MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 1I. Chapter 1 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Definition presented in class and 6 key words presented in text a. DEFINITION: A management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends b. DELIBERATE—public relations activity is delDon't forget about the age old question of assignents
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iberate/intentional. It is designed to influence, gain understanding, provide information and obtain feedback (the reaction from those affected by the activity) c. PLANNED—Public relations activity is organized. Solutions to problems are discovered and logistics are thought out, with the activity that takes place over a period of time. It is systematic, requiring research and analysis. d. PERFORMANCE—Effective public relations is based on actual policies and performance. No amount of public relations will generate good will and support if the organization is unresponsive to community concerns. e. PUBLIC INTEREST—Public relations activity should be mutually beneficial to the organization and the public; it is the alignment of the organization’s self interests with the public’s concerns and interests. f. TWOWAY COMMUNICATION—Public relations is more than oneway dissemination of informational materials. It is equally important to solicit feedback. g. MANAGEMENT FUNCTION—Public relations is most effective when it is a strategic and integral part of decision making by top management. Public relations involve counseling and problem solving at high levels, not just the dissemination of information after a decision has been made. 2. Purposes of PR a. To motivate, modify or maintain attitudes, behaviors and information levels of targeted public—both internal and external. b. To establish, maintain and/or enhance those relationships that are key to the organization’s success, if not survival. 3. What those definitions and purposes imply about what PR professionals do IMPLICATIONS a. Ongoing b. Counsel—advice on what should or should not be done c. Internal and external IMPLIES d. Relationship building and maintenance e. Environmental scanning—always know what is going on around you and be up to date on a variety of current issues f. Boundary scanning—focusing on all aspects; not just PR g. Credibility 4. Opportunities/challenges facing the field a. Integrated marketing communications (IMC)—a concept of marketing communication planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines (advertising, direct response, sales promotion, public relations) and combines MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 2these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact. II. Chapter 2 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Value of investigating public relations history a. Stabilize a definition ultimate goal b. Ground PR in an ethical foundation c. Provide a genealogy of ideas and actions that can inform practice d. Introspection e. Public relations’ sense of self f. Public relations in popular culture g. Public relations as news h. Nobody does PR better than Americans 2. Phases and characteristics of the traditional model of PR history a. Press agentry/publicity (1850—1900) 1. ONEWAY communication, primarily through mass media, to distribute information that may be exaggerated, distorted, or even incomplete to hype a cause, product or service. Source Receiver 2. Key word—PROMOTION 3. Propaganda—the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the intent of the propagandist 4. Key practitioner—PT BARNUM 5. Propaganda, oneway, truth not essential, advocacy 6. EX) Movie Trailer b. Public information (1900—1920s) 1. ONEWAY communication, dissemination of truthful, accurate information. Source Receiver 2. Key word—DISSEMINATION 3. Public information must be truthful, not the same as publicity. 4. Key practitioner—IVY LEE. Lee was the first PR counsel—Good policy makes good PR. He is best known for his work with the Rockefeller family. 5. Committee on Public Information—Created during WWI to persuade newspapers and magazines to contribute news and advertising space to encourage Americans to support the war, save food and invest in Liberty Bonds 6. Dissemination of information, oneway, truth important 7. EX) President announces football team doesn’t have to attend class c. Public relations (1920s) 1. TWOWAY ASYMMETRICAL—twoway communications with imbalanced effects with the purpose of persuasion. The goal is to help the communicator better understand the audience and how to persuade it. One person always has more power. Source Receiver Source 2. Key word—PERSUASION MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 33. Key practitioner—EDWARD BERNAYS & DORIS E. FLEISCHMAN. Bernays conceptualized a third model of public relations that emphasized the application of social science research and behavioral psychology to formulate campaigns and messages that could change people’s perceptions and encourage certain behaviors. His wife and influential partner was Doris E. Fleischman. 4. EX) No one liked the ballet, but Bernays came in and put Russian dancers in the Sunday paper, then people started to get curious. 5. Scientific persuasion, twoway, imbalanced effects, advocacy 6. EX) Survey conducted for a medical test 7. EX) This class d. Public Relations (1960sToday) 1. TWOWAY SYMMETRICAL—two way communication with balanced effects. The purpose is to gain a mutual understanding. It is also called relationship building. (feedback loop) SourceReceiverSource Receiver 2. Key word—COUNSELING 3. Key Practitioners—BERNAYS & FLEISHCHMAN; JOHN HILL; LEONE BAXTER 4. Mutual understanding, twoway, balanced effects, mediation 5. EX) Thank you letters for donating 3. Pioneers in the field a. Julius Caesar—wrote book about his accomplishments b. Catholic church –Crusades c. Recruitment to the Thirteen Colonies d. Kings College (Columbia U) commencement, 1758 First Press Release e. Andrew Jackson—first press secretary f. Davy Crockett & Annie Oakley g. PT Barnum h. Edward Bernays i. Ivy Lee—First public relations counsel j. Committee on public information III. Chapter 3 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Interacting factors that influence moral behavior of PR professionals a. Morals 1. Generally accepted standards of right and wrong 2. Applies to character and behavior b. Ethics 1. A system of morals (moral code) employed by a person, group, or organization 2. A part of who we are as individuals c. Help determine 1. Right from wrong 2. Fair from unfair 3. Just from unjust MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 4d. Value orientations 1. ABSOLUTIST—every decision is either right or wrong 2. EXISTENTIALIST—decisions based on immediate practical choice 3. SITUATIONALIST—decisions based on what causes the least harm e. Moral behavior 1. Puts ethical standards in practice 2. Dictates formal/informal behavior 3. Basis for gauging others f. Moral behavior and PR professionals 1. Interaction of: o Personal standards o Organizational standards o PR industry standards (code of ethics) o Laws and regulations o Outer limits of tolerations of key publics g. Public opinion 1. Derives, in part, from the public’s evaluation of an organization’s actions within the context of that public’s ethics 2. Core values of the PRSA Code of Ethics 2010 a. ADVOCACY—serving the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for clients and employers b. HONESTY—adhering to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of clients and employers c. EXPERTISE—advancing the profession through continued professional development, research and education d. INDEPENDENCE—providing objective counsel and being accountable for individual actions e. LOYALTY—being faithful to clients and employers, but also honoring an obligation to serve the public interest f. FAIRNESS—respecting all opinions and supporting the right of free expression g. COMPETITION—Promotes fair competition within public relations and provides options. h. DISCLOSURE—ensures prompt corrections and transparency. i. CONFIDENTIALITY—protect client privacy j. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST—PR counsels should act in the client’s best interest and disclose actual or potential conflicts to avoid the appearance of impropriety or actual impropriety. k. ENHANCE PR—PR counsels should contribute to the growth and credibility of PR. They should raise the bar on ethical standards in their decisionmaking and not over promise. 3. Pros and cons of licensing PR professionals a. PROS 1. Help define the practice of public relations 2. Establish uniform educational criteria 3. Set uniform professional [ethical] standards 4. Protect clients and employers from imposters and protect consumers MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 55. Protect qualified practitioners from unfair competition from the unethical and unqualified 6. Decertify violators 7. No infringement on first amendment b. CONS 1. Any licensing in the communication field would violate the first amendment guarantee of freedom of speech 2. Civil and criminal laws already exist to deal with malpractice 3. Licensing is a function of state governments, and PR people often work on a national or international level 4. Licensing ensures only minimum competence and professional standards, it does not ensure high ethical behavior 5. The credibility and status of a profession are not necessarily ensured through the licensing 6. Setting up the machinery for licensing and policing would be very costly to the American taxpayer 7. Too much focus on education 8. They think voluntary accreditation is sufficient 9. It’s hard to define public relations IV. Chapter 4 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Personal attributes of effective public relations professionals a. Ability with words b. Analytical c. Creativity 1. Strategic 2. Tactical d. Persuasive e. Polished Presenter f. Inquisitive, resourceful, credible, ethical 2. Essential skills of effective public relations professionals a. Writing 1. Grammar, spelling 2. Style, tone 3. Power of words b. Research 1. Persistence and ability to gather information 2. Skillful use of new technology 3. Assessment of audience needs c. Planning 1. Organized 2. DetailedOriented 3. “Big Picture” d. ProblemSolving 1. Identify 2. Solve 3. Range of Public Relations work MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 6a. Community relations b. Consumer relations c. Investor relations/ shareholder relations d. Employee relations 4. Departments in Public Relations o Entrylevel technician Use technical skills to disseminate information Online research Write releases Leg work on accounts Gather data Solicit feedback Grunt…but that’s okay o Supervisor/Account Executive Supervises projects…more responsibility Involved in planning and scheduling More control of the budget Problem Solving Middle Man/Woman…but that’s okay o Manager Departmental management/personnel Issuetrend analysis What are the issues? What issues are popular today? Issue trend goes up/down Evaluation More direct budgeting More pressure…but that’s okay o Director Constituency and issuetrend analysis Communication and operational planning at departmental level Evaluate upper management Final word on budget The Big Boss <almost>…but that’s okay o Executive Organizational leadership and management Develops corporate mission Organizational vision Annual goals Policies and systems The Buck Stops HERE! a. FIRM 1. Experience gained quickly 2. Lost of variety 3. Fastpaced 4. Intense daily pressure MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 75. Salaries lower at entry 6. High turnover 7. High networking potential b. CORPORTATIONS 1. Duties more focused 2. Little variety 3. Slower paced 4. Less pressure 5. Typically higher at entry 6. Lower turnover 7. Little time for networking V. Chapter 5 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. The ROPES models of the PR process a. RESEARCH 1. Background work 2. Check your facts 3. Organization 4. Opportunity 5. Publics b. OBJECTIVES 1. What would you like to accomplish? 2. Output 3. Input c. PROGRAMMING 1. Planning 2. Implementing d. EVALUATION 1. Preparation 2. Progress 3. Did it work? 4. What can be done better? e. STEWARDSHIP 1. Hardest and most important 2. Reciprocity 3. Reporting 4. Responsibility 5. Keeping in touch 6. Building relationships 2. The value of research in the PR profession a. Research—the controlled, objective, and systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding b. PR professionals use research to 1. Achieve credibility with management a. Executives want facts MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 8b. Must be able to do research and relate findings to the organization’s objectives 2. Define audiences and segment publics a. Detailed information about the demographics, lifestyles, characteristics and consumption patterns of audiences helps to ensure that messages reach the proper audiences 3. Formulate strategy a. Waste of money to pursue the wrong strategies 4. Test messages a. Used to determine what message is most salient with the target audience 5. Help management keep in touch a. Top management is often isolated from the concerns of employees, customers and other important publics b. Feedback helps bridge the gap c. “Reality check” d. Leads to better policies and communication strategies 6. Prevent crisis a. 90% of organizational crises are caused by internal operational problems rather than unexpected natural disasters b. Uncover trouble spots and public concerns 7. Monitor the competition a. Keep track of what the competition is doing to capitalize on their weaknesses 8. Sway public opinion a. Facts and figures, compiled from a variety of primary and secondary sources, can change public opinion 9. Generate publicity 10. Measure success 3. PRIMARY research and kinds of research methods or techniques a. Designing and implementing your OWN research to generate answers to your questions b. Qualitative research—good for probing attitudes and perceptions, assessing penetration of messages and testing messages 1. “Soft” data 2. Focus Groups 3. Indepth interviews 4. Text Analysis 5. Valid, but not reliable 6. Non random samples c. Quantitative research—uses scientific surveys and complex statistical tabulations 1. “Hard” data 2. Surveys 3. Experiments 4. Content Analysis MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 95. Valid, reliable 6. Random samples d. Historical research? 1. Archival 2. Oral histories 3. Social stats 4. SECONDARY research and kinds of resources a. Employers findings of OTHER researches to answer your questions b. Resources include—government data, mass media, corporate, industry, association, trade publications, academic publications/presentations, market research, watchdog groups, activist groups 5. Research a. CAVEAT EMPTOR—employ healthy skepticism. Is it reliable? Is there a bias? What sources did the researcher use? Is it objective or subjective? 6. Situation analysis a. An in depth profile of a person, issue or organization. What has happened in the past? What is going on now? What are indications for the future? VI. Chapter 6 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Purpose of planning in public relations a. Purpose of planning= OBJECTIVE 1. GOAL—where you want to be in the future? 2. STRATEGY—how you want to get there? b. Characteristics of a plan: 1. Strategic, objectbased 2. Systematic 3. Proactive c. Practitioners must think about a situation, analyze what can be done about it, creatively conceptualize the appropriate strategies and tactics and determine how the results will be measured 2. 8 elements of planning a. Situation—state the problem b. Audience—no audience, no plan. c. Objectives d. Tactics e. Calendar/timetable f. Budget—2nd most important g. Evaluation—at the end 3. Roles of strategies messages and tactics in a campaign a. STRATEGY (establishes why something is being done and why it will work for the purpose of the campaign) 1. Fulfills objectives 2. Includes key themes, messages 3. Audiencebased b. MESSAGES 1. Reinforce strategy MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 2. Campaign wide 3. Audiencebased 4. Drive tactical decisions—match the format of delivery 5. Simple 6. Adaptable 7. Applicable 8. Durable 109. Can be a working concept—“it’s the economy, stupid” (James Carville during 1st Clinton campaign) 10. Can be a slogan—“Don’t mess with Texas” c. TACTICS (Gets the job done) 1. Describes the specific activities that put the strategies into operation and help to achieve the stated objectives 2. They are tools of communication to reach audiences with key messages 3. They are a PR action designed to have a particular effect on an organization’s relationship with a particular public. d. Example 1. Strategies: Reach out to community/schools 2. Messages: Heart disease is the numberone killer of women 3. Tactics: Create a consumer website 4. Characteristics of objectives a. Audience based b. Time based c. Measureable d. Support organization objective 5. Differences between the two kinds of objectives a. INFORMATIONAL objectives 1. Increase Awareness 2. Deliver key messages 3. Easier to accomplish, harder to measure 4. EX) Increase information levels about curbside pickup among heads of household by 15% in 3 months. b. MOTIVATIONAL objectives 1. Change attitudes 2. Influence behavior 3. Harder to accomplish easier to measure 4. EX) Increase positive association with recycling efforts among city residents by 20% in 12 months. VII. Chapter 7 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. 6 stages of successful communication MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 11a. RECEIVE—successful communication involves interaction, or shared experience, because the message must not only be seen, but also received. The larger the audience, the greater the number of barriers to communication. b. ATTEND (listening)—because audiences have different approaches to receiving messages, communicators must tailor the message to get the recipient’s attention. They need to understand the audience’s mental state. Messages for passive audiences must have style and creativity; messages for an active audience who is seeking information must have more sophisticated content. The effective message will raise the audience’s “need” level by providing some obvious benefit. c. UNDERSTOOD—The most common element of understanding between the communicator and the audience is common language—this is an issue because of multiculturalism. The communicator must consider the audience and style the language appropriately. They must take into consideration literacy levels, clarity, simplicity, and avoid discriminatory or offensive language. d. BELEIVED—key variables include source credibility, context, audience predispositions, and the audience’s level of involvement. e. REMEMBERED—messages should be repeated extensively to reach all members of the target audience. This helps them remember, enhances learning and offsets environmental “noise”. The communicator should convey information in several ways through a variety of channels. f. ACTED UPON—the success of a message is in its effect on its recipient. The adoption process is affected by relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The time needed to adopt a new idea or product can be affected by the importance of the decision as well as the personality of the person receiving the message. The primary source of information varies at each step of the adoption process. Word of mouth (WOM) campaigns are increasingly being used to take advantage of peer influence in the persuasion process. 2. Roles of uses and gratification theory, situational theory of publics, and diffusion of innovations theory a. Uses and gratification theory 1. The communication process is INTERACTIVE. The communicator wants to inform and persuade; the recipient wants to be entertained, informed, or alerted to opportunities that can fulfill individual needs. 2. Audiences come to messages for different reasons, including surveillance of the environment to find out what is happening, locally or globally, that has some impact on them, entertainment and diversion, reinforcement of opinions and predispositions, decision making about buying a product or service. b. Situational theory of publics 1. Publics can be identified and classified in the context that they are aware of a problem and the extent of their reaction to that problem. c. Diffusion of innovations theory 1. How, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread throughout cultures. 3. 6 elements of effective communication and of effective ongoing communication 1. Effective communication MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet a. Sender—source or encoder b. Message c. Channel—air d. Receiver—decoder e. Feedback—from receiver to sender f. Shared experience 2. Effective ongoing communication a. Sender/encoder becomes interpreter and decodes b. Messages sent by sender and receiver c. Receiver/decoder becomes interpreter and encodes 12d. Feedback becomes a LOOP—receiver sender receiver sender VIII. Chapter 8 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Purpose of evaluation a. EVALUATION—the measurement of results against established objectives set during the planning process. You measure the short/long term implications and determine the next steps. The evaluation is based on objectives—did you meet them? b. Check if you had a good time or not 2. Ways to measure production, message exposure a. PRODUCTION 1. Count output 2. Track distributions b. MESSAGE EXPOSURE 1. Count Clips (print, audio, video, online) 2. Media impressions (potential audience count) 3. Internet hits 4. Mention in blogs and social media 5. Ad Equivalency (dollar measurements of story size) 6. Systematic tracking (media outlet, bylines, quotes, key messages) 7. Responses (web hits, reply cards, 800 numbers) 8. Cost per thousand “CPM” (cost program divided by total impressions) 9. Audience attendance 3. Pros and cons of methods 4. Ways to measure awareness, attitude, behavior a. AWARENESSS—audience awareness can be measured through survey research that often uses unaided recall to determine whether the audience understood and remembers the message (Surveys—pre and post, “day after recall”) b. ATTITUDES—changes in audience attitudes can be evaluated through a baseline or a benchmark study. It should measure awareness and opinions before, during and after a PR campaign. c. ACTION—measures changes in behavior through ticket sales, voter registration, product purchases, donations, volunteers, etc. 5. Ways to measure readership a. CONTENT ANALYSIS MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet b. READERSHIP INTEREST SURVEYS—purpose of these surveys is to get feedback about the types of stories employees are most interested in reading 13c. ARTICLE RECALL—best kind of readership survey occurs when trained interviewers ask a sampling of employees what they have read in the latest issue of the publication 6. Purpose of stewardship a. To promote ethical behavior or practitioners and organizations. It is the main tool for maintaining relationships. It is the hardest, but MOST IMPORTANT part of R.O.P.E.S. It’s difficult to maintain and there is no instant gratification. b. All about reciprocity c. Responsibility d. Reporting e. Relationship nurturing IX. Chapter 9 A. Understand and be able to explain ∙ Public Opinion o Collection of individual opinions on a subject of personal interest to them o Self Interest Once tapped, opinion hard to change Opinion is not aroused for long periods of time o Reaction to events Large eventstemporary opinions swings Opinions stabilize with perspective ∙ Opinion Leaders o People who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific events o Every single person is an opinion leader Highly interested in subject or issue Better informed on an issue than the average person Avid consumers of the mass media Early adopters of new ideas Good organizers who get people to take action ∙ Propaganda o “Deliberate and systematic” efforts to “shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviors” that is sought by the “propagandist” o Denotative: propagate ideas o Connotative: to manipulate the mind through deceit and distortion Name calling Liberal, Socialist, Conservative, Feminist, ect “Plain folks” American life George Bush tried to be a “Plain Folk” Testimonial Not a real doctor, but plays one on TV Bandwagon Deodorant Snuggie MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet Diamond “She’s doing, so I want to also” Card Stacking “If you use this product you will get more dates..” Boys: boys Girl: pink Transfer Valentines Day Glittering Generalities Freedom Liberty ∙ Propaganda o Oneway o Mutual benefit no necessary o Symbols o Closed systems o Sender not accountable ∙ Symbols o Images o Structures o Objects o Nonverbal o Words o Stereotypes 1. Persuasion 14a. PERSUASION—the use of symbols to influence the attitudes and behaviors of another “in an atmosphere of free chose” b. Uses 1. Change or neutralize hostile opinion 2. Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitude 3. Conserve favorable opinions 2. Persuasion: Aristotle a. ETHOS 1. Credibility Objectivity Expertise 2. Ideological similarities 3. Perceived power b. PATHOS 1. Emotional appeals c. LOGOS 1. Appeals to human reason, human experience 2. EX) Enthymemes (argument of premises) 3. Persuasive Factors a. Audience analysis b. Source credibility MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet c. Appeal to self interest d. Clarity of message e. Timing and context f. Audience participation g. Suggestions for actions h. Content and structure of messages i. Persuasive speaking ∙ Persuasive Messages o Drama o Statistics o Surveys and Polls o Examples o Testimonials o Mass Media Endorsements o Emotional Appeals ∙ Persuasion o Message must be: Received Attended Understood Believed Remembered Acted Upon ∙ Persuasion Ethics 15o Do not use false, fabricated, misrepresented, distorted or irrelevant evidence to support claims or arguments o Do not use intentionally, illogical reasoning o Do not represent yourself as informed or an “expert” if you are not o Do not use irrelevant appeals to divert attention. EX) God, Devil, etc o Do not deceive your audience by concealing your real purpose, selfinterest, ect. o Do not advocate something in which you don’t believe in yourself ∙ Programming o Understanding the message: Clarity Average sentence length: 1017 words Average sentences per paragraph” 4.2 Shoot for ninth grade level Symbols Slogans Acronyms (don’t overdo) Indo graphics Avoid jargon Avoid discriminatory language ∙ Common Symbols o Command of language (“dog”) o Meaningful connections (“unsweetened tea”) o Understanding of values (“Sundays”) MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet ∙ Believability of message o Source credibility Internal/external Sleeper effect o Content Overcome cognitive dissonance New circumstances New Developments New, Unexpected spokesperson o Involvement High: attend to what is said Low: Attend to who said it ∙ Remembering the message o Repetition (within message and message itself) Ensures receipt Reminds Increases chances of penetrating indifference, resistance Offsets environmental “noise” Plan message dissemination through man channels at same time ∙ Tactics o Channels of communication Careful of “mass” media o Most visible elements of campaign o Consistent with messages o Incorporate as many senses as possible o Engage cognitive processing o Turn abstract into “concrete” (show, don’t tell) o Gifts (baskets, flowers, food) o Advertising (image ads) o Premiums (ball caps, tshirts) o Special meals (awards dinners) o Special Events (runs, “days”) o Speeches o Mass media tools (news releases, media kits, tip sheets) o Print collateral (brochures, newsletters, napkins, stationery) o Beware of style over substance o Messages and tactics must be strategic to be effective X. Chapter 12 A. Understand and be able to explain 1. Aspects of copyright law 16a. COPYRIGHT—protection of an original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium from unauthorized use. It does not protect ideas, but only the specific ways in which those ideas are expressed. b. AUTHORSHIP is defined in 7 categories: 1. Literary works 2. Musical works MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet 3. Dramatic Works 4. Pantomimes and Choreography works 5. Pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works 6. Movies 7. Sound recording c. Copyright PROTECTION 1. Authors life + 70 years 2. Business or organization: 95 years from the first publication It was extended 20 more years because of Mickey Mouse Public Domain vs. Private Profit 2. Examples of copyright 17a. FAIR USE—allows an individual to use part of a copyrighted article to quote, but the quoted material must be brief in relation to the length of the original work. 1. Need permission for: Advertising, promotions Context of quote Multiple copies 2. Quote and attribute copyrighted material—without permission Limited copies for criticism, comment, research b. TRADEMARK INFRINGEMENT 1. Capitalizing on reputation 2. Intent to confuse public 3. Similarity of organization EX) Musician Sting—someone made a website www.sting.com EX) Selling fake purses 4. Unique NBC “N” Olympic colors/rings 5. Evidence of active protection of trademark 6. Misappropriate personality, voice, image Live or deceased 7. Violation of “right of publicity” Only celebrity can “cash in” on fame 3. PR and Democracy a. Free marketplace of ideas b. Open Discussion 1. “Expose the false” 2. Prepares society for “stresses and strains that work to tear civilization apart” 3. If you keep communication the bond should become stronger c. Goal of the first amendment: freedom from government regulation of expression in the marketplace of ideas d. Same standard of protection is not necessarily accorded to commercial speech (Calvin Klein “basement” videos) 4. Defamation a. Libel and slander MC 3010 Test 1 Review Sheet b. Falsehood that generates: 1. Public hatred 2. Contempt 3. Ridicule 4. Injury to reputation c. Plaintiff must prove: 1. Print, broadcast, electronic communication 2. He/She was identifiable 3. Actual injury occurred 184. Reckless disregard: the defendant entertained serious doubts as the truthfulness of the statement d. Defense against defamation 1. Honest purpose 2. Lack of malicious intent 3. Open forum 5. Fair Comment Defense a. Used by critics 1. Movie and theatre 2. Environmental groups 3. Those companies that sell there wares 4. Truth is relative b. Opinion 6. Invasion of Privacy a. Photo releases b. Get signed release/consent forms for: 1. Product publicity and advertising 2. Annual reports 3. Employee newsletters c. Media Inquires 1. Do confirm: Employment Title, job description Dates of employment 2. Do NOT confirm: Salary Home address Marital status Children Job performance **Bring little Scantron, 35 questions, 30 multiple choice and 5 matching January 15, 2016 ∙ Humanities—language and culture ∙ Science—researchbased communication models ∙ Arts—design and visual communication What PR is? ∙ Accuracy ∙ Honesty What PR is not? ∙ Propaganda ∙ Hype ∙ Spin A day in the life: ∙ Media inquiries ∙ Breaking news ∙ Social media ∙ Coworkers/ boss ∙ Legislative happening ∙ News/ press release ∙ Coordinating/ planning events with staff and volunteers What skills does a PR practitioner need to succeed? ∙ Organized ∙ Efficient multitasking—stress management ∙ Openminded ∙ WRITING/ EDITING ∙ Personable ∙ Prepared for any situations and spin off situations/ plans—creative ∙ UP TO DATE ON CURRENT EVENTS—research ∙ Cultural literacy ∙ Media savvy/ digital skills ∙ Understanding of business principles Defining PR: fostering mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics ∙ Be responsive ∙ Develop a strategy/ plan ∙ Twoway communication ∙ Manage issues ∙ Problem solve∙ ALL OF THESE NEED TO BE DONE IN AN ETHICAL MANNER R.A.C.E. Method ∙ Research ∙ Action/ planning ∙ Communication/ execution ∙ Evaluation Components of PR: counseling, research, media relations, publicity, employee/ member relations, community relations, public affairs, government affairs, issue management, financial relations, industry relations, development/ fundraising, multicultural relations/ workplace diversity, special events, marketing communication (p10) Choices of where to PR: corporate, global, nonprofits, government education, healthcare, environment PR vs JOURNALISM ∙ Differ in scope, audience, channels, and objectives ∙ Some may over lap, but are NOT the same PR is not ADVERTISING ∙ Advertising is paid media ∙ PR is the relationship or image PR is not MARKETING ∙ Different goals ∙ Much overlap ∙ It’s the way it is presented: PR is not intended to sell, MARKETING has the end point of sales CONSISTENCY IS KEY ∙ Integrated or strategic communication, is most efficient use of organizational resources and talents/ skills of team members (p19) January 21, 2016 Changes and Trends in the Field ∙ Used to be former journalists ∙ Has since moved beyond media relations and publicity ∙ Globalization ∙ Growing as an industry: nationally and internationally ∙ Fast growing field with numerous job opportunities: dominated by women ∙ Cultural literacy is an essential ability for success∙ PR occupations are primarily in: corporations 26%, PR firms/ agencies 20%, nonprofits/ charities 17% ∙ Practical experience (INTERNSHIPS) will set you and your resume apart in this field Salaries: ∙ $32,000—slightly higher than average for all communication fields ∙ Varies greatly by industry, field, and specialization ∙ NonPR specific gender gap ∙ Women earn approximately $0.80 for every dollar in salary men receive January 28, 2016 History of PR ∙ Ancient times: ∙ Interpersonal communication with thought and opinion leaders, propaganda ∙ Used to promote authority of government and religion ∙ i.e. Martin Luther and the Reformation, the Church, Greek mythology ∙ Colonial times ∙ Luring prospective colonists ∙ Conflict positioning, leading up to revolutionary war ∙ i.e. Boston Tea Party, Federalist Papers, “Common Sense” ∙ PR grows as America grows ∙ Propaganda and publicity reign supreme ∙ Truth not so much ∙ Expansion of territory and railroads relied heavily on PR ∙ One of the first organizations responsible for first using the term “public relations” ∙ In 1897, the Association of American Railroads used term in a company listing ∙ 19th century ∙ Amos Kendall: considered 1st presidential press secretary for Andrew Jackson ∙ Abolition, suffrage, and prohibition movements used PR tactics and strategies skillfully ∙ Modern Age ∙ The idea of PR as a strategic endeavor: RISE OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSELORS ∙ FILL IN FROM PREZI ∙ IVY LEE ∙ Advances concept that business and imdustry should align with public interest ∙ Worked with top executives—only on campaigns with their full support ∙ Open communication with media ∙ PREZI∙ GEORGE CREEL ∙ WWI Committee on Public Info ∙ Downplayed the hatred of Germany ∙ Focused on loyalty and confidence in government ∙ Demonstrated power of mediated info to change attitudes and beliefs ∙ LEE vs BERNAYS ∙ Lee’s public information model emphasized distribution of accurate news ∙ Bernays focused on advocacy and scientific information ∙ Women in PR ∙ Equal partner in firm: wife, Doris Fleischman ∙Corporations I. Business and Media a. Problems in today’s environment i. Emotionalism has replaced reason 1. We don’t think logically anymore 2. Like political candidates appeal to emotions rather than reason (biggest one: fear) ii. Activism has overtaken science iii. Exaggeration has overwhelmed precision iv. Grassroots manipulation is the new realism 1. Small groups of dedicated people shaping opinions b. Executives: unfair coverage c. Reporters: blocked access d. PR: bridge gap II. Corporations a. “Legal person” i. In the eyes of the law, corporations are a person 1. Sue and be sued 2. Buy, hold, sell property 3. Make and sell products to consumers 4. Commit crimes, be tried and punished for them III. PRWeek Corporate Survey 2009 a. Most common functions i. 96% media relations ii. 75% crisis management iii. 68% special events iv. 65% reputation management v. 64% employee/internal communications vi. 63% product/brand vii. 60% community relations IV. Human factor a. Internal publics i. Largest expense 1. Benefits ii. Credible spokespeople iii. Want to understand business b. External publics i. Perception is reality ii. Corporations “guilty until proven innocent” iii. Good policy makes good PR (Lee) V. Business and Publics a. Interaction i. Business public affairs ii. Community relations iii. Corporate aid to education iv. Corporate philanthropy v. Corporations and the environment VI. Marketing communications a. Sponsorships i. Enhance reputation of sponsor ii. Exposure of brand to targets iii. Focus of marketing efforts iv. Publicity and media coverage 1. Example: Special Olympics 2. Example: NASCAR v. Federal Express Orange Bowl vi. Tostitos Fiesta Bowl vii. Staples Center 1. Busch stadium2. Turner Stadium viii. NASCAR ix. Visa, McDonald’s, Kodak and the Olympics x. Texaco and the Met xi. Mobil and PBS VII. “Super Size Me” and McDonald’s a. The Film b. McDonald’s Reactions Nonprofits I. Capital Campaigns a. Running a successful campaign is crucial to future growth b. Conduct a feasibility study c. Get the Board’s approval of support d. Enlist volunteer leadership e. Begin soliciting gifts f. Stop for a midpoint evaluation g. Determine closing strategy h. Honor volunteer leadership i. Perform administrational wrapupI. Reaching diverse audiences a. Reaching racial and ethnic groups i. Hispanic, AfricanAmericans, Asians, Native Americans are growing in large amounts ii. Religious groups (Catholics, Muslims, etc.) iii. Gays and lesbians iv. Disabled v. Gender vi. Hispanics (1 in 6 residents) 1. Hispanic owned businesses multiplying 2. Language is extremely important a. Play up campaigns in both English and Spanish b. Use Hispanic media over 1200 print publications, 1,000 TV stations, 200 internet only sites, 3 Spanish language networks, 20 AP wire services vii. AfricanAmericans (12.5% and growing) 1. Similar media due to history 2. Rise of blackowned PR agencies viii. Asians (Japanese, Chinese, Korean, etc.), %4.1 1. High education, higher income 2. Highest percentage with masters and Phds 3. Huge media market that is fairly complex a. 650 Asian Americanfocused TV and radio stations 4. Pay close attention and respect customs ix. Evangelical Community 1. $3.75 billion dollar business 2. Difference of beliefs 3. “Dancing on a grey line” x. Disabled community 1. Diversity of disabled issues 2. Issues of comfort xi. Gays and Lesbians (difficult to pinpoint population—around 3040 million) 1. Higher income, educated 2. Explosion of media, TV networks xii. Women (54% of population) 1. Diverse (working women, working mom’s, soccer mom’s, CEO’s) 2. Media catering with all women networks, magazines b. 5 concepts to consider in a multicultural campaign i. Organize a team with an understanding of the customs and values of the differing demographics ii. Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better with a message that’s culturally relevant iii. Remember diverse audiences are LOYAL iv. Use the primary language of the audience v. Use a spokesperson who represents the audience II. Global Public Relations a. International PR i. Globalization 1. Quickening 2. The tradition of independent and stable organizations and cultures are no more ii. Top American companies that do business overseas 1. Exxon/mobile: $442 billion 2. Walmart: $405 billion 3. Chevron: $263 billion 4. Conoco Phillips: $230 billion iii. Development 1. PR develops more rapidly in countries that: a. Multiparty political systems b. A relatively free press c. Considerable private ownership of business and industry d. Largescale urbanizatione. Relatively high per capita income levels which also impact literacy and educational opportunities iv. Opportunities 1. We must accept diversity in order to participate 2. Mcluhan “Global Village” a place where there will be multiplicity of languages customs and values that public relations professionals will have to understand 3. Number 1 language on the internet: Chinese 4. AT&T has thousands of subsidiaries in over 100 countries v. Difficulties 1. Problems encountered a. Differences in language i. The language education in America is not good ii. We don’t want to speak something else because it makes us uncomfortable because we don’t know what they’re saying iii. Other countries use nonverbal language, but Americans want people to say what they mean. b. Chains of command i. Go over the head of your supervisor to complain to someone else…not in other countries! Too bad for you if you have a problem with someone. You only deal with your direct commander, no one above them. c. Customs i. The proper way to take a business card (take with two hands and study it) ii. Drinking with clients (okay in some countries but not others) d. Varying levels of development of the media and public relations i. Not everyone has cable, internet, even a computer e. Antipathy towards multinationals f. Bias b. How to succeed in international PR i. Learn a 2nd language 1. Chinese and Arabic are where it’s at; also Spanish ii. Study international relations iii. Global marketing techniques iv. Social and economic geography v. Crosscultural communication c. Culture characteristics i. Cultural interpreters 1. Sense of self and space a. 2 feet space rule in America—Germans are also like this b. Some countries get really close to each other 2. Communication and language a. A lot of nonverbal communication 3. Dress and appearance a. Some places you have to really dress up b. Germany: business casual—completely business c. Rome: all dressed up d. Kuwait: pants but still feminine 4. Food and feeding habits 5. Time and time consciousness 6. Relationships 7. Values and norms 8. Beliefs and attitudes d. Cultures of the world i.MC 3010 Final Review Chapter 10 What is the most significant aspect of our audience here in the US? Diversity. How do we characterize different audiences? age groups, lifestyle/gender, ethnically diverse, global. Youth (19812003) – also known as millennials, Generation Y, spend ¼ of time online, values relationships and trust Baby Boomers (19461964) – well educated, born during advent of television, great appreciation for leisure time, strong position on social issues Seniors – over 65, less easily convinced, demand value in things that they buy Different media – pros and cons of tv, pros and cons of print, all the major channels (best instances) Which medium lots of complex content? Chapter 11 What is the is the number one tactic in PR? Press release. When do you use a standard news release, what to use it for? What is the key message? Who is the primary audience? What does the target audience gain from the product or service? What objective does the release serve? Is it newsworthy? Characters are wellknown, timely impact, emotional or physical, proximity/local, magnitude/size of the event, Conflict: disasters, death, fights, oddity/unusual twists, human interest (226227) What is the writing method used in press release? Inverted pyramid. How many journalists say the use press releases? 80% What’s a quote in broadcasting called? Soundbite. Acronyms ROI – Return on Investment (measures success of investment) ANR (audio news release) recording of a news announcement sent to radio station, PSA – (public service announcement) unpaid announcement that promotes the programs of gov or voluntary agencies or that serves the public interest, nonprofit RMT/SMT (radio/satellite media tour) spokesperson conducts series of 1 on 1 interviews from a central location w/ radio announcers across the country or a region SMR (smart media release) search engine optimization, inclusion of social media tags, photo, video and audio PR Tactics (know about those and best time to use them)MC 3010 Final Review Interviews oneonone, Editorial review board usually made up of their senior writers and editors... Once a month they will have a review board where you can bring your pitch to them, you can sometimes ask to write an editorial instead of getting a reporter to cover it or an opinion piece News conference/press conference needs to be big news, communication is twoway, should provide elaboration and clarification Pitches Lets the editor know about the contents in the media kit, Outlines why a periodical or broadcast outlet should consider the info, Sometimes used to ask editors or reporters to a particular event or to pursue a feature angle on an issue, involves contacting outlets to grab their attention of a potential story (summary with a hook), can take the form of letters, emails, tweets, or phone calls Media advisories Still using the five w's and the h, but in a BULLET format, lets journalists know about an upcoming event Fact sheets Distributed as part of a media kit or with a news release to give additional information about a product, person, event, etc Backgrounders Longer, narrative format, covers history or detailed info, can be in media kit or posted on websites Social media tactics – twitter, blogs, webcast – what are these tactics used for and what is the best time to use as tactic What is the tactic involved in a product on TV? Product placement. Does a person have control over you set up an interview with a reporter? No. Chapter 12 How are the internet and social media channels different from traditional media? websites, social apps, etc. are very easy to update, faster, instant distribution, infinite space twitter too, you have an infinite number of messages although you have a word limit, ready interaction with audience (two way communication, a lot of feedback), don’t have to go through gatekeepers, wider audience, more opportunities Most compelling reasons corporate blog, organizational blog? Better feedback from customers Keep them more up to date Useful for media relations... Other journalists from other industries can see your information and contact you for a story (people in industry can contact you more proactively Can you control social media? You can control what YOU post, but you can also manage what you post. Once you put it out there in the real world, you don't have control over it going wrong very quickly or right very quickly. Your job to manage relationships, not to shut anyone down LinkedIn – personal profiles, networking Twitter – quick, short updates and informationMC 3010 Final Review Is a company's website reputable, trustworthy? Yes. Cost effective? Yes. Mobile enabled content is trending up. Chapter 13 What are questions you have to ask yourself when you’re doing events – who will attend?, when/where will it be held?, how long will it last?, who will speak?, what topics will be covered?, what is the purpose? What is the most important factor you need to consider when planning an event? Budget (dictates all the other decisions) After the budget, what are the most important things to consider – venue… appropriate for audience? venue, who are you inviting, vendors, staff and volunteers, security, liability What is the going rate for a business speaker? 510k Planning a banquet? What is the point of an open house? To be refamiliarized with the organization and for them to walk away with a good impression, conducted to develop favorable public opinion about an organization. Generally are planned to show where the organization does its work, require a lot of planning, careful handling of visitors, and thorough training of all personnel who will come in contact with the visitors Why do forprofit companies and corporations sponsor events? corporation gives money to be part of this event brand visibility increases, reputation and image get yourself out there, get some benefits, tax write off, listed as charities or taxes; return on investment money gets back to you indirectly by brand visibility and more media coverage Is it good practice to have a celebrity at your event? generates more media attention to your event, so yes If you are a private company and you have been asked by nonprofit to be a corporate sponsor to the event, what do you have to ask yourself? if there is a connection (you want similarity), make sure goals are tightly aligned with theirs What should corporate event sponsorship consider? Double the sponsorship fee, aligned with values and mission, reach organization’s target audience, platform for increasing sales revenue, new business opportunities, multiple year sponsorship contract, raising morale by getting employees involved, tradeoffs defer costMC 3010 Final Review Chapter 14 Global PR is also called what? International relations. Is public relations growing across the world or internationally? Yes. Are they developing countries? Japan, China, India, Asia, almost everywhere What are the Five Cultural dimensions? 1) Power distance – assesses people’s tolerance for centralized power 2) Individualism/Collectivism – contrasts loyalty to oneself versus to a larger group (Asia and Latin America – collectivism; US, Canada, Europe – individualism) 3) Masculinity/Femininity – Contrast between competitiveness of masculinity (Germany, Australia, Japan) and nurturing of femininity (Sweden, Spain) 4) Uncertainty Avoidance – Uncertainty – Japan, Belgium, Greece, China; Ambiguity – Great Britain, the U.S. and Sweden 5) LongTerm/ShortTerm Organization – traditions of the past carry them into future, China and East Asian nations (longterm orientations), U.S. shortterm Can I as an American go to other countries and practice Public Relations? Yes and other countries can come here and do the same thing, Should be fluent in foreign language and have a background in international PR, global marketing techniques, social and economic geography, and crosscultural communication Why might a foreign corporation hire a PR firm here in the United States? better understand their audiences here, they can lobby if they register What is an NGO nongovernmental organization? Are they credible? Credible, more credible than the media in the eyes of the public on issues as labor, health, and the environment Typically nonprofits (Red Cross), not ran by the govt. but closely associated with the govt. as far as policies and regulations go Often more trusted than governments If you were going to study international PR what are some things you need to know? language, ethics, cultural differences, customs (ex: do they serve food earlier or later?)MC 3010 Final Review Chapter 15 Percentages 79% trust small business owners 45% of Americans think corporations are trustworthy 82% believe that good corporate citizenship contributes to meeting an organization’s financial objectives 53% say corporate citizenship is important to their customers Better reputations for corporations affect the bottom line for companies? Yes, help them make more money. Which agencies regulate what? SEC (Security and Exchange Commission): regulates stock market and financial info FTC (Federal Trade Commission): regulates truth in advertising Customer service is highly tied to what form of advertising? Word of mouth advertising is highly tied to customer satisfaction. Have customer service and PR generally been tied together? Traditionally, customer service has been kept separate from PR, but many PR departments regularly monitor customer feedback to determine which policies and communication strategies need to be revised. Is it important to keep employees happy, well informed? Yes, employees represent the company within a large circle of family and friends. If an employee feels they are being treated unfairly, that unhappiness will be reflected in their comments to other people. Chapter 16 Is celebrity a big deal? Yes. Celebrities continue to embrace publicity because it feeds the same curiosity that has given rise to gossip websites and reality TV. What is the primary goal of an entertainment event?MC 3010 Final Review sell tickets In a personality campaign, what’s the first step when you begin working for a person? in depth interview, prepare bio, assemble detailed media kit (photos, video, etc), items to be sold?, identify important target audience What is drip, drip, drip publicity and when is it used? A steady output of information as the event is being planned, the heaviest barrage of publicity is released shortly before the opening of the event/show, the bigger the event, the longer the dripdripdrip process is, Ex) Bayou Country Fest: people know about it 11 months in advance Traveling publicity and promotions, tourism travel promo pg. 341 Is it okay to give freebies to reporters? It's acceptable to give someone a free meal if they're writing a food review at your restaurant, but it's BRIBERY if you give them LSU tickets in exchange for a good review. It’s okay as long as it pertains to the story. Chapter 17 Do federal, state and local government need Public Relations? Yes. What is it called if you’re a PR person for the government? Public Information Officer, handles risk communication What is the name of a person legislators to affect legislation? Lobbyist works directly with legislators to affect the outcome of specific bills/legislation, must be registered, strict enforcement of boundaries at state, federal levels, public is highly suspicious of their work What is the type of advocacy work talking to a lobbyist? grassroots advocacy gained popularity in light of lobbying reforms harder to regulate since participants aren't paid to influence elected officials underlying premise is that letters and phone calls from private citizens are more influential than arguments from vested interests Use PR tactics and advertising to generate phone calls and letters from public to elect officials and government agencies fastest growing area of political persuasion make them feel like every constituent feels the same way the lobbyist does "you call your legislator and tell them what you want" Can states or government officials hire PR firms to work on their behalf? Yes.MC 3010 Final Review In Federal they use PR to lead the nation, garner public support for admin policies, and help with getting re elected In State they use PR to help implement campaigns Political communications, who helps candidates who want to be elected? Press secretaries. Political communications specialize in organizing and raising money for election campaigns, after candidate is elected, then candidates hire press secretaries (gate keepers), campaign manager’s main job is to get candidate elected Chapter 18 Why do people donate to organizations? INTRINSIC: desire to share a portion of one's resources with others EGO SATISFACTION: The donor who makes a large contribution has a building named for his or her family and individuals; have their names published in a list of contributors *Why PR people use normal instincts? How do PR people use normal drives to fundraise? PR pros help with EVERY ASPECT of raising money, especially when it comes to securing partnerships PR works directly with fundraising by organizing and conducting solicitation programs or they may serve as consultants to specialized development departments in their organizations Main thing needed to – fundraise – know main types of fundraising, when we should use it? TYPES: corporate and foundation methods, capital campaigns, direct mail, event sponsorship, telephone solicitations, online/social media Contribution to charities going up or going down? they have fallen, 90% of the total amount raised will come from only about 10% of contributors (capital campaigns), 10 people gave 90% of the money (90% of the money donate to charities comes from individual?) Know what kind of different organizations make up nonprofit realm (Healthcare education, social issue organizations)MC 3010 Final Review Education, human services, foundation grants to individuals, health, gifts to foundations, religion, unallocated,public society benefit, arts culture and humanities, international affairs, environment and animals (Healthcare, education, social issues, professional associations, trade associations, etc., advocacy groups, social service organizations, membership organizations)Researching Multicultural and Diverse Audiences 3/5/12 Diversity in Strategic Communications ∙ Diversity is the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the United States ∙ The international audience for both PR and advertising has expanded swiftly ∙ Technology segments more of the population ∙ The public is increasingly visually oriented ∙ Heavy emphasis placed on personality and celebrity (you don’t have to do anything to be famous, just have a good personality) ∙ Strong distrust of authority Researching Diverse Age Groups ∙ Kids o 7 yr olds shortattention span bright colors toys want to be entertained make believe ∙ Youth, young adults (1524 year olds) o youth market tremendously influential and important o 2 ways to persuade: Persistence plea repeated over and over Importance nagging parents desire to provide best for child o Use: celebrity endorsements o Most emotional generation o Facts Example: alcohol commercial Will spend more time interacting with friends online Will spend more time online than interaction w/parents More reserved social skills Don’t tolerate print or slow applications ∙ Researching Diverse Audiences o Babyboomers (19461964) Concerned about health care Have more disposable income Concerned about health care, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing, ect “rather active, socially conscious bunch” o Seniors (65 or older) Ignore stereotypes “old folks”, “crotchety”, “rocking chairs” Less easily convinced Demand value VOTE, VOTE, VOTE Excellent volunteers VERY health conscious ∙ Reaching Racial and Ethnic Groups o Hispanic (one in six residents) o Hispanic owned businesses multiplying o Language is extremely important Play up campaigns in both English and Spanish Use Hispanic media over 1, 200 print publications, 1,000 TV stations, 200 internet only sites, 3 Spanish language networks, 20AP wire services o African Americans (12.5% and growing) o Similar media due to history o Rise of Blackowned PR agencies o Asians (Japanese, Chinese, Korean, etc) 4.1% High education, higher income o Huge media market that is fairly complex 650 Asian Americanfocused TV and radio stations o Pay close attention and re spect customs o Evangelical Community $3.75 billion dollar business Difference of beliefs o Disabled Community Diversity of disabled issues Issues of comfort o Gay and Lesbians (difficult to pinpoint population…around 3040 million) Higher income, educated Explosion of media, TV networks o Women (54 % of population) Diverse (working women, working moms, soccer moms ∙ 5 Concepts to consider in a multicultural campaign o Organize a team with an understanding of the customs and values of the differing demographics o Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better with a message that’s culturally relevant o Remember diverse audiences are LOYAL o Use the primary language of the audience o Use a spokesperson who represents the audience GLOBAL PUBLIC RELATIONS ∙ International PR o Globalization: Quickening, The tradition of independent and table organizations and cultures are no more o To American companies that do business overseas: 1. Exxon/Mobile: $442 billion 2. WalMart: $405 billion 3. Chevron: $263 billion 4. Conoco Phillips: $230 billion ∙ Development o Development in Other Nations: PR develops more rapidly in countries that: 1. Multiparty political systems 2. A relatively free press 3. Considerable private ownership of business and industry 4. Largescale urbanization 5. Relatively high per capita income levels which also impact literacy and educational opportunities ∙ Opportunities o We must accept diversity in order to participate o McLuhan: “Global Village” a place where there will be multiplicity of languages customs and values that public relations professionals will have to understand. o ATT has thousands of subsidiaries in over 100 countries ∙ Difficulties o Problems encountered: Differences in Languages (not everyone speaks English) Chains of command (if something is wrong with your boss, you complain to their boss) Customs (giving gifts on birthdays) (shaking hands) Varying levels of development of the media and PR (not everyone has internet, books, ect.) Antipathy towards “multinationals” (Your cool with it as long as they speak English) Bias ∙ How to succeed in Intl. PR o Learn a 2nd language o Study International Relations o Global Marketing Techniques o Social and Economic Geography o Cross Cultural Communication ∙ Culture Characteristics o “Cultural Interpreters” o Sense of Self and Space o Communication and Language o Dress and Appearance o Food and Feeding Habits o Time and Time consciousness o Relationships ∙ Intl. Comm. Culture o Hofestedt Low/High power distance Japan, Latin America (High) U.S. (low) Uncertainty Avoidance (Low/High context) Sweden, U.S. Germany (Low), China, Japan (High) ∙ In the U.S. we DON’T like uncertainty ∙ We like: Want to go out tonight? (YES or NO) Individualistic/Collectivism: Asia (Collect), U.S. (Individualistic) Masculine (money, power, material things) Latin American, Germany Feminine (caring for others, quality of life, people) Finland, Sweden, Japan ∙ Cultures of the World o Latin America Two languages: Spanish or Portuguese Family oriented with authority centered on the father Roman Catholic church still dominant Time is viewed differently: Often late NonRushed, hand shakes important Personal space: close Safer to talk about local issues than ask questions Privacy valued o Asia Majority Languages: Chinese, Japanese, English, Hindi, Arabic, Korean, etc. Vast differences in political nature: Communist, Democratic etc. Group oriented Protocol, rank and status are important Personal space: different in areas Conflict to be avoided Pubic service a moral responsibility Strong family ties that extend to distant relatives o European Majority Languages: Spanish, French, German, Portuguese Russian, English, Italian etc Belief that people of served by progress not the reverse Sense of social responsibility: debates about politics Mistrust of authority: strikes & protests Sophisticated Personal space: differs Opinionated Individualistic as nations o Middle East Majority languages: Arabic Heavily tied with Islamic religion Dignity, honor and reputation the highest virtues Loyalty to family paramount Cordially Personal space: very close Strong patriarchal society o Africa Major languages: Different African dialects, English, French Family is basic unit of society, extended “tribes” Friendship viewed as essential Warm, friendly, smiling seen as affection Nonrushed, time is flexible Personal space: close Bribing system Religious differences and health issues: AIDS, etc o North America Majority Languages: English, French, Spanish Strong worth ethic: longest work hours Rushed Individual Proud QUIZ #4 o Fast talking: US o Catholic society: Brazil o “Saving Face”: Japan o Mistrust of authority: France o Most diverse languages in countries borders: US o Language is Portuguese: Brazil o Alcohol: Iran o Socially responsible campaign: France & Japan ∙ Changing the US stereotype o Read a Map: Familiarize yourself with the local geography to avoid making insulting mistakes. Plus know some current events. o Dress up: In some countries casual dress is a sign of disrespect o Talk small: no talk about wealth, power or status o No slang: duh o Slow down: no talking, eating, moving or living fast o Listen as much as you talk o Speak lower and slower o Exercise religious restraint o Exercise political restraint o Learn some words ∙ U.S. & Foreign PR o International Government Public Relations Seeks to influence the policies/opinions of foreign country (ex. Tourism, trade polices) “Public Diplomacy”: US attempt to enhance public perception of our culture (ex. VOA) o Foreign Public Relations U.S. PR firms hired to work within foreign countries ∙ To advance political objectives ∙ Counseled on US reaction ∙ To advance commercial interests ∙ NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) o Examples: Greenpeace, doctors without borders, international red cross o Believed more credible than media, especially on issues involving environment, labor and health o Perceived to lack self interest ascribed to governments and corporations ∙ The world has changed o Advertising and broadcasting are merging with public relations to create a new Strategic Communication field o College students have grown up entirely on the Internet, parents less so o Differences between mass media and Internet vast o Mass Media: Centralized/topdown, costly, staffed by professionals, mostly oneway o Internet: widespread, cheap/easy to use, new distribution channels, mobile devices and new advertising schemes ∙ The Statistics o 2 billion people o US users spend up to 16 hrs a week online o Google handles 10 billion search queries a month o People receive 13,500 emails per year on average o YouTube has 1,000,000 visitors a day ∙ Visual Communication o Involves: creativity, concepts, ideas, problem solving, devising solutions…and taking risks o A marriage between images and words o Visual language with simplicity ad legibility o Vehicle to communicate specific information to a specific audienceo A cooperate effort between designer, client, photographer or illustrator, copywriter, printer, administration and public o Says something about the organization o Todays audience are much more visual than those in the past decades ∙ What is Visual Communication? o Encompasses such diverse medias as: Print materials such as: Newsletters, Brochures, Fliers, Annual Reports, Newspapers, Journals, Magazines, Recruitment Publications, Billboards, Stationary, Calendars, etc Television Music Signage (ex. CD covers) and Videos Movies including videos Internet Blogs ∙ Television o News Releases Printed News Releases Prepared Script VNRS (video news release) BRoll packaging Infomercials Proclamation of cable TV Personal appearances on TV ∙ Pictures…and others o Flickr o Still photography Check output requirementsmagazines, newspapers etc Careful use of Color Keep file pictures current o Other forms Comic books and cartoons Outdoor displays/billboards ∙ Websites o Essential…duh! o Now, the initial gateway in which many of the public views first see an organizations image o The best way to get uptodate information to your publics o The best way to get your own company’s story out ∙ Social Media o Has totally transformed in the industry in the last 5 years Blogs Facebook Youtube Flickr Texting Twitter Wikis and Podcasts ∙ The New Media Environment o Everyones a journalist (blogs, twitter) Employers, employees, thirdparty o Collecting “friends” on facebook o A positive video on youTube will do an organization good…a bad one may destroy it o Texting: THINK before you text Keep it real Be aware of your surroundings Do the crosswords puzzle test Know the rules for meetings ∙ Corporate Design o It really does say something about the companyo Coordinated effort by the PR and marketing departments o Seeks to unify a company and promote its image throughout the world o Special attention MUST be paid in the international market (no offense must be taken) ∙ Creating Winning Web Sites o Make it fast o Make it easy. Use a functional balanced design o Give it a distinctive look, different from your competitors o Make sure there are no dead links o Include contact information o Make it interactive Ch. 10 Crisis Management ∙ Issues Management o Proactive Planning § Predict the problems § Anticipate threats § Minimize surprises § Resolve issues § Prevent crises ∙ 5 steps of issues Management o Issue identification o Issue analysis o Strategy options o Action plan o Evaluation Crisis communication ∙ Crisis o Events that adversely affect productive/service, organization, employees, and/or publics o Unexpected (e.g. plant explosion) o Smoldering (e.g. mismanagement) ∙ Different types o Reactive cheated on your test, you are a cheater o Strategic ∙ Crisis communication plan: o Put public first o Take responsibility o Be honest o Don’t say “no comment” o Centralize § One voice § One central communicator § Only 2 times allowed: ∙ When it is actually a point of LAW! (its illegal to make a comment) ∙ When you DON’T KNOW THE FACTS ( just say I don’t know the facts yet and as soon as we do ill get back to you on it) o Must have: o Constant flow of information: § Between organization and publics § Within organization o Know media needs, deadlines o Be accessible (must have your phones on all the time) o Monitor coverage, questions o Communicate with key publics ∙ Defensive Strategies:o Attack accuser o Denial o Excuse (minimize responsibility) o Justification (minimize impact, blame) ∙ Accommodative strategies: o Ingratiation (appease affected publics) o Corrective action (repair, prevent) o Full apology (take responsibility, o Ask for forgivness ∙ Strategy adoption: o Depends on: § Management’s moral conviction § Moral neutrality § Legal constraints § Regulartory constraints § Senior management dictum Internal conflicts Speech Writing, Television and the Web Ch 16 ∙ Face to Face Discussion ∙ The most effective form on interpersonal communication ∙ Immediate clarification ∙ Minimize misunderstandings o Tips Telephone in advance BE ON TIME Be concise Don’t oversell Express Appreciation ∙ Speechwriting o Speech should say something of lasting value o Concentrate on one of two main themes o Needs facts o Know your audience o Clarity ∙ Writing a speech o Example o Introduction o Statement of main purpose o Development o Secondary themes (if any) o Go over main point again o Plateau (story or anecdote) o Restatement o Brief conclusion ∙ Speech writing tools o Read your speech before hand o Avoid clauses that complicate sentences o Use smooth transitions o Use rhetorical questions o Draw verbal pictures o Watch OUT for jokes o Use statistics sparingly o Test equipment out BEFORE speech o Extra copies should be brought along o Record your speech ∙ Press Conference o Two way o Positive in intent o Deal with controversial subjects o 4 Kinds Offensive ∙ Pushing an issue ∙ Taking control Defensive ∙ Defending yourself Spontaneous ∙ Famous person walking down street, and they are swarmed Regularly scheduled ∙ President of U.S. ∙ How to do a press conference o Select convenient location, date and time o Give ample time to attend, “invite” “distribute media release’ ect. o Prepare printed and visual material o CHECK yourself and your stuff! o Try to anticipate questions NEVER attempt to talk offtherecord at NC! NEVER lie! ∙ Press Party or Junket o Softening up process o Opens up lines of communication with press o Questions of freeloading, ethics o Disney example Opening up condos in Magic Kingdom Were going to invite best reporters down along with their families, FOR FREE The review is not going to be unbiased Reporters shouldn’t be taking free incentives “Disney is trying to buy them off” ∙ Interviews o Clear purpose o Remember…print differs from broadcast o Know to say “no” o Preparing Prepare, prepare, prepare Concise speech, soundbites Relax ∙ Word of Mouth… aka rumor control o Keep employees informed o Pay attention to rumors o Act promptly o Educate Personnel ∙ Personal Appearances o Good news: Stations need to fill time o Prepare, prepare, prepare Be familiar with shows format, audience etc (watch it) o Talk shows, magazine shows o Talk to the shows booker to get a spot on show but have something to say o Be honest o Product placement ∙ Written Process ∙ PR & Writing o Internal tools Used to convey outside to inside Memos, emails, backgrounders, reports, magazines, newsletters, proposals, special events, meetings, intranet sites, blogs, facebook, social media o External tools Used to convey inside to outside Brochures, annual reports, ect. ∙ The News (Press) Release o Simple document whose purpose is the dissemination of information in the mass media o Faces intense competition o Editors assign to 3 categories Obvious news (sometimes) Maybe (rarely) Discard (almost always!) ∙ Planning a release o Do you really need one? o Ask if there’s news value If so, you have a news hook If not, you don’t have a news release o Who is the primary audience. o What objectives does the release serve? o Correct names of editors/reporters o Correct beat, section, time period ∙ Content of a Press Release o Inverted pyramid style o Double check all information o Eliminate boldface and capital letters o Include organization background o Localize whenever possible ∙ The Newsletter and MAT release o MAT feature releases o Delivers information to a target audience at regular intervals o Frequently used by corporations to communication with employees and stockholders o Some examples The open line Ellen ∙ The Press (Media) Kit o Often prepared when company announces new product or sponsors a new event o Includes: The main news release A news feature about the development of the product or something similar Fact sheets on the product, organization or event Background information Photos, drawings with captions Biographical material on CEOS, spokesperson, etc. Some basic brochures o Examples: Hilton (hotel) ∙ Fact sheets ∙ Story angles Joel Mabus ∙ You can pick your photo ∙ Listen to music ∙ Message o One provocative thought o Understand it o Identify the desired result o Write what you mean ∙ Drafts o Multiple drafts are standard for a professional writer, not counting all the backspacing o Tip: Don’t delete your work; cut and paste ∙ Multitasking o Write and listen at the same time o Listen for: What you need What you don’t need What’s missing (then ask for it) ∙ Know your publics o Understand frames of reference o Ask, “What’s in it for them?” o Put yourself in their shoes (your response is not important) ∙ Style o Associated Press Style Manual Used to ensure style consistency ∙ Among reporters ∙ Among public relations writer Used in part or whole o Avoid becoming “inebriated by the exuberance of [your] own verbosity” Don’t try to sound too smart o “I have made this [letter] longer, because I have not had to time to make it shorter” Don’t make it too long ∙ Reading and Listening o Develop “world view” o Find connections o Hear the pattern and rhythm of words ∙ Style o Clarity o Variety o Simplicity Understand subject Break down into “digestible parts” Know where to start—and when to stop Avoid jargon o Show don’t tell Substance over sizzle o Active voice o Specifics: facts, quotes, examples o Avoid triteness and clichés o Avoid bias Gender neutrality Omit race, ethnicity, disabilities, etc, unless pertinent to story o Rhythm and flow o Write the way you talk , then add syntax o Read your writing aloud o Balance repetition and variety o Check wordiness, such as “In order to” to “For the purpose of” to “Lefthand side” left ∙ Readability o Word clarity Short words are clear, easy to understand Use thesaurus sparingly, if at all o Sentence Clarity Choppy: check for pace and emphasis Lengthy: check for more periods less words ∙ Aim for average of 1017 words ∙ Corporations∙ Business and media o Problems in todays environment Emotionalism has replaced reason Activism has overtaken science Exaggeration has overwhelmed precision Grassroots manipulation in the new realism o Executives: unfair coverage o Reporters: blocked access o PR: bridge gap ∙ “Legal person” o Sue and be sued o Buy, hold, sell property o Make and sell products to consumers o Commit crimes, be tried and punished for them ∙ Human Factor o Internal publics Largest expense ∙ Benefits Credible spokespeople Want to understand business o External publics Perception is reality Corporations “guilty until proven innocent” Good policy makes good PR (Lee) ∙ Business and Publics o Interaction Business Public Affairs Community Relations Corporate Aid to Education Corporate Philanthropy Corporations and the Environment ∙ GUEST SPEAKER o Job Description Manage “day to day” marketing function o Time Management Essential to have a plan ∙ Project management—share ∙ Leadership—assertive, respectful ∙ Never assume others will meet your deadlines—build in time ∙ Define specifics every week for administrative—email=time suck vortex o Integrate Marketing Communications Power Partnerships Operations, Accounting , Sales, IT staff Who do you report to? Excellent communicator Right mix of strategy and creativity o Pitfalls Taking on too much too quickly ∙ Easily done ∙ People don’t understand ∙ Too much to do/too little time Work/Life Balance ∙ Important to manage ∙ Burn out rate ∙ People you work with Lack of Focus ∙ Define priorities∙ Buy in from C Suite ∙ What’s important to who o Technology Automation ∙ Reports, email blasts, sale calls, Adwords ∙ Make it easy for others (especially sales and engineers) CRM Management ∙ Sales report ∙ Corporations ∙ Marketing Communications o Sponsorships Enhance reputation of sponsor Exposure of brand to targets Focus of marketing efforts Publicity and media coverage ∙ Ex) Special Olympics ∙ EX) NASCAR o Everyone wants their name/logo on the cars o Make sure your sponsors matches what your company is all about Federal Express Orange Bowl Tostitos Fiesta Bowl Staples Center ∙ Busch Stadium ∙ Turner Stadium Nascar Visa, McDonalds, Kodak and the Olympics Texaco and the Met ∙ “Super Size Me” and McDonalds o The Film What would you do if you were McDonalds? ∙ Politics and Government o Government relations (public affairs) Increasing special interests Expanding role of congress Increasing complexity of government o Your job Gather information Disseminate mgt. views Cooperate with govt. on mutually beneficial projects Motivate employees to participate politically o Skills needed Knowledge of how PR supports business goals A knack for discerning which opponents to take seriously Ability to integrate all communications functions Understand how to control key messages Ability to influence WITHOUT being too partisan Global perspective Talent for synthesizing, filtering information Aptitude for technology SUSTAIN strong personal RELATIONSHIPS o Lobbying Lobbyist =”a person hired to influence the lawmakers, government officials or their aides, and who spends 20 percent of his or her time representing a client for more than six months” Local, state, federal levels Faces intense competition from other lobbying groups ∙ Louisiana OLD PEOPLE are the main lobbyist ∙ Public Relations in Educationo University Level PR encompasses: ∙ News services ∙ Publications ∙ Special events PR converse diverse units, e.g: ∙ Sports ∙ Medicine ∙ Engineering ∙ IFAS ∙ Liberal arts Effective PR ∙ Works with (under?) Development, Alumni Relations ∙ Part of management team ∙ Advise during decision making Financial challenges ∙ Research facilities ∙ Faculty recruitment ∙ Tuition increases ∙ Specialized programs ∙ Collaborative research Functions related to alumni/donors: ∙ Endowments ∙ Capital campaigns ∙ Matching grants Functions related to government (state & federal): ∙ Compete for monies ∙ Defend/explain increases ∙ Establish institutional identity ∙ Respond to lawmakers request o Nonprofits Enhance the wellbeing of their members or enhance the human condition in some way Tax Exempt o PRs Role Create communication campaigns and programs (special events, etc) Develop strong staff (recruit volunteers) Fundraise o Advocacy Groups Advocate a certain position on a variety of issues (Greenpeace, NRA, Christian Coalition) o Methods of Operation Lobbying Litigation Mass Demonstrations Boycotts Reconciliation o Capital Campaigns Running a successful campaign is crucial to future growth Conduct a feasibility study Get the Boards approval of support Enlist volunteer leadership Begin soliciting gifts Stop for a midpoint evaluation Determine closing strategy Honor volunteer leadership Perform administrational wrapup Why do we like sports?∙ Public yearning for sports ∙ Civic pride ∙ Big money ∙ Potential to reach wider audience Complex Relationships ∙ Sports crisis management ∙ Sponsorship management Sponsorships (Edelman) ∙ Media appeal some reason how you can appeal to media, ability.. looks ∙ User friendliness need to be social ∙ Sales appeal can she sell something ∙ Thematic opps HIV positive=spokesperson for AIDS o Dyslexic athletes ∙ Special Eventhabitat for humanity, ∙ Ex. Serena Williams, David Beckham ∙ Entertainment o Receivers and fame Psychological factors ∙ Wish fulfillment ∙ Hero worship ∙ Vicarious belonging (teams) ∙ To be entertained o Publicists Careful nurturing of image ∙ Relationship ∙ Onesided ∙ Idealized ∙ Undemanding QUIZ 6 1. in sports management you only have to be concerned with simple relationships ∙ False 2. Greenpeace is an example of a social organization ∙ False 3. Doing damage control means giving immediate responses ∙ True 4. Its okay to spend money for food on a client you are lobbying as long as you do have food that fits on a toothpick ∙ False 5. The M.U.C.H.O system is the most effective in seeing if a sports personality is ready for sponsorships ∙ Flase 6. Hero worship is one reason why we value fame ∙ True 7. It is not important to know slander and libel laws if you are a lobbyist. It is not applicable ∙ False 8. You should begin soliciting gifts right away when conducting a capital campaign ∙ FlasePolitics and Government I. Government relations (public affairs) a. Increasing special interests b. Expanding role of Congress c. Increasing complexity of government d. Your job i. Gather information ii. Disseminate management views iii. Cooperate with government on mutually beneficial projects iv. Motivate employees to participate politically II. Skills needed a. Knowledge of how PR supports business goals b. A knack for discerning which opponents to take seriously c. Ability to integrate all communications functions d. Understand how to control key messages e. Ability to influence WITHOUT being too partisan f. Global perspective g. Talent for synthesizing, filtering information h. Aptitude for technology i. SUSTAIN strong personal RELATIONSHIPS III. Lobbying a. Lobbyist = a person hired to influence he lawmakers, government officials, or their aides, and who spend 20% of his or her time representing a client for more than six months b. Local, state, federal levels c. Faces intense competition from other lobbying groups IV.I. Copyright a. Copyright does not protect ideas, but only the specific ways in which those ideas are expressed b. Authorship is defined in 7 categories i. Literary works ii. Musical works iii. Dramatic works iv. Pantomimes and choreography works v. Pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works vi. Movies vii. Sound recordings c. Protects specific ways ideas are expressed—not the ideas themselves i. © Copyright ii. Copyright 2004 by Danny Shipka iii. Formal registration, Copyright Office, LOC d. Sampling i. Fair use 1. Need permission for: a. Advertising, promotions b. Context of quote c. Multiple copies 2. Quote and attribute copyrighted material a. Without permission b. Limited copies for criticism, comment, research 3. Shipka’s book a. He used posters in his book that were copyrighted but he didn’t pay b. He was allowed to use 2 per movie without paying c. It was for research ii. You’re only using a small part (no more than 30 seconds) e. Copyright protections i. Author’s life + 70 years 1. Extended because of Disney ii. Business or organization: 95 years from first publication 1. Was extended 20 more years because of Mickey Mouse 2. Public domain vs. private profit f. Copyright and Internet i. Downloading 1. Much like hard copy restraints ii. Unauthorized uploading 1. To post free 2. To incorporate into own site without payment iii. Role of online carriers 1. Monitoring subscribers and copyrights 2. Chilling effect g. Trademark Infringement i. Capitalizing on reputation? ii. Intent to confuse public? iii. Similarity of organizations? iv. Evidence of active protection of trademark? v. Unique? 1. NBC “N” 2. Olympics colors, rings (Varsity) a. Can’t use the Olympic rings vi. Misappropriate personality, voice, image 1. Live or deceased vii. Violation of “right of publicity” 1. Only celebrity can “cash in” on fame II. Individuals in Public Relations a. Context i. PR is in current top 10 growth industriesii. 60% salaried PR people in 2010 1. PR firms 2. Associations 3. Education 4. Health care 5. Social services iii. Industries with largest number PR specialists employed in 2010 1. Management/public relations 2. Local government 3. State government 4. Colleges and universities iv. PR growth areas 1. Health care 2. Technology 3. Crisis communication b. Public Relations work i. Corporate ii. Nonprofit iii. Entertainment/sports/travel iv. Government/military v. Education vi. International c. PR at work i. Community relations ii. Consumer relations iii. Investor relations/shareholder relations iv. Employee relationsChapter 21: Written Tactics. Book and lecture notes. Chapter 14 Understand and be able to explain: ∙ The five types of news value (Timeliness, Proximity, etc.) o Timing – the stuff is new and current o Impact/ significance – the number of people affected by the story is important. o Proximity – stories that happen near to us have more significance. And to other countries that we have a bond with o Prominence. Famous people get more coverage. o Conflict ∙ The purposes of a news release (pg. 367) o Dissemination of info in the mass media ∙ Points to consider in planning a news release (pg. 368) o News value o Who is the primary audience o What objective does the release serve ( to promote a product…) o What does the target audience gain from this product. o What is the key message o Correct names of editors/ reporters o Correct beat, section, time period Chapter 22: Spoken Tactics. Book and lecture notes. REALLY CHAPTER 16 Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Pros/cons of memorizing a speech vs. working from talking points (or a list of main ideas) o Rare to memorizes a speech. A coach helps polish the delivery so that he or she become familiar with it. Speaker should be sufficiently familiar with the note cards or prepared text to permit sudden abridgement. ∙ Purposes of news conferences ( pg 421 – 422) o Twoway communication o Quick widespread dissemination of info and opinions. o Can present to all news outlets at the same time o Positive with intent (project host’s plan in a positive light) ∙ 4 types of news conferences o Offensive ( get story out to press before everyone hears about it) o Defensive ( defending yourself) o Spontaneous – ex: stepping on the steps after a verdict o Regularly scheduled (white house pres sec. does one once a week.) ∙ Strategies for defusing rumors o Key employees informed o Pay attention to rumors o Act promptly ( only reinforce the good) o Educate personal Chapter 12: The Internet and Other New Technologies. Book and lecture notes ????? Chapter. Chapter 13 Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Characteristics of the Internet (pg 344) o Its reach is world wide o The content of the internet is virtually uncontrolled o Issue tracking, a major component of professional pr management can be more through using the internet ∙ Different communication formats available via the Internet ( pg. 339 – 42) o Email distribution – includes messages to individuals; news letters to staff members; transmission of news release, photo and pitch letters to media officers and dispatch and receipt of copy between PR firms and clients. o Websites – these sites provide a way for organizations to tell Internet uses what they do, to publish projects and to advocate policies. o Blogs, mobologs and Vlogs Bolg – regulary updated online diary Moblogging – uses cell phones to post things to the internet Vlogs – online diary video o RSS ( really simple syndication) – a web based process of searching and gathering together news and information that is then fed to the users computer or wireless device. o Podcasting – radio, tv and film conenet can be delievered to a user through a comp or PDAo Brochureware – little more than an online brochure and collection of materials. This adds to tools available to PR people ∙ Problems with the Internet ( pg 346 – 48) o Increasing, search engines proizting opitions based on sponsers o Still need a fairly high skill level to set up a web page o Security problems and problems with copyright ( legal stuff) o Cyberheckling – using internet to make fun of someone. o News gets overtaking by the newest news o Irritating practices nag at online users o Astroturfing – when “grassroot” organizations turn out to be sponsored organizations. ∙ Five types of message delivery via satellite o (1) Video and Audio News Release Distribution o (2) Television, Radio, and Web Monitoring Services o (3) Teleconferencing – video conferencing using telephone lines o (4) Web Conferencing – video conference using camera and computer. o (5) Satellite Media Tours – a person is able to be interviewed in one place and be shown on screens in other cities. Chapter 11: Reaching a Multicultural and Diverse Audience Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Definition and characteristics of a particular age group o Youth and young adults ( 1524 yrs old) Very influential and important b/c they influence parents decisions, have their own product decisions and grow up into the adult consumer market Rebellious, hormones, influenced by celebrities, want to think the message is there idea. Persistence nagging – plea repeated over and over Importantce nagging – parents desire to provide best for child b/c parents do things for the child. Will spend more time interacting with friends online and in person. Will spend more time online than interacting with parents Initial interaction online will preceed most dating and marriages More reserved social skills Don’t tolerate print or slow application – not patient o Baby Boomers ( our parents era)( wave of people born after WW2)( 42 to 60) Grew up in an age of prosperity. Have more disposable income. Spent more money on consumer products rather than retirement. Concerned about health care ( worry about their parents getting older) Concerned about health care, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing Active and social group Very involved in their children’s lives. o Senior (65 or older) Ignore the normal stereotypes of “old folk” Less easily convinced. Demand value in the things that they buy Don’t pay attention to fads They VOTE! Good source of volunteers because they have free time. Very health conscious They don’t want to be called old ∙ Media opportunities for racial and ethnic groups o Increase in populations have been met with an increase in the number and strength of the media. ∙ 5 Concepts for conducting a Multicultural campaign o Organize a team with an understanding of the customs and values of the different demographics o Understand that consumers of diverse cultural backgrounds respond better with a message that is culturally relevant o Remember diverse audiences are LOYAL o Use primary language of the audience o Use a spokesperson who represents the audience Chapter 19: Global Public Relations. Book and lecture notes. Understand and be able to explain: o The reasons for global public relations Globalization – Global market is growing 1/3 of all corporate profits are generated through international business 2530% of US company’s stock held by overseas investors o Problems that could come up in doing international PR Differences in languages and customs Chain of command Varying levels of development of the media Antipathy towards multinational Bias towards our own culture o Cultural characteristics Sense of self and space Communication and language Dress and appearance Food and feeding habits Time Relationship values Beliefs and attitudes Latin America 3.75 million people / 25 countries Language: Spanish, Portuguese Family oriented w/ authority on father Roman catholic church dominates Time: often late Nonrushed handshakes are important Privacy valued Personal space is close Asia 2 billion people Bla bla continue all this in notes word fo word o Opportunities in international public relations Chapter 14: Corporations. Book and lecture notes. Chapter 17 Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Definition and characteristics of a corporation o “ legal person”. Can sue and be sued. Buy, hold and sell property, make and sell products to consumers. Commit crimes and be punished for them. ∙ Role of consumers in affecting corporations ∙ Four reasons for corporate citizenship (pg 446) o Good employee moral o Its important to customers o Met financial objective o Less government regulation ∙ Purpose of philanthropy ( pg. 467) o To demonstrate community goodwill o Good for business and retaining customers o DEF! ∙ Benefits of philanthropy o Stenghtened reputation and brand recognition o Improved community and gov relations o Increases media opportunities o Employee recruitment and retention o Enhanced marketing o Access to research and development, o increase corporate profitability ∙ Factors to consider in dealing with business and the media (447) o Most corporations don’t want to give a lot of info to the media b/c they are afraid it will turn into bad PR. o PR must stand in the middle and interpret their clients to the media.o Corporate reputation is either tarnished or enhanced by the media coverage that an organization receives; print and broadcast are the biggest threat to reputations. ∙ Factors to consider in dealing with business and the media o Emotionalism has replaced reason o Activism has overtaken science o Exaggeration has overwhelmed precision o Grassroots manipulation is the new realism o PR bridge the gap between exec and reporters Chapter 15: Politics and Government. Book and lecture notes. Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Tactics for gathering information, disseminating views o Spoken tactics: office visits of gov officials. Testimony at public hearings, speechs o Written tactics: letters, oped articles, position papers, newsletter, advocacy advertising o Target publics: legislators, employees, retirees, customers, taxpayers, government employees. ∙ Purpose of lobbying ( pg 475) o Lobbyist direct their energies to defeas, passage or admendment of proposed legislation and regulatory agency policies ∙ Pros/cons of grassroots approach to lobbying ( pg. 481) o Pros: no rules or regulation, coalition building (influence from private citizens more influential) o Cons: unethical behavior b/c done under the cover of front groups ( stealth lobbying), public is not told what the interest are behind a campaign. “Astroturf” not as good connections ∙ Ethical guidelines for public relations professionals in political campaigns o Can’t lobby former agencies for a year after you were in office o Can lobby congress (former congress members can lobby) o Toothpick rule: food must fit on a tooth pick o Widely attended event ( at least 25 people) o No privately paid recreational travel o No gifts over $50 ∙ Purposes of public affairs in government (pg 486) o Communicate the work of gov agencies o Explain agency programs so that citizens can understand and take nessecary actions o Provide feedback to gov administrators os that polices can be modified, amended or continued o Advise management on how to communicate to the widest number of citizens o Represent the public and listen to it o Educate admins and bureaucrats about the role of the mass media and how to work with media represntatives Chapter 10: Crisis & risk communication: Understand and be able to explain: ∙ Difference between issues, crisis and risk communication o Issues Proactive and systematic approach to predict problems, anticipate threats, minimize surprises, resolve issues and prevent crisis’s Requires twoway communication, formal environment scanning and active sense – making strageiges o Crisis comm An event that adversely affects product/ service. High profile event such as an accident, terrorist attack, natural disaster. 3 types of plans: reactive, strategic, immediate o Risk Comm Strategic planning ( communicates infor that pits the company in favorable light compared to competition or anticipated conflict) Communication that reduces risk for affected publis and employees, such as health/ safety. Ex: its swine flu season. ∙ Five steps of issues management o Issue identification o Issue analysiso Strategy options o Action plan o evaluation ∙ Elements of effective crisis communication o Defensive and accommodative strategies o Put public first o Take responsibility o Be honest o Don’t say no comment o Central communication o Constant flow of info o Know media needs deadlines o Be accessible o Monitor coverage o Communicate with key publics ∙ Defensive and accommodative crisis comm. Strategies o Defensive Attack accuser Denial Excuse minimize responsibility Justification – blame o Accommodative Ingratiationappease affected public Corrective action Full apology ∙ Influences on perceptions of risk ( what the public thinks about the risk) o Risks voluntarily taken tend to be accepted (you don’t feel as bad when a smoker gets lung cancer.) o the harder the situation the more risky o if the public understands it = less risky o conlict = more risky o the severity of consequences affects risk perceptions Education, Sports and Entertainment all come from the notes...and there's not alot of them so no griping (smile). DChapter 14: Written Tactics: News Releases I. Writing is the most important part of PR!! a. Internal tools i. Used to convey outside to inside ii. Memos, emails, backgrounders, reports, magazines, newsletters, proposals, special events, meetings b. External tools i. Used to convey inside to outside c. The News (Press) Release i. Simple document whose purpose is the dissemination of information in the mass media ii. Faces intense competition iii. Editors assign to 3 categories: 1. Obvious news (sometimes) 2. Maybe (rarely) 3. Discard (almost always) II. Planning a release a. Do you really need one? b. Ask is there’s news values i. If so, you have a news hook ii. If not, you don’t have a news release c. Who is the primary audience? d. What objective does the release serve? e. Correct names of editors/reporters f. Correct beat, section, time period g. Content of a press release i. Inverted pyramid style 1. At the end, give a line or two about who the person or organization is ii. Double check all information iii. Eliminate boldface and capital letters iv. Include organization background v. Localize whenever possible III. The Newsletter and MAT releases a. Mat Feature releases i. ii. Delivers information to a target audience at regular intervals iii. Frequently used by corporations to communicate with employees and stockholders iv. Some examples: 1. The Open Line 2. Ellen v. Better than paper because… 1. You can always update them—they’re no longer static IV. The Press (Media) Kit a. Often prepared when a company announces new product or sponsors a new events i. Includes: 1. The main news releases 2. A news feature about the development of the product or something similar 3. Facts sheets on the product, organization or event 4. Background information 5. Photos, drawings with captions 6. Biographical material on CEOS, spokesperson, etc. 7. Some basic brochures V. Message a. One provocative thought b. Understand it c. Identify the desired result d. Write what you mean i. Tip: don’t delete your work; cut and paste VI. Multiple drafts are standard for a professional writer VII. Multitaskinga. Write and listen at the same time b. Listen for: i. What you need ii. What you don’t need iii. What’s missing (then ask for it) VIII. Know your publics a. Understand the frames of reference b. Ask, “what’s in it for them?” c. Put yourself in their shoes (your response is not important) IX. Style a. AP, duh b. Used to ensure style consistency i. Among reporters ii. Among public relations writers c. Used in part of whole d. “Avoid becoming inebriated by the exuberance of your own verbosity.” i. –Benjamin Disraeli e. Be clear, have variety, be simple (doesn’t mean you have to dumb it down) f. Simplicity i. Understand the subject ii. Break down in to “digestible parts” iii. Know where to start—and when to stop iv. Avoid jargon g. Show, don’t tell i. Substance over sizzle h. Active voice i. Specifics: facts, quotes, examples j. Avoid triteness and clichés k. Personalize and localize l. Avoid bias i. Gender neutrality ii. Omit race, ethnicity, disabilities, etc unless pertinent to story iii. Omit stereotypes m. Rhythm and flow i. Write the way you talk, then add syntax ii. Read your writing aloud iii. Balance repetition and variety iv. Check wordiness such as 1. “in order to” to 2. “For the purpose of” to 3. “lefthand side” left X. Reading and listening a. Develop “world view” b. Find connections c. Hear the pattern and rhythm of words d. Readability i. Word clarity 1. Short words are clear, easy to understand ii. Sentence clarity 1. Choppy: check for pace and emphasis iii. Lengthy: check for more periods, less word 1. Aim for average of 1017 wordPR Final Review 7:30 a.m. Tuesday Full sized Scantron Chp 10 – 18 50 questions Chapter 10 – Reaching Diverse Audiences What is the most significant aspect of our audience here in the US Characteristics of Major age groups – lifestyle audience, gender audiences Knowing characteristics of each age group Different media – pros and cons of tv, pros and cons of print, all the major channels (best instances) - Which medium lots of complex content? Chapter 11 – Mass Media What is the number one tactic that PR people use? Standard news release, when to use it, when to use it for Writing method used in press release – inverted pyramid How many journalists say the use press releases? (80% pg 226) What’s a quote in broadcasting called? Common term (soundbite) PSA Acronym, ROY, PR Tactics – interviews, email practices, advisories, know about those and best time to use them Social media tactics – twitter, blogs, webcast – what are these tactics used for and what is the best time to use as tactic Putting a product on TV – tactic – product placement When you set up an interview with a reporter – tv, phone, in person interview, not generally no control over what goes in the story Chapter 12 – Internet and Social Media How are the internet and social media channels different from traditional media. – internet’s a lot quicker, don’t have to go through gatekeepers – gatekeepers are no longer the keeper of information – wider audience – new media gives us a lot more opportunities most compelling reasons corporate blog, organizational blog – what are some pros to doing it that way more compelling feedback, more up to date, doesn’t cost a lot of people – people in the industry can contact you proactively Can you control social media? Things can go very bad very quickly, you can manage what you post, but once it’s out there – no control over response Job to manage relationships, not to shut anyone down LinkedIn – personal profiles, networking Twitter – quick, short updates and informationIs your companies website reputable, trustworthy? Yes Cost effective? yes Mobile enabled content is trending up. Chapter 13 – Events and Promotions Questions you have to ask yourself when you’re doing events – Who it is? Why are we doing this? When are we doing this? Where are we doing it? Most important factor u need to consider when planning an event? Budget (dictates all the other decisions. After the budget? More important things to consider – venue… appropriate for audience? – who are we inviting, vendors, staff, volunteers Liability… Going rate for the business speaker, not even a big name? 5-10k Planning a banquet? What does an open house do? Why do for-profit companies and corporations sponsor events? Does help them generate publicity. Connects them with new audience, brand revenue? Is it good practice to have a celebrity at your event? If you are a private company and you have been asked by non-profit to be a corporate sponsor to the event? – Do our messages align? Goals and messages? Receptions, cocktail parties, conventions Chart Pg. 284 Corporate event sponsorship consideration Chp 14 Global PR is also called what _____ Is public relations growing across the world or internationally? YES. Trends, international public relations – Are they developing countries? China, 5 Cultural dimensions, Hoff stead (pg 293) Can I as an American go to other countries and practice Public Relations? Can other countries come to the US and practice Public relations? If you have a country? Why might a foreign corporation gire a PR firm here in the United states What is an NGO non-governmental organization? Are they credible and more credible If you were gonna study international PR what are some things you need to do – foreign lang, cultural concepts, Chp 15 (pg. 309 – chart)79% trust small business owners, most people do not trust corporations. 45% of Americans think corps trustworthy 82% think corporations should be good corporate citizens. More than 80% think that’s the right thing to do Better reputations for corporations affect the bottom line for companies? Yes –help them make money Know which agencies regulate what? – Regulate food and drug admin. FDA, Federal Trade Commission Customer service is highly tied to what form of advertising If you have a bad customer experience, word of mouth advertising closely tied to customer satisfaction Have customer service and PR generally been tied together? Does it make sense for the two of them to be paired together? Yes. Is it important to keep employees happy, well informed Integrated Marketing communication – know what that is Chp 16 Is celebrity a big deal ? yes What is the primary goal of an entertainment event? A personality campaign – what’s the first step when you begin working for a person, interview Drip, drip, drop publicity and when it used Traveling publicity and promotions, tourism travel promo pg. 341 Is it okay to give freebies to reporters? No. As long as it has something to do with the story. If it has nothing to do with the story Chp 17 Do fed state and local Government need PR? Yes What is that job if ur a PR perosnf or the government? What do they call that? Public Information specialist or officer, PIO Name of person legislators to affect legislation? Lobbyist What is the type of advocacy work talking to a lobbiest? Constiuents to talk directly to lawmakers, grassroots advocacy Can states or government officials hire PR firms to work on their behalf? Policial communications – help candidates who want to be elected? Press secretaries, Chp 18 Know why people donate to organizations? Why PR people use normal instincts? Main thing needed to – fundraise – know main types of fundraising, when we should use it? Contribution to charities going up or going down? 90% of the money donate to charities comes from individual? Pages 374 in last chapter, numbers thereKnow what kind of different organizations make up nonprofit realm (Healthcare education, social issue organizations, I. Sports PR a. Public yearning for heroes b. Civic pride c. Big money d. Potential to reach wider audience e. Complex relationships i. Sports crisis management ii. Sponsorship management 1. Sponsorships (Edelman) a. MUSTS system i. Media Appeal ii. User Friendliness iii. Sales appeal iv. Thematic opps 1. Advocacy (family man or if you have a disease) v. Special events II. Entertainment a. Receivers and fame i. Psychological factors 1. Wish fulfillment 2. Hero worship 3. Vicarious belonging (teams) 4. To be entertained b. Publicists i. Careful nurturing of image 1. Relationship 2. Onesided 3. Idealized 4. Undemanding ∙ Chapter 10 o What is the mot significant aspect of the US audience o Characteristics of the different age groups o Pros and cons of TV, print, social media, etc. Which medium is the best to use if you have a lot of complex context ∙ Chapter 11 o What is the main tactic PR people use o Standard news release o What is the writing method used in press release—inverted pyramid o About how many journalist say they use press releases— 80% (page 226) o What is a quote in broadcasting called—sound bite o What does PSA, ROY stand for o Know the different PR tactics (pitches, interviews, etc.) o Putting a product on TV, what is that called? o When you do an interview over the phone/ not in person, do you have control over what the interviewer puts in their story? ∙ Chapter 12 o How are the internet/social media different from traditional media outlets—quicker, more control, no gate keepers, more opportunity, more feedback and interactivity o What are the most compelling reasons to have a corporation/organizational blog—feedback from your customers, keep them up to date, not expensive, useful for media relations, people from other industries can see your info and contact you o Can you control social media? o What is LinkedIn good for? Twitter—quick, short updates o Company websites, are they cost affective and trustworthy? o Mobile enabled content is trending up ∙ Chapter 13 o What are some of the questions you have to ask yourself when you’re planning events? Who is your audience, when, where, how o What is the most important factor you need to consider when planning an event? Budget (also consider, venue, vendors, staff, etc.)o How much would it cost to get an average speaker? 5-10 thousand o Why do corporations/companies sponsor events? Bring in revenue o If you are a private company and you are asked to sponsor an event what is the first thing you should ask yourself? Do our messages align o Page 284 ∙ Chapter 14 o Global PR is called what? o Is PR growing internationally? Yes o Which countries are typically o Page 293 o Can I as an American go to others countries and practice PR? o Why would a foreign country hire a PR firm here in the US? o What is an NGO? Are they more credible than the media? o If you were going to study international PR what are some things you need to do? ∙ Chapter 15 o Are corporations trusted? 45% think so, 80% think small businesses are trustworthy o Page 309 o Do reputations for corporations affect the bottom line for companies? o Which agencies regulate what o Customer service is highly tied to what form of advertising? Word of mouth o Have customer service and PR been tied together? Not traditionally, but it makes sense o Is it important to keep your employees happy and well informed? o Integrated marketing communication o Is celebrity a big deal o What is the primary goal in any entertainment business? Selling tickets o Drip, drip, drip publicity and when its used o Travel publicity and promotes (341), tourism o Is it ok to give freebies to reporters interested in your story? S long as it has something to do with the story. ∙ Chapter 17 o Government and policieso To federal and state governments need PR? Yes o What do you call someone who does PR for the government? POI-public relations information officer o Grass roots advocacy o Can state/governments hire PR firms to work on their behalf? Yes o Political communications ∙ Chapter 18 o Why people donate to organizations and how PR use these donations—fundraise o Different types of fundraising o Generally did Americans contributions to charities going up or down? Down o More money comes from individuals than from companies in fundraising o Page 374 o What kind of organizations make up non-profitsMedia Relations 04/26/2016 ∙ Involves gaining support for an org thru news media ∙ Want to keep good mutual relationship between organizations and the media ∙ Orgs rely on media to help them communicate with their publics ∙ Media rely on orgs to provide them information that they find newsworthy enough to share w/ their audiences ∙ Develop good relationships with reporters ∙ The Role of Gatekeepers ∙ Decision makers on producing or publishing a story ∙ Agenda setting – media doesn’t tell us what to think, but what to think about ∙ The Basics… ∙ Establish media contacts ∙ Know subject matter ∙ Have a GOOD story to tell ∙ Dynamics of exposure ∙ Stay informed about the world ∙ Be a good source ∙ Look for news with: a local angle, relation to a bigger story ∙ 5 ways to a reporter’s heart ∙ Be courteous – understand the media’s job and treat journalist with respect ∙ Do your homework – Know what reporters are writing ∙ Never exaggerate∙ Don’t ever – EVER –lie ∙ Always follow up as promised immediately ∙ Develop a newsworthy message ∙ Impact – how is the audience affected? ∙ Timeliness ∙ Prominence – characters are well known ∙ Proximity – geographically close ∙ Magnitude – size of the event ∙ Conflict – disasters, death, fights ∙ Emotional impact – human interest ∙ Weirdness/oddity – unusual twists ∙ Know your media ∙ Research your targets ∙ Establish relationship w/ media ∙ Create a press list/media database ∙ Establish guidelines for media contact ∙ Earned media ∙ Institutional stories and experts who make the news are called “earned media”. Used because it is timely and important and serves the readers. ∙ Everything else is paid media ∙ News Release ∙ Created by Ivy Lee in 1906∙ Primary purpose is to disseminate information to mass media ∙ Media rely on news releases for two reasons: o Reporters and editors spend most of their time process info, not gathering it o No media enterprise has enough staff to cover every single event in the community ∙ Planning a News Release o What is the key message? o Primary audience? o What does the target audience gain from the product or service? o What objective does the release serve? o Is a news release the best format for the information? ∙ Format o Lead 5 W’s and H Short paragraphs Quotations Inverted pyramid style o Spacing: Typed, doublespaced, 8.5x11 inch paper o Id at the top: Name, address and phone number of the release writer. Also the name and phone number of sources interviewed – if know o Boiler plate: final paragraph of the release that provides info on the org sending the release o No more than 2 pages o Headlines: Optional, short and descriptiveo Proofreading: grammar, spelling and punctuation must be perfect…always use AP style ∙ Multimedia News Release o Smart media release (SMR) o Embed highres photo/graphics, video, and audio o Search engine optimization (SEO o Social media tags ∙ 9 Fatal Errors in News Releases o Reads like an ad o Unsuitable subject matter o Poor writing o Not enough info o Poor writing, and grammar o Too technical o Unsuitable writing style o Poor timing o Useless uninteresting information o Poor graphics or photos ∙ Publicity Photos o Print and elec news releases are often accompanied by a photo o 8 elements to consider: quality, subject matter, composition, action, scale, camera angle, lighting, color ∙ Media Kits∙ Usually prepared for major events and new product launches ∙ Give editors and reporters a variety of info and resources ∙ Traditional media kit is a 9x12 folder with inside pockets o Basic news release o A news feature about the product/service o Fact sheet o Photos o Bios on spokesperson/CEO o Basic brochure o Contact info ∙ Mat Releases ∙ Uses feature angle is used instead of lead ∙ Geared toward providing helpful info about a variety of subjects with only brief mention of the organization ∙ Media Alerts & Fact Sheets ∙ Most common format of media alert/media advisory is short, bullet items o Tells reporters – Hey, some shit about to happen….you might want to cover it. ∙ The Art of Pitching a Story ∙ Occurs when PR practitioners and publicists write a short letter or note to the editor that tries to grab their attention ∙ PR people also use pitches o Ask editors to assign a reporter to a particular event o Pursue a feature angle on an issue or trendo Book a spokesperson on a forecoming show ∙ Pitching via Email o Good subject o Keep the message brief o Don’t include unexpected attachments o Don’t send blasts o Send tailored email pitches to specific reporters/editors o Regularly check names on email list o Give option to get off email list o Establish an email relationship ∙ Distributing Media Materials o News releases, photos, media kits and other media materials can be distributed by: First class mail Email Electronic wire services Online newsrooms o Media Interviews Preparing: Help interviewee say something that will inform or entertain the audience Know the interview’s purpose to assemble facts and data for client to use Well acquainted w/ the interviewer’s styleo News Conferences A news conference (press conference) allows for a quick, widespread dissemination of a person’s comments and opinions to a number of reporters at the same time Planning and conducting a new conference PR professionals must assess whether the information can be distributed via a news release of media kit first ∙ Managerial communicationbased function designed to identify a sport organization’s key public, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those publics. ∙ Marketing Mix + Promotional Mix ∙ Promoting teams ∙ Promoting athletes ∙ Dealing with crises ∙ Attracting sponsors ∙ Promotion, Hype, Spin ∙ Promotion o Cultivating publicity o Managing statistical services o Managing the media at games and competitions o Creating publications o Generating online content o Community relations o Personal contact program o Must promote other products o Goals Generate sales Attract target audience Help create a positive image o Promotion of the event helps to create interest and ticket sale Draws an audience from radio, tv, and online Increased audience will increase advertising rates and sponsorships ∙ Live game vs. TV game o “Inperson experience” ∙ Celebrity = a person known in one of a wide variety of fields such as science, politics, or entertainment ∙ Not necessarily based on outstanding achievement ∙ Fascination with Celebrity ∙ Dominant factor in today’s mass media ∙ Celebrity promotion o Natural curiosity o Ego satisfaction o Commercial gain ∙ Yearning for fairy takes and heroes ∙ We critique it, but we watch it; we buy it; ∙ Notoriety – being famous for being infamous (committing major crimes or being involved unfavorably in spectacular trials) ∙ PR Practitioner’s Responsibility ∙ Damage control∙ Ethical problems o Misconduct issues o Client truthfulness ∙ The Publicist ∙ PR practitioner working in entertainment ∙ Primary job is getting media publicity ∙ Crisis communication ∙ Digital publicist pay great attn. to hundreds of bloggers that cover the entertainment industry ∙ Branded entertainment ∙ Product placement ∙ Creating buzz for plays/musicals ∙ Media relations o Announcing that the play/show will be presented o News release reporting casting of characters o Feature stories or “readers” discussing the plays theme and background o Interviews with lead actor/actress o Photographs of show scenes o Laura Cating Director of Communications Louisiana Travel PromotionIntern as much as you can, Trial by fire, best and worst way of learning First case: Hurricane Katrina American Horror Story LTPA: Gathering place for the industry Appreciate the people you work with PR work in different market Work in different fields Shaping and crafting the story It’s bigger; It sells LTPA Interns – ltpa.org; email@example.com ∙ Today’s Modern Corporation ∙ Global perspective ∙ Large size brings remoteness ∙ Ordinary citizens become distrustful ∙ Arguing for realism vs. lame excuses ∙ The Roles of PR ∙ Extensive, negative publicity about corps require companies to make a special effort to regain public credibility ∙ Corporate social responsibility (CSR)o Adopt ethical principles o Pursue transparency and disclosure o Make trust a fundament precept of corporate governance ∙ Media Relations ∙ Media ae a major source of pubic info and perceptions about the business world and individual worlds ∙ Execs are defensive about how journalists cover their business ∙ Journalist complain about flow info, lack of cooperation ∙ PR professionals must be the LINK ∙ Customer Relations ∙ 1st line of PR ∙ Incidents can severely hurt reputation ∙ Sharing info is valuable for getting PR professionals involved in: active listening; strategizing to ensure a good rep ∙ Pay attn. to consumer surveys ∙ Reaching Diversity ∙ Keep watchful eye ∙ Seemingly innocent, positive communication programs may stir controversy ∙ Consumer Activism ∙ Work with those interest in solutions, offer transparency, turn suggestions into action ∙ DON’T get emotional, agree to work with anyone making threats, expect immediate results ∙ Boycotts ∙ Don’t have to be 100% effective in order to change corporate policies∙ Employee Relations ∙ Organization’s “ambassadors” ∙ Work with HR ∙ PR professionals often involved in counseling – what policies should be created, how they should be implemented ∙ Layoffs and Outsourcing ∙ Major PR challenge ∙ Must embrace diversity ∙ Offshoring – outsourcing whitecollar jobs to other countries ∙ Investor relations ∙ Company’s health and wealth to shareholders and prospective investors ∙ Goal is to combine communication and finance to display company standpoint ∙ Key audiences are: financial analysts, individuals and institutional investors, shareholders, prospective shareholders, the financial media ∙ Employees are an important public investor relations largely because of stock/401k opps ∙ Marketing communication ∙ Use PR tools and tactics to support the marketing and sales objectives ∙ Integrated marketing communication (IMC) ∙ Product publicity, product placement ∙ Sponsorship, viral marketing ∙ Causerelated marketing – combines forprofit companies and nonprofit orgs (go RED for AIDS) ∙ Environment Relations ∙ Trend toward coop between NGOs and corps ∙ Corporate Philanthropy ∙ Donation of funds, products, and services to causes ∙ Corporations have long used philanthropy to demonstrate community goodwill and to polish their reputations as a good citizen ∙ Despite the possible downsides and controversies, this is a good tool for o Increasing visibility, enhancing rep, marketing at events, building relationships with key audiences, increase profits