MCOM 101 Fall 2016 Class Notes Chapter 1 What is Communication? Communication: The process of human beings sharing messages Media: refers to print media, broadcasts, digital, and entertainment Mass Communication: Messages that are transmitted rapidly to large audiences, liDon't forget about the age old question of eng1005
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ttle contact between sender and audience. Gatekeepers influence what is released in connection with ethics. Theory: general proposition, itself based on observation and logical argument, that states the relationship between observed phenomena and seeks either to explain or to predict the relation Convergence: Describing all of the changes that have occurred in media companies over the last decade Cultural imperialism: cultural aspects of imperialism: refers to the creation and eminence of unequal relationships between civilizations Economies of scale: a proportionate savings in costs gained by an increased level of production Synergy: the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations Cross merchandising: retail practice of marketing or displaying different products from different categories together in order to generate more revenue. Media Literacy: attaining and understanding any mass media and how they construct meaning Significance of Mass Media ∙ Politics an area around debate, a set channel for making policies, publicity and influence ∙ Culture main channel of cultural representation, main source of social reality ∙ Social life patterns by routines, of media use impacts the way leisure time is spent ∙ Economics global reach influence through sports, travel, leisure, ect. Models of communication The Laswell Formula Who Says what In what channel To whom Communicator > Message > Channel > Receiver Control research Content research Medium Research Audience research V With what effect Effect Effects research The Linear Model Info source>>>>>>>Transmitter>>>>>>> |_________|>>>>>>>receiver>>>>>>>>destination Message Signal received signal Message ^ Noise Source Sender>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Message>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Receiver Interactive model Field of experience Field of experience Message Encoder Decoder, receiver, encoder Feedback People to Remember Harold Laswell: Sociologist credited with detailing the elements involved with communication Claude Shannon: electrical engineer and mathematician Warren Weaver: scientist, introduced notion of noise Wilbur Schramm: founder of the field of communication study Dean C. Barlund: Capture the dynamism of human communication, portrays communication as changing over timePatterns of Ownership ∙ Group Ownership ∙ Conglomerates ∙ Vertical integration ∙ Horizontal integration ∙ Monopoly ∙ Oligopoly ∙ Censorship ∙ Fourth estate Historical development of media and communication ∙ Passed on by word ∙ Writtenprinting press ∙ Print ∙ Electronic/digital Cultural Periods Modern Period Industrial revolution efficiency, leisure time was made individualism rationalismscience, logic progress break with tradition Post Modern Culture Period populism ordinary people v. elite diversity blur of old and new nostalgia opposite of rationalism Paradox new technology v. old/past Evolution of Media Emergence of novelty: resolving a problem (elite) Entrepreneurial: finding a use (elite) Mass medium: largest number of the population Convergence: specialized stageChapter 2 The internet Computer development, universities and military Info could not be sent far Paul Baran (1964) worried about nuclear attack. All computers were connected, he developed a network that divided messages. He wanted info to be sent different place. packet switching pentagon set up advances research projects agency (ARPA net) 4 institutions involved: UCLA, Stanford, UCSanta Barbara, and Univ. of Utah Bob Kahn and Vint Card developed a system that could interact with others www developed by Tim Burners Lee Marc Anderson First Brower html Tim Burners Lee Theories Media doesn’t control what you think but what you think about gatekeeping, control what is seen automaticity our minds filter almost all message options Peripheral route persuasion: listener decided whether to agree on a message using other cues. Top Digital Companies 1. Apple 2. Amazon 3. Microsoft 4. Google 5. Facebook Internet issues security identity theft phishing appropriateness digital divide some have and some don’t net neutrality everyone has some access Chapter 4 Sound Recording Milestones Format Wars_________ Copyright battles Format Wars 1850 Edouard Leon Scott de Martinville Meanwhile… 1844 Samuel Morse (Morse telegraph) 1876 Alexander Graham Bell (telephone… awarded 10,000 dollars by French gov)1877 Thomas Edison The phonograph, furniture, spring motor, diamond disk 1887 Emile Berliner, gramophone, 1901 Victor talking machine Co.: Victrola, hand cranked, microphones from phones and telephones, electric motor Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter: gramophone 1929 RCA Bought VTMCO Gramophone and phonograph were similar except the gramophone used flat disks and the phonograph used a cylinder. File sharing undercut the sales of CDS streaming is the industry’s fastest growing revenue source – Digital Revenues 45%, physical sales 39% Global digital revenue 6.7 billion dollars pushed forward by smart phones downloads 20% of industry revenue Global music industry 50 Billion dollars US Market 15 billion dollars,30% of global as of 2012… there is a decrease to 43 billion dollars globally… overall music sales in the US 1556 million recordings (20082013) Copyright battles AD 1000 musical system 1831 music composers pressured government to include music in copy right laws 1880’s song publishing… John Philips Sousa Genre: Marching Band The Role of Rock and Roll Breaking down of racial barriers blurred high and low culture confused the issues of sexual identity blurred sacred and secular blurred geographic borders country and city, north and south Issues payola: pays for songs to be played a certain amount of time whites stole black music and got the credit Record labels 1998 1.Universal (French owned) Kanye and Adelle 23. Sony BMG< (German owned) Beyoncé, Brittany Spears 4.EMI (British owned) Pink Floyd 5.Warner (US Owned) Madonna, Prince 6.Polygram Now SonyATV: largest music publishers worldwide (20072015) coowned by Sony music and the estate of Michael Jackson Revenue 5.4 billion Universal Music Group Revenue 5 billion Warner Music Group Revenue 3.03 Billion Chapter 5 Radio: first electronic mass media Samuel Morse, creates the telegraph: precursor to radio… the telegraph works with dots and dashes that stand for letters of the alphabet. It could not transmit voices DATES 1842 Congress grants $30,000 to test feasibility 1844 congress grants $10,000 for Wash/Bal to line 1844 Morse sends 1st official telegraph from supreme court “What Hath God Wrought?” numbers 23:23 1861 Morse began developing other lines coast to coast 1866 First transatlantic cable connecting North America to Europe Telegraph 4 contributions to communication separates communication from transportation. No more pony express or ships transformed info into a commodity – info can now be bought and sold made it easier for military, business, and other leaders Important names to Radio James Maxwell theorized the existence of electromagnetic waves in the 1860s. Believed them to be later used as radio waves. Heinrich Hertz confirmed James Maxwell. Guglielmo Marconi received patent on wireless telegraphy in England 1896. Alexander Popov made parallel discoveries in Russia. Nikola Tesla invented wireless system in 1943, deemed inventor of radio in 1943 after court case with Marconi because Marconi used much of Tesla’s work. Lee De Forest wrote the first Ph.D. thesis on wireless tech in 1899. Primary interest was wireless telephony. Reginald Fessenden made the first voice broadcast. Regulating Radio Radio Act of 1912: required licensing, adopted the SOS distress signal. Government wanted to make certain no one owned the air waves. WWI: the navy took control of the radio. Corporate heads and government leaders conspired to make sure radio served American interests. First time in history that media has ever been controlled by the government. Radio Cooperation of America: A private sector monopoly. Made of four groups: General Electric (took over American Marconi to make radio transmitters), AT&T (world leaders in wired communication), Westinghouse (controlled most patents), United Fruit Company (used radios to connect boats to banana plantations) RCA merged with Victor Company, founded NBC Main visionary was David Sarnoff, didn’t make it but solved workings of RCA. He wrote a memo called the Radio Music Box Memo. He outlines radio potential as a popular mass media. William Paley: Bought interest in CBS in 1928Radio developed shows like Amos N Andy and Lone Ranger. Companies Clear Channel 240 channels COX radio largest radio networks CBSInfinity, one of the largest radio networks ABC Beasley focuses on small communities Bonneville variety of media Emmis large markets BOOK Telegraph: precursor to radio, invented in the 1840s by Samuel Morse Morse Code: a series of dots and dashes that stood for letters in the alphabet Electromagnetic waves: theorized by James Maxwell, invisible electronic impulses similar to visible light. Radio waves: later theorized that radio waves could be harnessed so that signals could be sent from transmission to a reception point. Hertz proved Maxwell’s theories. Wireless telegraphy: Marconi put together Morse and Hertz’s ideas to make the wireless telegraphy. A form of voiceless pointtopoint communication. Same discoveries were being made in Russia by Popov. Tesla however, is the inventor of radio as deemed by the US Supreme Court. Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden…AKA radio Broadcasting: once a term for spreading seeds, now a term for transmitting radio waves and later TV signals Narrowcasting: before broadcasting, narrowcasting was persontoperson communication like the telegraph and telephone Regulating Radio: Wireless Ship Act of 1910: all major US sea going ships carrying more than 50 and travelling more than 200 miles must be equipped with wireless equipment with a 100mile range. Radio Act of 1912: radio waves were not owned; they are the collective property of all Americans. Radio operators must have a license. Call letters to identify stations. Radio Cooperation of America: private sector monopoly, the company of radio Evolution of Radio: 1916: Frank Conrad places microphone in front of phonograph to broadcast 1920: KDKA made by Conrad, most noted for airing Cox Harding presidential debate on 11/2/1920, historians list this as the first professional broadcast 1921: government licensed 5 radio stations 1923: over 600 radio stations licensed Radio act of 1927: licensing didn’t mean you owned your station, but that you could license them as long as you satisfied public interest. (Federal Radio Commission) Communications Act of 1934: FRC turned to Federal Communications Commission Still regulates media today.Radio Reinvents itself Becomes portable Transistors: small electrical devices that could receive and amplify radio signals FM: frequency modulation AM: amplitude modulation Format radio: formuladriven radio Rotation: playing top songs many times throughout the day (Top 40) Progressive rock: emerged as an alternative to usual radio Album oriented rock: copied and tamed progressive rock, absorbed by mainstream Sounds of commercial Radio: News talk and information Music formats: contemporary hits, country, urban contemporary, NPR and Nonprofit Radio Nonprofit: Pacifica Foundation NPR: National Public Radio and Public Broadcasting service. Alternated to commercial radio New technologies Satellite Radio HD Radio Radio Convergence Internet Radio Podcasting Payola Manipulating DJs to play specific playlists with money Telecommunications Act of 1966: substantially changed the rules concerning ownership of public air waves. Lowpower FM: class of 100 watt stations in order to give local voice lacking a station a station Chapter 6 Television and cable Radio lead to TV because folk wanted to transmit pictures because they could transmit sounds and voices. In 1948 only 1% of households had a TV, 1951 12%, 1953 50%, and 1960’s 90% History Cathode ray tube began the development of television. Made by William Crookes and Karl Braun TV was a war between patents. 1900 World’s fair in Paris Constanin Perskyi introduces world TV 1922 Philo Farnsworth’s idea for electronic image dissector at age 14 1923 Vladimir Zworykin comes to US and patents TV transmission tube 1924 Zworykin patents kinescope 1925 Charles Jenkins and John Baird made first experimental transmission 1927 Farnsworth transmitted TV picture electronically… image of $Bell Labs and AT&T arrange first practical demonstration of TV The first serious hobbyist TV magazine is published “All about Television. Radio Act 1928 GEowned experiment TV station WGYTV puts on 40 minute show 1929 Zworykin improves his invention RCA begins broadcasting Felix the cat Bell Labs demonstrates a mechanical color system 1930 Farnsworth patents first TV Charles Jenkins broadcasts first commercial 1931CBS does experimental broadcasts 1932 NBC experiments 1934 Federal communication commission 1935 Farnsworth demonstrated TV 1939 RCA demonstrated TV at World’s Fair (Farnsworth beat RCA in court case about patents.) Station W2XBS serviced 4,000 locally owned sets on that day, showing Pres. Roosevelt opening the fair TV Standards 1941 FCC adopts the analog TV standards A 525 line image scanned at 30 frames per second. Used for 50 years Great Britain and former Soviet Union was superior 625 25 fps system 1996 FCC approves new standard digital, HD Feb. 19, 2009 Digital only, no analog Television Shrinking Popularity 2010 98.9% US Homes had TV and that dropped in 2011 to 96.7% 6 large conglomerates Sony Disney Comcast/NBC Universal News Corp Time Warner CBS Companies that stayed alive these companies bought television shows NBCMSNBC, CNBC, Bravo ABC ESPN, Disney CBSViacom Book The Story of TV Complex patent battle between Zworykin and Farnsworth.Farnsworth was the real creator of television Technical Standards Television systems committee set manufacturing practices FCC adopted an analog standard 2009 analog signals were replaced with digital signals 1950s1970s network era networks gained control over TV’s content CATV first small cable systems Narrowcasting for TV: improving signal in many communities Cable Services Basic cable Premium cable: video on demand DBS: Cable without wires Convergence: Home Video Third Screens: view TV on computer Fourth Screen: smartphones and mobile video Major Programming Trends Kinescope: a way of recording before video tape Sketch comedy: short skits Situation comedy: sitcom TV entertainment Dramas: anthology: live dramatic theatre Episodic Series: week to week. Chapter shows: selfcontained stories with a recurring set. Serial programs: openedended episodic series TV Information Network News Affiliate stations: stations that contract with a network to have its shows carried Regulations Prime time access rule: prime time cut from 4 to 3 hours Finsyn: constituted the most damaging attack against the network TV monopoly is FCC history Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcaster’s Interest Must carry rules: all networks must carry all TV broadcasts on their systems Access Channel: networks must fund a tier of nonbroadcast channels for things like local education and government Electronic publishers: networks Common carries: cable systems that provide services that don’t get involved in content Telecommunications Act of 1996: bringing cable under federal rules Economics and ownership of television and cable: Production Deficit financing DistributionRetransmission fees Syndication keeps shows going: leasing TV stations or cable networks the exclusive rights to air Evergreens Offnetwork syndication Firstrun syndication Measuring Television Viewing Rating and Sharing Programming Multisystem operators: corporations like Comcast Multichannel video programming distributors: DirectTV Video subscription service: Netflix Chapter 7 Movies and the Impact of Images History and development ∙ Eadweard Muybridge proved when horses gallop there is a point in time when their hoofs don’t touch the ground. The California governor Leland Stanford asked him to do so. (instantaneous photography) First to project moving pictures. ∙ George Eastman develops roll film, Goodwin, then improved his roll film using celluloid. ∙ Kinetograph, kinescope, and vitascope developed by Edison. The kinetograph was a camera, kinescope was the development where people could view films through a peep hole. People would pay money for viewing through the kinescope. Vitascope was the theatre. ∙ Lumiere brothers invented the cinematograph a combination of a camera and a projector. They made theatres to view using the cinematograph. Narrative Films Narrative films tell stories. Early filmmakers include George Melies. His products were The Vanishing Lady, Cinderella, and a Trip to the Moon. Edwin S. Porter produces The Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery. Porter worked for Edison. New Because of Narratives parallel editing pan shot The rise of the Hollywood Studio System Edison’s Trust: Cartel of major US and French producers. Exclusive deal with Eastman, he would only work with his company. Tried to make a monopoly. Independent productions moved to Hollywood to escape TrustRandolph Zukor who started Paramount Pictures and Fox who made 20th Century lead the breakup of trust. The two took control of production, distribution, and exhibition of the movie business. (1910) Production is the making of the film distribution is getting the movie on the market exhibition is having connection with the theatres the three terms are known as vertical integration By the late 1920’s there was the BIG FIVE (oligopoly) Paramount MGM Warner Brothers 20th century Fox RKO The little three: known as the little three because they did not own theatres. Columbia (Sony Purchased) Universal United Artists Studio System or Hollywood system were fighting for survival… Alternatives to the studio system like international films, documentaries, independent films. Through this development the Cold War began. The government began to eliminate vertical integration and monopolies. In this time people moved to the suburbs, so the movie industry lost out because not as many people were living near theatres. Television and radio gained popularity. Studio’s revenue revenue from theatres DVDs and rentals cable distributing films in foreign markets merchandise BOOK Precursors to film Leonardo Da Vinci who theorized a device that would recreate reality the Magic Lantern thaumatrope zoetrope Development of Film Eadweard Muybridge was the first to manipulate photographs and make them appear back to back while projecting them on a screen. George Eastman made the first rollfilm Hannibal Goodwin improved Eastman’s rollfilm by using thin strips of a transparent material called celluloid. Edison and Lumieres create motion picture Kinetograph: early film cameraKinetoscope: single person viewing system of the kinetograph Vitascope: innovation made by Edison, enabled filmstrips of longer lengths to be projected without interruption Introduction of Narratives Narrative films: movies that tell stories Nickelodeons A form of movie theatre whose name combines the admission price with the Greek word for theatre. Hollywood Studio System Production studio system: firmly controlled creative talent in the industry Distribution block booking distribution Exhibition movie palaces: full time single screen movie theatres multiplexes: multiple screens BIG FIVE: Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox, RKO little three: Columbia, Universal, United Artists Golden Age Hollywood Narrative and the silent era blockbuster Introduction to sound talkies Development of the Hollywood style Hollywood Narratives Hollywood Genres Hollywood “Authors” Outside the Hollywood System Global Cinema Documentary Tradition: documentary/ cinema verite: truth film Independent films: indies are independently produced films Transformation of the Studio System Hollywood Ten: investigations of communist ties in film Paramount Decision: forced studios to gradually divest themselves of their theatres Moving to the Suburbs Television Changes Hollywood Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment The Economics of the Movie Business synergy: the promotion and sale of a product throughout various subsidiaries of the media conglomerate Alternate voicesdigital video: a shift from celluloid film Popular movies and democracy movies function as consensus narratives, a term that describes cultural products that become popular and provide shared cultural experiences Chapter 8 Newspapers Role of Newspapers Chronicles daily life informs and entertains disseminate specialized knowledge to the public (articles on technology, medical issues, science pieces) Shape cultural trends trigger public debate (opinions) offer differing points of view (opinions) advice help make choices (ex. Food, fashion, presidential candidates) guardians of society (surveillance): reporters uncovering stories and guarding society, like information that is released on the presidential candidates like Hillary’s emails mirror society promotes trade, commerce, business air grievances (letters to the editor) History of Newspapers 400 year history 59 BC Acta Diurna in Rome (earliest record of newspaper) legal matters were carved on stone and posted on the middle square of town 8th c First newspapers Beijing handwritten news sheets 15c Manuscript new sheets Germany “sensationalized pamphlets” First Modern Newspapers 1605 Relations in Germany 1616 Niewe Tijdingen in Belgium 1631 Gazette in France 1665 London Gazette in England 1690 First US newspaper Publick Occurances (only one issue) 1704 Boston Newsletter was the first to post more than one issue in the US Other Firsts 1721 first newspaper published without British nod (New England Courant, James Franklin, publisher) 1729 Pennsylvania Gazette (Bought by Benjamin Franklin, considered most influential in the colonies, and published the first political cartoons) 1733 Peter Zenger challenged libel laws (Truth is a defense against libel) News PapersBefore the 1830’s: papers of the American colonies, focuses on shipping news, political essays, readers were elite, financed by political parties, editor’s opinion were prominent, financed by annual subscriptions, definite business bias Around 1833 First Penny Press Daily publication beganNew York Sun, Benjamin Franklin, Emphasized facts, sold for a penny on the street, supported by circulation of advertising revenue, independent rather than a voice of a particular party, focused on the developments from the police, courts and the streets Newspapers as a mass medium Newspapers made people begin thinking as themselves as Americans, and blurred classes. The information was widely distributed. Serves as watchdog role, while monitoring the ethics of their own writing. Newspapers peaked as a mass medium between 1890 and 1920 Book Evolution of American News papers Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press Partisan Press: political papers that pushed the plan of the political group that subsidized that paper Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media Penny papers: cost of papers dropped because of mass production, and they competed with six cent papers New York Sun The New York Sun initiated a wave of penny papers that favored humaninterest stories: news accounts that focus on daily trials and triumphs of human condition. Changing Economics and Founding of the Associated Press Wire services: began as commercial organizations that relayed news stories and information around the country and around the world using telegraph lines and later radio. The Age of Yellow Journalism: Sensationalism and Investigation Yellow journalism emphasized profitable papers that carried exciting human interest stories Investigative journalism are news reports that hunt out the exposure corruption in business and government. Competing Models of Modern Print Journalism “Just the facts, please” objective journalism: distinguished fact from opinion inverted pyramid style: the story form for packaging and presenting this kid of reporting is labeled as inverted pyramid style. Imperative Journalism Aims to explain key issues or events and place them in a broader historical and social context. Literary Forms of Journalism Literary Journalism adapted fictional techniques, like descriptive details. Contemporary Journalism in the TV and Internet AgeUSA Today colors the print landscapes Online Journalism The Business and Ownership of Newspapers Consensusoriented journalism carrying articles on local schools, social events, town government Conflictoriented journalism in which front page news is often defined as events, issues, or events that deviate from social norms Aims at Specific Readers African American Newspapers Spanishlanguage Newspapers Asian American Newspapers Native American Newspapers The Underground press questions mainstream political policies and conventional values. Extra Vocab Newshole: space not taken by ads Feature syndicates: operated as commercial outlets that contracted the newspaper Paywall: changing a fee to access news content Citizen journalism: combo of online news surge and traditional newsroom cutbacks has lead to citizen journalism Chapter 9 Magazines in the Age of Specialization History 1663 Germany Edifying Monthly Discussion, first magazine, edited by Johann Rist, 18th Century Literary Journals in England 1700’s First magazines looked like books, appealed to the “classically educated, elite readership’s that identified with Europe 1731 Gentleman’ magazine, first periodical to use the word magazine in its title. Precursor to Reader’s Digest 1741 First magazines debuted in Philadelphia the nation’s first center for magazines (Andrew Bradford’s American Magazine and Benjamin Franklin’s General Magazine) 1776 100 magazines had started and failed 1825 Fewer than 100 magazines were published 1850 More than 600 magazines published 1879 The Postal Act lowers postal for magazines, making it easier to distribute them by mail 1883 Generalinterest McClure’s magazine was dropped at a price of only 15 cents and was extremely successful. S.S. McClure of Scotland was the publisher. This caused many magazines to lower their prices too. 1890 The Rural Free Delivery Postal System enabled magazines to be delivered outoftheway farms and country homes Golden Age of Magazines 1821 Saturday evening post was the first to achieve general interest, mass audience. Traced it lineage to Ben Franklin’s newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette.Magazines were the first national source of news and commentary, helped shape public opinion and provided a forum to discuss important ideas, became a national advertising medium, cost 35 cents in the 1880s, and first source of photojournalism Major Magazine Chains Time Inc. the largest in the US Advance Publications Force in upscale magazines Hearst Corporation Publishes Cosmopolitan, Elle, and O Meredith Corporation specializes in women’s and home related magazines Rodale Publishes health and wellness titles BOOK The Early History of Magazines Magazine: today it broadly refers to collections of articles, stories, and advertisements appearing in weekly or monthly periodicals that are published in the smaller tabloid style rather than the larger broadsheet newspaper style. The Development of Modern American Magazines Muckrakers: “willing to crawl through societies muck to uncover a story” General interest magazines were popular in the 1950’s. Offered investigational articles but aimed at a wide variety audience. Photojournalism is the use of photos to document the rhythms of daily life Pass along readership: the total number of people who came into a single copy of a magazine Convergence: Magazines Confront the Digital Age Webzines: magazines that appear exclusively online Domination and Specialization ∙ Men’s and Women’s Magazines ∙ Sports, Entertainment, and Leisure Magazines ∙ Magazines for the Ages ∙ Elite Magazines (Characterized by their combo of literature, criticism, humor, and journalism, and their appeal to the highly educated) ∙ MinorityTargeted Magazines ∙ Supermarket tabloids: push the limits of both decency and credibility Magazine Departments and Duties Desktop publishing: cheap way of publishing in which some magazines start out ∙ Editorial and publishing ∙ Advertising and sales Regional editions are national magazines whose content is tailored to geographical location Split run editions: the editorial content remains the same Demographic editions are targeted to specific consumers ∙ Circulation and DistributionEvergreen subscriptions: those that automatically renew via credit card Major Magazine Chains Magalogs: combine glossy magazine style with the sales pitch of retail catalogs Alternative Voices Zines: selfpublished magazines Chapter 10 Books and the Power of Print History 1640: Printing begins in North America with the Whole Book of Psalmes 1731: Ben Franklin establishes early circulating (subscription) libraries, then went on to be a famous author 1814: steamedpowered rotary press 1830s60s: Serial novels became popular Civil War era: popularity of paperback dime novels Growth of inexpensive books, magazines, and newspapers fuels growth of mass literacy. Top Book Companies 10. scholastic 9. Holtzbrinck 8. McGrawHill Education 7. Grupa Planeta 6. Hachette Livre 5. Random House 4.Wolters Kluwer 3.Thomson Reuters 2. Reed Elsevir 1. Pearson BOOK The History of Books from the Papyrus to the Paperback The Development of the Manuscript Manuscript culture: a period in which books we painstakingly lettered, decorated, and bound by hand Illuminated manuscript: made for churches or the wealthy, colorful, and illustrations The Innovations of Block Printing and Movable Type Block printing: a technique in which sheets of paper were applied to blocks of inked wood with raised letters depicting handcarved letters The Gutenberg Revolution: The Invention of the Printing Press Printing press: Gutenberg used the principles of movable type to develop a mechanical printing press Vellum: The Gutenberg Bible required six presses, many printers, and several months to produce. It was printed on fine calfskinbased parchment called vellum. The Birth of Publishing in the United States Paperback book: cheaper paper covers Pulp fiction: a reference to the cheap, machine made pulp paper they were printed on Linotype: machines enabled printer to save time by setting type mechanically using a typewriter style key board Offset lithography: allowed books to be printed from photographic plates Types of books trade books include hard and paperback aimed at general readers professional books aimed at occupational groups textbooks improve literacy rates and public education mass market paper backs are sold on racks at drugstores religious books reference books like dictionaries and encyclopedias university press publishes scholarly texts for small groups Convergence: Books in the Digital age Ebooks The Structure of Book Publishing Acquisitions editors are hired to seek out and sign authors to contracts, Subsidiary rights are selling rights to a book Developmental editor: provides feedback Copy editors: attend to specific problems in writing or length Design managers: work on the look of the book Second Test Review Covers chapters 610 television, newspapers, magazines, and books Television review ∙ Radio paved the way ∙ Key people involved: Zworykin and Farnsworth (patent wars). Zworykin has the backing of RCA. Farnsworth was only 14 when he began cutting images into lines which lead to the development of TV. ∙ Government took control in 194852 FCC froze all licenses, they were working on figuring out ownership and control of airwaves. ∙ TV standards adopted by FCC. 1941 525 line image scanned at thirty frames per second. 1996 FCC adopted new standards of HD. 2009 all analog was switched completely to digital. ∙ 6 conglomerates: Sony, Disney, Comcast, News Corp, Time Warner CBS Movies ∙ The Great Train Robbery was the first narrative film∙ Eadweard Muybridge was the first to manipulate photographs and make them appear back to back while projecting them on a screen. ∙ Eastman developed the first roll film, which was improved by Goodwim, who used celluloid ∙ Kinetograph, kinetoscope, vitascope: all forms of projection and cameras for films and filming developed by Edison. ∙ Nickelodeon a type of theatre ∙ Blockbuster is a popular movie ∙ Talkies are the movies with speech. Silent movies were before talkies. ∙ Studios made their money by dividing revenue, taking a percentage of the money the theatres got, the release of home videos like DVDs and VHS tapes. ∙ Big 5, Little 3 difference: Big 5 owned theatres and the little 3 did not Newspapers ∙ Top News Papers: USA Today, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, New York Post, Chicago Turbine, The Washington Post ∙ Earliest known written news accounts Acta Diurna ∙ Developments from partisan press(when newspapers were owned by the wealthy and papers were very political with one opinion) to penny press(less expensive, neutral, not so political all opinions involved, reporters covered crime) ∙ Yellow journalism: sensationalized journalism, brought down powerful people like Rockefeller ∙ Peter Zinger challenged the libel laws. As long as it truth it is a defense against libel. ∙ Role: gives advice, special knowledge about science, trade and business, cultural trends, daily life, letters to the editor, watch dog, mirrors society Magazines ∙ Starts in Germany and England, doesn’t reach the US till later because of all the work with beginning life in the US like building homes ect. ∙ 1776 magazines ceased because of war in the US ∙ national mass medium ∙ most diverse print medium ∙ last to become popular Top media Conglomerates Comcast Disney 21st century foxTime Warner Time Warner Cable Broadcasting DirecTV WPP CBS Viacom Sky Chapter 11 Advertising and Commercial Culture Statistics on Advertising ∙ Social media ads 101 billion dollars are being spent (ads on mobile phones and tablets) (2016) That amount spent is 430% higher than the amount in 2013 ∙ 60% of all domestic news revenue is from ads ∙ 75% of newspapers income is from ads ∙ 65% of the average newspaper is advertisements ∙ half of an average magazine is advertising ∙ half of a magazines income is from ads ∙ Commercial TV and radio devote about 25% of air time to ads/ prime time jumps to 30% ∙ With broadcasting almost all revenue comes from ads Advertising American Marketing Assn says advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. Types of Ads classifiednewspapers and magazines local on local media direct action ad is attempting to get one to participate in something/event national ad building a demand for nationally available service of product indirect action message build a message or demand for a product advocacy ads selling an idea or promoting a point of view public service ads free to nonprofit brand or product advertising relationship building ads win a person early for a product Appeals 1need for sex 2need for affiliation 3need to nurture 4need for guidance 5need to aggress 6need to achieve 7need to dominate 8need to have prominence 9need for attention10need for autonomy 11need to escape 12need to feel safe 13need to 14need to 15need to History ∙ Ancient Egyptians had the first billboards and carved ads in stones. ∙ Ancient Greek has town choirs who announced ads. Hired for the quality of their voice ∙ Handbills were the first printed ads. Posted on doors and telephone boards. Today they are more like flyers and pamphlets. ∙ Newspapers had some of the first ads because before the penny press, newspapers were read by the elite. ∙ 1704 Boston News Letter ∙ 1869The first full service ad company NW Ayers (Philadelphia) Search places to place an ad Different Media and Ads ∙ Newspapers were one of the most popular ways to advertise. Guaranteed readership. ∙ Radio (Paley bought CBS to advertise his dad’s cigars) Businesses and companies did not only advertise their product but bought the program. ∙ Magazines were the first mass media but not the popular choice for advertisers. Magazines were national but shops and businesses were local ∙ TV was always planned on ads. Consumer ads. Businesses wanted their ads to be on TV because in the 1960s 90% of homes had a TV, today most homes have more than one TV Regulations ∙ 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, directed at patent medicines. Most had alcohol, morphine, and cocaine. ∙ FDA regulates ads about food, drugs, cosmetics, and health care products ∙ 1914 Federal Trade Commission a watch dog for business ads ∙ since 1895 we have the US postal service which regulates ads sent in the mail ∙ 1934 securities and exchange commission, regulates ads about stocks and bonds ∙ 1934 FCC controls what is on television and radio ads, political ads (federal communications commission) 2 ways that advertisers influence media content ∙ economic clout: threaten to cancel your ad ∙ product placement: company has decided it wants its products within a TV show or a movie. 71.4% of all paid ads would be through placements BOOK Today, advertisements are everywhere and in every media form.Product placement is the purchase of spaces for particular goods to appear on a TV show, movie, or music video. Early Development in American Advertising Advertising has existed since 1300 BCE The First Advertising Agencies Space brokers were the first American advertising agencies for newspapers (individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants. Early Ad Regulation Subliminal advertising is the use of subliminal messages to fool someone into buying something Types of Advertising Agencies Mega agencies are large ad firms that are formed by merging several agencies together Boutique agencies only devote talent to a handful of clients Structure of Ad Agencies Market research is figuring out consumer’s reactions to certain products Demographics is determining what consumers will buy something Psychographics is a research to attempt to categorize consumers according to things like their beliefs Focus groups small group interview of 612 to have a moderated discussion about a product or issue Values and Lifestyles (VALS) encourages advertisers to find their niche assuming not every consumer will want their product Story board: blueprint of the potential ad Virtual marketing: short videos or other content that gains attention quickly Media buyers: purchase the types of media that are best suited to carry a client’s as, reach the targeted audience, and measure the effectiveness of those ad placements. Account executives are responsible for bringing in new business and managing accounts of established clients Trends of Online Advertising Interstitials pop up ads Spam unsolicited commercial emails Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertising Conventional Persuasive Strategies Focus person testimonial: a product is endorsed by a famous person Plainfolks pitch: association with simplicity Snobappeal approach: elevation of social status Bandwagon effect: “everyone” is using it Hidden fear approach: plays on consumer’s sense of insecurity Irritation advertising: creating productname recognition by being annoying or obnoxious The Association Principle: s widely used persuasive technique that associates a product with a positive culture value Advertising as Myth and StoryMyth analysis: how ads work at a general cultural level Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertising Commercial speech: any print or broadcast expression for which a fee is charged to organizations and individuals buying time or space in the mass media Advertising Role in Politics Political advertising: the use of ad techniques to promote a candidate’s image and persuade the public to adopt a specific view. Chapter 12 Public Relations and Framing the Message All the activity that maintains a beneficial relationship between an organization and all its various publics Activities ∙ researchdefine problem, ID publics, test concepts, monitor progress of campaign, evaluate effectiveness ∙ Counseling: suggest policies, advise management in decisions, train personnel \ ∙ Communications: employees, stockholders, outside organizations, news media Strategies Community relations, crisis management, lobbying Tools Press release, video news release, press kits, press conference, news briefings Milestones ∙ 1773 The Boston Tea Party (a wellstaged event) ∙ 17871788 the Federalist papers (‘history’s finest PR job”) ∙ 1828 Andrew Jackson becomes the first US president elected with the help of a sophisticated PR campaign ∙ 1835 Phineas T. Barnum begin career as a showman, known best for “The Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth” ∙ 1900 First publicity agency, the Boston Publicity Bureau, is formed ∙ 1906 The modern public relations profession was born when the industry hires Ivy Ledbetter Lee during a strike (helped Rockefeller) ∙ 1917 The Committee on Public Information (CPI) promotes US involvement in WWI, making PR an official part of governmentWWI ∙ 1923 Edward Bernays coins the public relations counsel ∙ 1929 The Torches of Freedom march ∙ 1942 Office of War Information is created; promoted war bonds, victory gardens, work productivity, and rationing of food, clothing, and gasoline ∙ 1947 The Public Relations Society of America is founded to encourage professional conduct in the industry BOOK∙ The first PR practitioners were simply theatrical press agents: those who sought to advance a client’s image through media exposure, primarily via stunts staged for newspaper. ∙ PRSA defines PR: “Public relations helps an organization and its public adapt mutually to each other ∙ Services that PR carry out for its clients include publicity, communication, public affairs, issues management, government relations, financial PR, community relations, industry relations, minority relations, advertising, press agentry, promotion, media relations, social networking, and propaganda: a communication strategically placed, either as adveritisng or publicity, to gain public support for a special issue, program, or policy. Conveying the Message Press releases aka news releases, are announcements written in the style of news reports that give info about an individual, company, or organization and pitch a story idea to the news media. Video news releases are press releases in the form of video. Public Service Announcements 1560 second messages that promote governmental programs, educational programs, volunteer agencies, and social reform. Special and PseudoEvents Pseudoevents is any circumstance created in sole purpose of gaining coverage in the media. Government Relations and Lobbying Lobbying is the process of attempting to influence law makers to support and vote for an organization’s or industry’s best interest. Astroturf Lobbying is phony grassroots public affairs campaigns engineered by public relations firms. Tensions between Public Relations and the Press Flack a derogatory term used to refer to a PR agent Public Relations and Democracy Greenwashing are guidelines to ensure that environmental marketing practices don’t run afoul of its prohibition against unfair or deceptive acts or practices. Chapter 13 Media Economics and the Global Market Place Monopoly: one business has total control Oligopoly: a few businesses are in control Limited competition Direct payment: selling the media Indirect payment: advertisements Example of Hegemony: something everyone accepts (white Santa) Example of Synergy: Disney’s Frozen made a lot of money from expanding from just a move, then to selling music separately, to becoming a TV show Once Upon a Time Example of Cultural Imperialism: The US has blockbuster movies and it is exported to other countries, the movie is translated to each country’s language and it impacts the culture of the country it is sent to. BOOK The Structure of the Media Industry Media industries are structured in 1 of the following 3 ways: monopoly, oligopoly, and limited competition. The Performances of Media Organizations Collecting Revenue: Direct and Indirect payment Commercial strategies: Price, Length frequency and tolerance, data mining and privacy, regulation Economics, Hegemony, and Storytelling Hegemony: acceptance of dominant values in a culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold economic and political power The Rise of Specialization and Synergy Synergy: Distinguishes current media economics Cultural Imperialism Domination of the global market Chapter 14 The Culture of Journalism What is News? BOOK The process of gathering information and making narrative reports, edited by individuals for news organizations Characteristics of News Newsworthiness is the information mostworthy of transformation into news stories Values in American Journalism Neutrality Boost Credibility and Sales Partnership Trumps Neutrality, especially online and on cable other cultural values in journalism ethnocentrism judging of other countries responsible capitalism an underlying value, journalists assume that business people compete to create increased prosperity for all smalltown pastoralism is favoring small towns over urban areas individualism most popular Ethical Predicaments Deploying Deception Invading privacy conflict of interest: journalist may benefit Herd journalism Stake out a house, chase celebrities in packs Sound Bite A victim, celebrity, ect. speak about how they feel on a story Public Journalism Conversational model for the news practice Press Bias 2 assumptions Adversary “gotcha”. Ben Carson was very skeptical of the media. Media are too close to the source. Media was completely off guard because of how close they were following people’s reactions. News is a product and a process News: the process of gathering information, making narrative reports from a frame of reference Characteristics: Timeliness: news that is up to date as of that week Proximity: how close or far is it from the reader Conflict Prominence: Celebrities, government officials Human Interest Usefulness Deviance/novel something against the norm Objectivity/Neutrality: the goal is to be unbiased, and to report both sides of the story without judgement Inverted Pyramid: Most important details at the top, less at the bottom as it goes down. Most people read the first paragraph of an article so you don’t want them to miss important information. Attribution of sources Minimal use of adverbs and adjectives: sticking with facts because you don’t want to ptrsent one side as if they’re better than another. Cultural Values Ethnocentrism: when you view different cultures from the views of your own, and compare them. White Ethnocentrism Responsible Capitalism: Fundamental integration of needs of the wider community, care for the communities in which the business operate, environmental initiatives and support for the arts and culture, with the business’s goals and processes. Most American’s put a smile on capitalism For example: Disney is out to make a big buck, but also entertain us, and are a prime example of capitalismChapter 15 Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research Laswell Model: research on the communicator (control research), the content (content research), the channels (medium research), the receiver (audience research), and media effects (effects research) Popular Ways of Media Effects Research Media Effects: understanding, explanation of how media affects society cultural studies: how people make meaning and understand reality, cultural symbols Early Media Research Media Analysis looked at politics and morals Propaganda took over during WWI Public opinion research is popular during elections Social Psychology: studies behavior marketing research: consumer buying habits Theories of media effects Hypodermic Needle: doing exactly what media says Twostep flow: follows the opinion of leaders who interpret media Selective Process: interpret media in their own way Social Learning: imitation of behavior shown in media Cultivation: think real world works like TV world Priming: media trigger related thoughts Individual differences: mass media will affect different media users in different ways Agenda Setting: media doesn’t tell you what to do but what to think about Uses and Gratification: consumers select media to meet particular needs Gatekeepers: editors, producers, and other media managers who filter messages, making decisions about the types of messages received. Not so popular today with social media. Automatitcity: we are faced by media everywhere Peripheral Route Persuasion: the listener decides whether to agree with the message based on other cues besides the strength of the argument or ideas Celebrities with a lot of followers will advertise Spiral of Silence: those who believe that their views on controversial issues are in the minority will keep their opinions to themselvesbecome silent for fear of social isolation ThirdPerson Effect: believing that others are more affected by media than themselves BOOK Media effects research: attempts to understand, explain, and predict the effects of mass media on individuals in society Cultural studies: another area of mass media research Early Media Research MethodsPropaganda Analysis: major early focus on mass media (“the control of opinion by significant symbols… by stories, rumors, reports, pictures, and other forms of social communication.”) Public Opinion Research: how does mass media affect the public’s attitudes Pseudopolls: callins, online, personinthestreet polls that the news media use in order to address the question of the day. Social Psychology Polls: measure the behavior and cognition of individuals Marketing Research: advertisers conduct surveys in order to analyze consumers buying habits Research on Media Effects Early theories of media effects The hypodermicneedle model: media shoots their potent effects directly into unsuspecting victims Minimal effects model: media alone cannot change an individual’s opinion Selective retention and selective exposure take part in the minimal effects model. The uses and gratifications model was prosed to contest the notion of a passive media audience Conducting Media Effects Research Use of the scientific method hypothesis experiments, subjects are chosen by random assignment survey research content analysis Contemporary Media Effects Theories Social learning theory: four step process: attention, retention, moto reproduction, and motivation Agenda setting: the idea that when the mass media focus their attention on particular events or issues, they determine that is, set agenda for the major topics for discussion for individuals and the The cultivation effect: suggests that heavy viewing of television leads individuals to perceive the world in ways that are consistent with television portrayals. The spiral of silence: links to mass media, social psychology, and the formation of public opinion. The third person effect: people believe others are more affected by mass media than themselves Cultural Approaches to Media Research: Textual analysis, audience studies and political economy studies Cultural Studies Theoretical perspectives The public sphere: defined as a space for critical public debateChapter 16 Legal Controls and Freedom of Expression Media is the Fourth Estate, the unofficial fourth branch of government. The press acts as a watch dog over the 3 branches of government. The Authoritarian Theory: During the 16th and 17th century the government has control over what mass media print, broadcasts, or webcast. Libertarian theory or free press 17th century John Million Social Responsibility theory: relates to libertarian Soviet Theory: press is to be publically owned. 1917 Russian Revolution Restrictions and laws covering the press today: 1. Federal Government Restrictions: Alien and Sedation Laws 1798, The Espionage Act of 1918, The Smith Act of 1910, and Cold War Congressional investigations of suspected communists in the late 1940’s. Prior restraint, the government censored information before the information is published or broadcast. But the US supreme Court in 1931 established the circumstances under which prior restraint could be justified. Censorship is the practice of suppressing material that is considered morally, politically or otherwise objectionable. (The Patriot Act of 2001 a reaction to 9/11). Protection of Individuals from the press include libel (Peter Zinger/a false statement that damages one’s reputation), invasion of privacy (courts protect an individual’s right to protect his or her privacy and reputation versus the public’s interest in a news or feature story that the press might publish/ intrusion, embarrassment, false light (publishing something that is not true), or misappropriation (something you do not have permission to publish) BOOK Models of Expression Authoritarian Model developed around the same time as the printing press. Its advocates said that the general public was too illiterate and needed assistance from the elite. Communist or state model, the press is controlled by the government. Social responsibility model characterizes the ideals of mainstream journalism in the US. Fourth Estate, a fourth branch of government (unofficial) that monitors the real three branches Libertarian Model encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of an individual and press freedoms. Unprotected Forms of Expression Seditious Expression Copyright Infringement Copyright legally protects authors and producers public domain gives the public free access to work Libel: defamation of character slander is defaming language Defenses against libel are qualified privilege and opinion and fair comment Obscenity: does not constitute a legitimate form of expression protected by the First Amendment Right to Privacy addresses a person’s right to be left alone. First Amendment Versus the Sixth gag orders shield laws The Demise and Fairness Doctrine Fairness Doctrine was controversial to issues what Section 315 to political speech.