*** EXAMPLE PURPOSES ONLY; VALUES ARE DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE*** Take a look at the graphs, because she wants them a certain way!!
Speech Science Lab II
SECTION I: Analyze the VOT, vowel duration and formants in Syllable Sounds
I-1: What kind of phonetic feature that VOTs convey? How longer vs. shorter “Voice-Onset-Times (VOTs)” have been perceived in English? (1 pt)
VOTs measure the length of time between the release of a stop consonant and the onset of voicing or the vibration of vocal folds. Voiceless stops have longer voice onset times while voiced stops have shorter onset time. More specifically, unaspirated voiceless plosives have a voice onset time that is zero or close to zero. Aspirated plosives have a voiced onset time that is greater than zero. The phonetic feature that voice onset times convey is voicing.
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I-2: Table of Acoustic measurements: (0.125 per cell; total of 9 points; up to 3 digits below the decimal point)
Duration (in seconds)
Duration (in seconds)
Frequency I (in Hertz)
Frequency II (in Hertz)
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Include PRAAT figures showing your measurements for Vowel Duration and VOT for all 12 syllables (by using ALT+PrintScrn to copy, then paste your measurement to your answer doc). (A total of 24 figures for 12 pts)
Vowel Duration Measurement Example and Voice Onset Time (VOT) Measurement Examples on separate page.
I-3: Based on the given 12 syllables, list five minimal pairs for the final consonant position, e.g., bad vs. bat. Specify the influence of the final consonant on vowel duration. Which phonetic feature of these consonants is the key component in changing the vowel duration? Provide evidence from your acoustic measurements in Table I-2 to support your statement. (2 pt) We also discuss several other topics like Who went to holland until jesus was overthrown?
1. Bid (0.020) and bit (0.035)
2. Bad (0.020) and bat (0.026)
3. Pad (0.042) and pat (0.133)
4. Toog (0.102) and took (0.148)
5. Dug (0.024) and duck (0.053)
In general, the voice onset times for the voiceless stops /t/ and /p/ will be longer than the voice onset times for the voiced stop /d/. For instance, the voice onset time for the /d/ in pad is only 0.042 seconds while the voice onset time for the /t/ in pat is 0.148 seconds. The voice onset times for voiceless stops are longer because the voiced stop will assimilate to the vowel and the voice onset time is reduced; however, the voice onset time of voiceless stops are longer because a lengthier transition is required. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the reliability in detecting the difference between presences?
I-4: Based on the given 12 syllables, list three minimal pairs for the initial consonant, e.g., bad vs. pad. Which phonetic feature influences the VOT for these pairs? Provide evidence from your acoustic measurements in Table I-2 to support your statement. (2 p
1. Bat (0.026) and pat (0.133)
2. Bad (0.020) and pad (0.042)
3. Got (0.252) and cot (0.224)
The phonetic feature that influences the voice onset timing for these pairs is voicing. As you can see from the voice onset duration of each of the stop consonants above, they vary based on their voicing. For instance, the /b/ in the word “bad” has a voice onset time of 0.026 seconds while the /p/ in the word “pad” has a voice onset time of 0.133 seconds. The voice onset time for /b/ is much shorter than the voice onset time for /p/ because it is already a voiced sound. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of lobbying?
I-5: Based on Table I-2, report the average duration, formant 1 frequency and formant 2 frequency for each vowel based on your measurement of these speech sounds. Show your calculations. (3 pt)
.243 sec + 0.215 sec
523.928 sec + 550.092 sec 2
2074.549 + 2053.199
= 887.22 sec
= 1920.213 sec
= 0.224 sec
684.2931 + 752.827
= 718.56 sec
1406.2781 + 1372.925 2
0.317 + 0.306
= 0.312 sec
423.854 + 369.990
= 396.92 sec
1663.028 + 1609.709
= 3272.74 sec
0.224 + 0.252
= 0.238 sec
993.599 + 934.328
= 963.964 sec
1549.602 + 1635.385
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I-6. Plot the average F1 frequency and average F2 frequency of these 5 vowels from I-5 into the vowel frequency chart and link the vowel loop. Label each point with the phonetic symbol. Plot the speaker’s vowel space by drawing lines between vowels. ( 3 points)
On the next page.
Record your measurements in the following un-shaded cells:
9/2.108 = 4.269
0.253668, 0.212956, 0.238010 seconds
(0.253668+0.212956 +0.238010)/3 =
0.147190, 0.222351, 0.200429 seconds
(0.147190+0.222351 +0.200429)/3 = 0.190 seconds
0.328829, 0.222351, 0.241142 seconds
(0.329+0.222+0.241)/ 3 = 0.264 seconds
9/2.008 = 4.482
0.202823, 0.209699, 0.206261 seconds
(0.203+0.210+0.206)/ 3 = 0.619 seconds
0.170165, 0.120319, 0.177041 seconds
(0.170+0.120+0.177)/ 3 = 0.156 seconds
0.220012, 0.238919, 0.326580 seconds
(0.220+0.239+0.327)/ 3 = 0.262 seconds
9/1.677 = 5.367
0.145922, 0.191439, 0.194117 seconds
(0.146+0.191+0.194)/ 3 = 0.177 seconds
0.208843, 0.180729, 0.152616 seconds
(0.209+0.181+0.153)/ 3 = 0.181 seconds
0.204826, 0.216875, 0.194042 seconds
(0.205+0.217+0.194)/ 3 = 0.205 seconds
9/1.433605 = 6.278 syllables per
0.122319, 0.130033, 0.124523 seconds
(0.122+0.130+0.125)/ 3 = 0.126 seconds
0.159724, 0.143256, 0.106891 seconds
(0.160+0.143+0.107)/ 3 = 0.137 seconds
0.132237, 0.146562, 0.175214 seconds
(0.132+0.146+0.0.17 5)/3 = 0.151
Based on the above speech analysis, compare your acoustic analysis results between these two speakers’ speech production in terms of duration, speech rate, pitch (fundamental frequency) and averaged syllable duration. ( 1 pt)Please comment on the similarities and differences between these speakers, and what do the acoustic results tell you about the articulation and intelligibility about these two speakers?? ( 1 pt) Also, how does the voicing of stop sounds influence these two utterances (pataka and badaga) in terms of overall duration, syllable duration, speech rate, and averaged syllable duration? (1 pt)
Over all, speaker two has a lower duration, or slower speaking rate, compared to mine. My duration of syllables was also slower than those of speaker two. This may be influenced by the fact that I spoke more slowly and clearly since I was aware that I was being recorded. My pitch, or fundamental frequency, was also lower than that of speaker two. While my voice had a fundamental frequency of 252 Hz for /pataka/, speaker two had a fundamental frequency of only 226 Hz. My pharynx is probably longer and my vocal folds could be more dense. I am also feeling the onset of a cold, which may contribute to a lower frequency during speech production. These two speakers are very similar, but my voice is slightly lower and slower than that of speaker two. However, each of the speakers’ data falls well within normal limits and would not constitute as unintelligible or disordered speech.
The difference between /pataka/ and /badaga/ is that /pataka/ uses voiceless stops while /badaga/ uses voiced stops. Voiceless stops have longer voice onset times; therefore, all of the measurements in terms of duration (overall duration, syllable duration, speech rate, and averaged syllable duration) will be slightly longer for /pataka/ than /badaga/.