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WSU / Linguistics and Speech Pathology / LIN 5120 / What kind of phonetic feature that vots convey? how longer vs. shorter

What kind of phonetic feature that vots convey? how longer vs. shorter

What kind of phonetic feature that vots convey? how longer vs. shorter

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Linguistics and Speech Pathology
Course: Speech Science
Professor: Li hsieh
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: speech and Science
Cost: 25
Name: Speech Science Week 14
Description: Lab II Example
Uploaded: 12/15/2016
4 Pages 41 Views 1 Unlocks
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*** EXAMPLE PURPOSES ONLY; VALUES ARE DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE*** Take a look at the graphs, because she wants them a certain way!!


What kind of phonetic feature that vots convey? how longer vs. shorter “voice-onset-times (vots)” have been perceived in english?



Speech Science Lab II

SECTION I:​ Analyze the VOT, vowel duration and formants in Syllable Sounds

I-1: What kind of phonetic feature that VOTs convey? How longer vs. shorter “Voice-Onset-Times (VOTs)” have been perceived in English? ​(1 pt)

 VOTs measure the length of time between the release of a stop consonant and the onset of voicing or the vibration of vocal folds. Voiceless stops have longer voice onset times while voiced stops have shorter onset time. More specifically, unaspirated voiceless plosives have a voice onset time that is zero or close to zero. Aspirated plosives have a voiced onset time that is greater than zero. The phonetic feature that voice onset times convey is voicing.


Why the voice onset times for voiceless stops are longer?



If you want to learn more check out How is music meaningful?

I-2: Table of Acoustic measurements: ​(0.125 per cell; total of 9 points; up to 3 digits below the decimal point)

Syllable

Vowel IPA

Symbol

Initial

Consonant

VOT

Duration (in seconds)

Vowel

Duration (in seconds)

Midpoint of

vowel for

frequency

measure

Vowel

Formant

Frequency I (in Hertz)

Vowel

Formant

Frequency II (in Hertz)

Bid

/I/

0.020

0.2429

0.3170

523.928

2074.549

Bit

/I/

0.035

0.162882

0.215402

550.092

2053.199

Bad

/æ/

0.020

0.389480

0.312129

853.7810

1945.6794

Bat

/æ/

0.026

0.252061

0.207230

876.2410

2020.0533

Pad

/æ/

0.042253

0.330782

0.391060

918.3578

1815.3179

Pat

/æ/

0.132769

0.172402

0.315672

900.501

1899.8026

Dug

/Ʌ/

0.023775

0.262136

0.251710

684.2931

1406.2781

Duck

/Ʌ/

0.053385

0.185633

0.247856

752.827

1372.925

Toog

/u/

0.102813

0.316935

0.368719

423.854

1663.7086

Took

/u/

0.148117

0.305979

1.015272

369.9898

1609.7086

Cot

/a/

0.141318

0.224129

0.362697

993.599

1549.6018

Got

/a/

0.034718

0.252207

0.262274

934.3282

1635.3853


Compare your acoustic analysis results between these two speakers’ speech production in terms of duration, speech rate, pitch, and averaged syllable duration.



We also discuss several other topics like Define electrophoresis.

Include PRAAT figures showing your measurements for Vowel Duration and VOT for all 12 syllables (by using ALT+PrintScrn to copy, then paste your measurement to your answer doc). (A total of 24 figures for 12 pts)

Vowel Duration Measurement Example and Voice Onset Time (VOT) Measurement Examples on separate page.

I-3: ​Based on the given 12 syllables, list five minimal pairs for the final consonant position, e.g., bad vs. bat. Specify the influence of the final consonant on ​vowel duration​. Which phonetic feature of these consonants is the key component in changing the vowel duration? Provide evidence from your acoustic measurements in Table I-2 to support your statement. ​(2 pt) We also discuss several other topics like Who went to holland until jesus was overthrown?

1. Bid (0.020) and bit (0.035)

2. Bad (0.020) and bat (0.026)

3. Pad (0.042) and pat (0.133)

4. Toog (0.102) and took (0.148)

5. Dug (0.024) and duck (0.053)

In general, the voice onset times for the voiceless stops /t/ and /p/ will be longer than the voice onset times for the voiced stop /d/. For instance, the voice onset time for the /d/ in pad is only 0.042 seconds while the voice onset time for the /t/ in pat is 0.148 seconds. The voice onset times for voiceless stops are longer because the voiced stop will assimilate to the vowel and the voice onset time is reduced; however, the voice onset time of voiceless stops are longer because a lengthier transition is required. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the reliability in detecting the difference between presences?

I-4: ​Based on the given 12 syllables, list three minimal pairs for the initial consonant, e.g., bad vs. pad. Which phonetic feature influences the ​VOT​ for these pairs? Provide evidence from your acoustic measurements in Table I-2 to support your statement. ​(2 p

1. Bat (0.026) and pat (0.133)

2. Bad (0.020) and pad (0.042)

3. Got (0.252) and cot (0.224)

The phonetic feature that influences the voice onset timing for these pairs is voicing. As you can see from the voice onset duration of each of the stop consonants above, they vary based on their voicing. For instance, the /b/ in the word “bad” has a voice onset time of 0.026 seconds while the /p/ in the word “pad” has a voice onset time of 0.133 seconds. The voice onset time for /b/ is much shorter than the voice onset time for /p/ because it is already a voiced sound. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of lobbying?

I-5: Based on Table I-2, report the average duration, formant 1 frequency and formant 2 frequency for each vowel based on your measurement of these speech sounds. Show your calculations. ​(3 pt)

Vowel

Phoneme

Average duration

Formant I

Formant II

/I/

.243 sec + 0.215 sec 

2

=0.229 sec

523.928 sec + 550.092 sec 2

=537.01 sec

2074.549 + 2053.199 

2

=2063.874 sec

/æ/

0.020+0.026+0.042+0.133 

4

=0.055 sec

853.781+876.241+918.358+ 900.501 

4

= 887.22 sec

1945.679+2020.053+1815 .318+1899.803 

4

= 1920.213 sec

/Ʌ/

0.262 +0.1856 

 2

 = 0.224 sec

684.2931 + 752.827 

2

= 718.56 sec

1406.2781 + 1372.925 2

=1389.602 sec

/u/

0.317 + 0.306 

 2

= 0.312 sec

423.854 + 369.990 

 2

= 396.92 sec

1663.028 + 1609.709 

 2

= 3272.74 sec

/a/

0.224 + 0.252 

 2

= 0.238 sec

993.599 + 934.328 

 2

= 963.964 sec

1549.602 + 1635.385 

 2

=1592.494 sec

If you want to learn more check out What instrument has carved horse head at top, long necked bowed fiddle and accompanies mongolian throat singing?

I-6. Plot the average F1 frequency and average F2 frequency of these 5 vowels from I-5 into the vowel frequency chart and link the vowel loop. Label each point with the phonetic symbol. Plot the speaker’s vowel space by drawing lines between vowels. (​ 3 points)

On the next page.

Record your measurements in the following un-shaded cells:

Sound File

Duration

Speech Rate

Fundamental

Frequency

Average Syllable

Duration

Speaker: Freya

Kniaz

/pataka/

2.107640 seconds

9/2.108 = 4.269

syllables per

second

251.696 Hz

/pa/

0.253668, 0.212956, 0.238010 seconds

(0.253668+0.212956 +0.238010)/3 =

0.2349 seconds

/ta/

0.147190, 0.222351, 0.200429 seconds

(0.147190+0.222351 +0.200429)/3 = 0.190 seconds

/ka/

0.328829, 0.222351, 0.241142 seconds

(0.329+0.222+0.241)/ 3 = 0.264 seconds

/badaga/

2.007608 seconds

9/2.008 = 4.482

syllables per

second

186.898 Hz

/ba/

0.202823, 0.209699, 0.206261 seconds

(0.203+0.210+0.206)/ 3 = 0.619 seconds

/da/

0.170165, 0.120319, 0.177041 seconds

(0.170+0.120+0.177)/ 3 = 0.156 seconds

/ga/

0.220012, 0.238919, 0.326580 seconds

(0.220+0.239+0.327)/ 3 = 0.262 seconds

Speaker Two

/pataka/

1.677360 seconds

9/1.677 = 5.367

syllables per

second

226.434 Hz

/pa/

0.145922, 0.191439, 0.194117 seconds

(0.146+0.191+0.194)/ 3 = 0.177 seconds

/ta/

0.208843, 0.180729, 0.152616 seconds

(0.209+0.181+0.153)/ 3 = 0.181 seconds

/ka/

0.204826, 0.216875, 0.194042 seconds

(0.205+0.217+0.194)/ 3 = 0.205 seconds

/badaga/

1.433605 seconds

9/1.433605 = 6.278 syllables per

208.051 Hz

second

/ba/

0.122319, 0.130033, 0.124523 seconds

(0.122+0.130+0.125)/ 3 = 0.126 seconds

/da/

0.159724, 0.143256, 0.106891 seconds

(0.160+0.143+0.107)/ 3 = 0.137 seconds

/ga/

0.132237, 0.146562, 0.175214 seconds

(0.132+0.146+0.0.17 5)/3 = 0.151

seconds

II-3.

Based on the above speech analysis, compare your acoustic analysis results between these two speakers’ speech production in terms of duration, speech rate, pitch (fundamental frequency) and averaged syllable duration. (​ 1 pt)​Please comment on the similarities and differences between these speakers, and what do the acoustic results tell you about the articulation and intelligibility about these two speakers?? (​ 1 pt) ​Also, how does the voicing of stop sounds influence these two utterances (pataka and badaga) in terms of overall duration, syllable duration, speech rate, and averaged syllable duration? ​(1 pt)

Over all, speaker two has a lower duration, or slower speaking rate, compared to mine. My duration of syllables was also slower than those of speaker two. This may be influenced by the fact that I spoke more slowly and clearly since I was aware that I was being recorded. My pitch, or fundamental frequency, was also lower than that of speaker two. While my voice had a fundamental frequency of 252 Hz for /pataka/, speaker two had a fundamental frequency of only 226 Hz. My pharynx is probably longer and my vocal folds could be more dense. I am also feeling the onset of a cold, which may contribute to a lower frequency during speech production. These two speakers are very similar, but my voice is slightly lower and slower than that of speaker two. However, each of the speakers’ data falls well within normal limits and would not constitute as unintelligible or disordered speech.

The difference between /pataka/ and /badaga/ is that /pataka/ uses voiceless stops while /badaga/ uses voiced stops. Voiceless stops have longer voice onset times; therefore, all of the measurements in terms of duration (overall duration, syllable duration, speech rate, and averaged syllable duration) will be slightly longer for /pataka/ than /badaga/.

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