, complex, and historically and culturally constructed categories" is known as which of the following?
2. why is prenatal care so important for mothers and infants? What types of services are included?
-women who receive early and continuous care have better pregnancy outcomes; no prenatal care = 3x more likely to have low birth weight -tests performed on mother and fetus to assess potential risks; treat any maternal or fetal complications; monitor growth and development of the fetus; counseling and guidance
4. what is included in family planning? Why is family important?
Decades of research have shown that better access to contraception helps people to avoid pregnancies they do not want, and to plan and space the pregnancies they do want. The purpose of family planning is to make sure that the desired resources are available for parents to give their children a better quality of life.
6. why was the roe v. wade court decision so important?
1973 Supreme Court decision that made it unconstitutional or state laws to prohibit abortions in the first trimester for any reason and placed restrictions on the conditions under which states could regulate them in the second trimester
8. why are childhood immunizations so important?
Immunizationslows downor stopsdisease outbreaks.Vaccines prevent disease in those who take them and protect those who come into contact with unvaccinated individuals. Through childhood immunization, are now able to control many infectious diseases that were once common in this country and from which many children died.
1. Why is it important for community and public health workers to be aware of the significant health problems of the various age groups in the united states?
Viewing age group profiles enables public health workers to detect the sources of diseases, injury, and death for specific priority populations and to propose programs to reduce those sources. Effective programs aimed at specific population age groups can reduce the risk factors that contribute to disease, injury, and death.
3. why are the number of adolescents and young adults, living arrangements, and employment status
what is a needs assessment?
We also discuss several other topics like cdae uvm
such key demographic characteristics of young people in regard to community health? Briefly summarize the data available on these characteristics.
4. what are the leading causes of death for adolescents and young adults, and for adults?
Unintentional injuries; The most common cause is motor vehicle crashes, and in more than half of all fatal crashes, alcohol was involved. Adults:(25-44): unintentional injuries (45-64): noncommunicable diseases with heart disease are the leading causes of death
6. what are the behaviors of each of these cohorts adolescents, college students, and adults at greatest risk, and how does a person’s environment impact these behaviors?
Adolescents: The use of tobacco products represents one of the most high widespread, high risk health behaviors for this group. College Students: Alcohol consumption, especially binge drinking is the riskiest behaviors college students participate in. Adults: The behavior that puts adults most at risk is chronic disease stemming from poor health behavior and poor lifestyle choices made form earlier years of life. Smoking, lack of exercise, cancers, stroke, and diabetes.
2. what years of life are defined by each of the following groups old, young old, middle old, and old old?
7. what are the three factors that affect the size and age of a population?
a.Thenumberofbirths b. The number of deaths c. The number of individuals that enter or leave the population
8. how have life expectancy figures changed over the years in the U.S? what were the major
Don't forget about the age old question of ttu pre med
reasonsforthe change in the first half of the twentienth century? The second half?
14.whyare continuing-care retirement communities attractive to elders?
because they are planned communities for seniors that guarantee a lifelong residence and health care.
15.what is an assisted-living residence?
housing for those who need a wide range of support services to help them with activities of daily living.
16. what is the difference between activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living?
Activities of daily living -tasks such as eating, toileting, dressing, bathing, walking, getting in and out of a bed or chair, and getting outside. more complex tasks such as handling finances preparing meals, shopping, doing house work, traveling, using the telephone, and taking medications.
18.from what financial sources do elders normally pay for healthcare?
24. what is the difference between adult day care programs and senior centers?
Senior centers offer many activities and services for people who are age 50+ and are able to be independent. Those who are able-bodied and capable of making their own decisions do not need supervision, direction from a leader, or medication monitoring. Adult day centers offer the same sort of activities as senior centers, but are adapted to fit the needs of the participant, are more structured, and done under
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supervision. Adult day centers also accommodate special diets, assist with medications, eating, walking/mobility, toileting, bathing, and health monitoring (e.g., blood pressure, food or liquid intake)
1. why is it said that the united states was built on diversity?
3. why is it important for community health workers to be aware of the significant health disparities among various minority groups in the united states?
5. list and explain the six priority areas in the race and health initiative
infant mortality; cancer screening and management; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; HIV/AIDS; adult and child immunization
7. why is it important for community health professionals and workers to be culturally sensitive and competent?
1. how prevalent is the problem of mental disorder in the united states?
Every year, about 42.5 million American adults (or 18.2 percent of the total adult population in the United States) suffers from some mental illness, enduring conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia
3. what are the characteristics of a mentally healthy person?
Some characteristics of a mentally healthy person include being able to maintain relationships, having a sense of contentment, the ability to learn and adapt, being able to work, play and rest, self-confidence and having a purpose for living.
4.what is mental disorder?
A wide range of conditions that affect mood, thinking, and behavior.
6. give examples of different causes of mental disorders?
a combination of Biological:brain defects or injury Psychological: Severe psychological trauma suffered as a child, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and environmental factors:Death or divorce A dysfunctional family life
8.whatisthe relationship between stress and mental health?
Before a person receives treatment for mental illness they often experience stress due to the behavior exhibited when they were ill. Behavior that can cause feelings of guilt, shame and depression.
12. how would you characterize the treatment of those with mental illness in state hospitals prior to world war 2?
14. define the world deinstitutionalization. When did it start in the united states? What caused it?
Deinstitutionalization is a long-term trend wherein fewer people reside as patients in mental hospitals and fewer mental health treatments are delivered in public hospitals. This trend is directly due to the process of closing public hospitals and the ensuing transfers of patients to community-based mental health services in the late twentieth century.
16. why was there a movement toward community mental health centers in the early 1960s?
17. what services are provided by
communitymental health centers
24. what is involved in psychotherapy for mental illness? In cognitive-behavioral therapy? In psychopharmacologic al therapy ? how is technology being used to improve the accessibility and flexibility of treatment services?
1. What are some personal consequences resulting from the abuse of alcohol and other drugs?
Alcohol and drug abusers put themselves at risk for physical, mental, and financial ruin. They themselves may develop a psychological and/or dependance and experience great difficulty in discontinuing its use
2.what are some community consequences resulting from the abuse of alcohol and other drugs?
Abusers present a threat to the community because they have greater health care needs, suffer more injuries, and are less productive. They often perpetrate more violent acts that result in economic loss, injury, and death.
5.explainthe difference between drug use, misuse, and drug abuse:
Drug use: Non-evaluative term referring to drug taking behavior in general, any drug taking behavior Misuse: Inappropriate use of prescription or non prescription drugs Abuse: Use of a drug when it's detrimental to one's health or wellbeing
8.name the four categories of environmental risk factors that contribute to substance abuse
. personal factors- personality traits 2. home and family life- family dynamics 3. school and peer groups-influence attitudes of peers
and give an example of each:
4. sociocultural environment- inner-city resident
9. what are 2 major types of abused drugs ? give examples of each:
nicotine- cigarettes and chewing tabacco 2. non prescription- adderall, xanax
15.whatare controlled substances? Give some examples
drugs regulated by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Control Act of 1970 -including all illegal drugs and prescription drugs that are subject to abuse and can produce dependence
17. what are the four elements of drug prevention and control?
1. education 2. treatment 3. public policy 4. law enforcement
18. whatare primary,second ary, and tertiary, prevention strategies for the drug problem?
primary prevention strategies for drug problems -aimed at those who've never used drugs and aim to prevent the initiation of drug use secondary prevention strategies for drug problems -aimed at those who have begun alcohol/drug use but have not become chronic abusers and have not suffered significant physical or mental impairment tertiary prevention strategies for drug problem - programs designed to provide drug abuse treatment and after care including relapse prevention programs
23. what are names of four voluntary agencies and self-help groups involved in the prevention , control, and treatment of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse?
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) 2. Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) 3. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) 4. Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
Chapter 1 review questions:
2. What is public health?
Actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the
Conditions in which people can be healthy can occur.
3. What are the differences
-community health refers to the health status of a defined group
Of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and
Population health, and
Preserve their health
-population health refers to the the health status of people who are
Not organized and have no identity as a group or locality and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve their health.
-Global health describes health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions.
4. What are the five major
Domainsthat determine a
-medical care availability
10. What significance do
It helps people live long and healthy lives.
The healthy people
Documents have in
Community and public
Health development in
11.What significance do
I think it will not only help individuals live long and healthy lives but it
You think Healthy People
Can teach individuals how to detect disease, prevent, and treat it
2020 will have in the years
Without having to consult with a doctor
Chapter 2 review questions
1.What characteristics of
-The globalization of health
-A system of top- down funding for many community programs
Rapid movement of information, resources, and people made possible by advanced communication and transportation technologies that eliminate the need for local offices where resources were once based
For community and
-Limited horizontal relationships between/ among organizations
-Highly developed an centralized resources in our national institutions and organizations.
-Continuing concentration of wealth and population in the largest metropolitan areas
5. What are the three core
-Monitorhealth,diagnose,andinvestigate Policy development
Functions of public
-Enforce laws, Provide care, Assure competent work force, evaluate
-Informs educate empower, Develop policies, and mobilize community partnerships Assurance
6. What are the 10 essential
Monitor health status to identify community health problems
Public health services?
Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community.
Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems.
Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts.
Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety.
Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable.
Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce.
Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services.
Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems.
11. What are the major
- A governmental health organization is organizations that are part of
Differences between a
The governmental structure (federal, state, or local) and that are
Funded primarily by tax dollars.
Organization and a
- a voluntary health agency is a non-profit organization created by
Concerned citizens to deal with health needs not met by
Governmental health agencies.
Chapter 3 review questions
-epidemic is an illness that spreads fast in huge populations in a small
A pandemic? Name some
Amount of time.
Diseases that caused
-pandemic is an illness that spreads fast worldwide in a small amount of time.
Epidemics in the past.
Name some diseases that
3.What does the term
An endemic disease is a predictable condition or illness
Ex. A cold, chicken pox, obesity in america, malaria in africa
Give examples of such
10. Ingeneral, contrast The leading cause of death in the U.S in 1900 with 2010. comment on the differences.
In the 20th century the leading cause of death was communicable diseases (pneumonia,TB, gastrointestinal infections)how ever a century of progress in public health practice and biomedical resulted in reduction of death from communicable diseases. The four leading cause of death in the 21th century are noncommuniable diseases (heart disease, cancer, stroke and unintentional injuries)
-An experimental study is analytic study in which investigators allocate
Studies differ from
Exposure or intervention and follow development of disease. An
Observational study is an analytic study in which an investigator
What value do they have
Observes the natural course of events, noting exposed and unexposed
In epidemiology? To what
Subjects and disease development.
Ordertoproperly carry out
Chapter 4 review questions:
2. Contrast the terms acute
-Acute disease is a disease that lasts 3 months or less
Disease and chronic
-chronic disease is a disease or health condition that lasts longer than
Disease. Provide 3 examples
Of each type of disease:
-chronic: diabetes, asthma, kidney disease
3. Contrast the terms
- a communicable disease is an illness caused by some specific
Communicable disease and
Biological agent or its toxic products that can be transmitted from an
Infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoire to susceptible
Provide 3 examples of
Host. Ex. HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis.
Each type of disease:
-non-communicable disease is a disease that cannot be transmitted be
Transmitted from infected host to susceptible host
Ex. Alzheimer's, Asthma, Chronic Kidney Disease
-primary: preventing disease from happening. Ex: vaccines
-secondary: disease has already happened so trying to contain it, or get
Rid of it And make sure it doesn’t spread or get worse.
Ex: mammograms, medication, screenings
Example of each:
-tertiary: rehab after disease. Ex:follow ups, surgery
10.What is the chain
-it is the process in which infections happens step to step.
Infection model of disease
Model and label its parts:
11. Again referring to the
Reservoir= sex organ
Chain of infection, indicate
Prevention= wear latex condom
How prevention and control
Strategies could be
The transmission of
Gonorrhea.Are most of
Secondary or tertiary
- case: a person who is sick with a disease
-carrier: a person or animal that harbors a specific communicable
Agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as
A potential source of infection to others.
-vector: a living organism, usually an arthropod, that can transmit
A communicable disease agent to a susceptible host.
-vehicle: an inanimate material or object that can serve as a source
-vaccines help to prevent cases of diseases and saved the lives of
Of vaccinations or
Millions of People around the world.
Preventing diseases in the