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UWEC / Psychology / PSY 100 / What does process of aquisition entail?

What does process of aquisition entail?

What does process of aquisition entail?

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psych
Professor: Douglas matthews
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history, nervous, sensation, perception, learning, memory, consciousness, Drugs, sleep, development, thinking, Language, motivation, eating, personality, social, and disorders
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: These notes cover all of the material in the modules that we discussed throughout the semester.
Uploaded: 12/17/2016
13 Pages 42 Views 4 Unlocks
Reviews


• What is the order of the cells in the retina?


What does process of aquisition entail?



Modules 21-23: Learning

• Learning is defined as, "the process of acquiring through experience new and

relatively enduring or __ ." Information; behaviors

• What is instinct?

• What is the process of classical conditioning?

• In Pavlov's experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a


What is discrimination learning for?



We also discuss several other topics like Why is male monogamy perceived as darwinian puzzle?

__ stimulus. Conditioned

• Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. What is this process

called? Discrimination

• What is the process of acquisition?

• What is it called when you no longer compare the conditioned stimulus with a

reward? Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery If you want to learn more check out What is scientific method and its steps?

• What is the concept of generalization?


How are cognitive maps helpful to us?



• What is the concept of discrimination learning?

• What is the process of Long Term Potentiation? Where is it most often studied?

• Does positive mean applied or removed?

• Does negative mean applied or removed?

• A restaurant is running a special deal. After you buy four meals at full price, your fifth meal will be free. This is an example of a schedule of reinforcement. Fixed We also discuss several other topics like What are executive orders used for?

Ratio

• The partial-reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unpredictable

time periods is a schedule. Variable-Interval

• What is a variable ratio?

• What is a fixed interval ratio?

• What is the concept of cognitive maps?

• What is the concept of imitation?

Modules 24-26: Memory Don't forget about the age old question of What was the largest migration in africa?

• A psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember

having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your _ . Recall

• What are the three components of memory?

• What are the three types of memory?

• What are the three stages of memory?

• Sensory memory may be visual ( memory) or auditory L memory). Iconic;

echoic Don't forget about the age old question of How do taxes affect supply?

• Our short term memory is limited to how many chunks?

• What are some efforts than can increase processing in an individual?

• Describe the stages of sleep.

• What is a person most likely to experience during Stage 1? Hallucinations

• At what stage does the brain emit large, slow delta waves? Stage 3

• What is the difference between narcolepsy and sleep apnea?

• How do DRIS and DRAS work with REM sleep?

Modules 14-17: Development

• How does a theorist view development? Continual or flowing

• How does a biologist view development? Broken into section or stages (easier to If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between one's notion of self and self-identity?

study)

• How do newborns cries relate to their mother?

• What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?

• What are Teratogens? What is the most common one?

• Stroke a newborns cheek and the infant will root for a nipple. This illustrates A. a reflex B. nurture C. differentiation D. continuity

• What are visual habituations?

• Between the ages of 3 and 6, what lobe experiences the greatest growth? Frontal

• Which of the following is true about motor skill development? A. Determined ONLY by genetic factors B. The sequence, but not the timing, is universal. C. The timing, but not the sequence, is universal. D. Determined ONLY by environmental factors.

• What is infantile amnesia?

• Describe the stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

• What is stranger anxiety?

• Is attachment based on nourishment or comfort?

• What is adolescence marked by the onset of? Puberty

• How is the pre-frontal cortex involved in the adolescent stage?

• According to Piaget, a person who can think logically about abstractions is in the

__stage. Formal Operational

• How do cross sectional and longitudinal studies vary?

• Describe the neural destruction that occurs with Dementia and Alzheimers.

Modules 27-28: Thinking and Language

• What is the concept of cognition?

• A mental grouping of similar things is called a . Concept

• What are the strategies to facilitate thinking? What one is the most systematic?

Psychology 100-001 Study Guide

Final Exam

Fall 2016 Modules 1-4: History of Psychology

• What is psychology the study of?

• What is structuralism and what is it focusing on?

• As scientists, psychologists A. Approach research with negative cynicism. B. Assume that an article published in a leading scientific journal must be true. C. Believe that every important human question can be studied through science. D. Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified.

• What is functionalism and what is it focusing on?

• What are theories based on predictions called? Hypotheses

• Which of the following is NOT one of the methods psychologists use to observe and

describe behavior? A. A case study B. Naturalistic Observation C. Correlational Research D. A phone Survey

• A provides a visual representation of the direction and the strength of a

relationship between two variables. Scatterplot

• In a_ correlation, the scores rise and fall together; in a __ _ correlation, one

score falls as the other rises. Positive; negative

• What does knowing that two events correlate provide? A basis for prediction.

• To explain behaviors and clarify cause and effect relationships, psychologists use

__. Experiments

• What is a placebo?

• What occurs in a double blind procedure? Neither the participants nor the

researchers know who is in the experimental group or the control group.

• Another name for a bell shaped distribution, in which most scores fall near the middle

and fewer scores fall at each extreme is called . Normal Curve

• What are the differences between basic and applied psychology?

• Describe the types of Bias. (Emotional, conformational and expectancy)

• What are case studies?

Modules 5-7: Nervous System and Behavior

• The neuron fiber that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to

muscles and glands is the __. Axon

• What is the synaptic gap?

• What is the order of the cells in the retina?

Modules 21-23: Learning

• Learning is defined as, "the process of acquiring through experience new and

relatively enduring or __ ." Information; behaviors

• What is instinct?

• What is the process of classical conditioning?

• In Pavlov's experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a

__ stimulus. Conditioned

• Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. What is this process

called? Discrimination

• What is the process of acquisition?

• What is it called when you no longer compare the conditioned stimulus with a

reward? Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery

• What is the concept of generalization?

• What is the concept of discrimination learning?

• What is the process of Long Term Potentiation? Where is it most often studied?

• Does positive mean applied or removed?

• Does negative mean applied or removed?

• A restaurant is running a special deal. After you buy four meals at full price, your fifth meal will be free. This is an example of a schedule of reinforcement. Fixed

Ratio

• The partial-reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unpredictable

time periods is a schedule. Variable-Interval

• What is a variable ratio?

• What is a fixed interval ratio?

• What is the concept of cognitive maps?

• What is the concept of imitation?

Modules 24-26: Memory

• A psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember

having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your _ . Recall

• What are the three components of memory?

• What are the three types of memory?

• What are the three stages of memory?

• Sensory memory may be visual ( memory) or auditory L memory). Iconic;

echoic

• Our short term memory is limited to how many chunks?

• What are some efforts than can increase processing in an individual?

Psychology 100-001 Study Guide

Final Exam

Fall 2016 Modules 1-4: History of Psychology

• What is psychology the study of?

• What is structuralism and what is it focusing on?

• As scientists, psychologists A. Approach research with negative cynicism. B. Assume that an article published in a leading scientific journal must be true. C. Believe that every important human question can be studied through science. D. Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified.

• What is functionalism and what is it focusing on?

• What are theories based on predictions called? Hypotheses

• Which of the following is NOT one of the methods psychologists use to observe and

describe behavior? A. A case study B. Naturalistic Observation C. Correlational Research D. A phone Survey

• A provides a visual representation of the direction and the strength of a

relationship between two variables. Scatterplot

• In a_ correlation, the scores rise and fall together; in a __ _ correlation, one

score falls as the other rises. Positive; negative

• What does knowing that two events correlate provide? A basis for prediction.

• To explain behaviors and clarify cause and effect relationships, psychologists use

__. Experiments

• What is a placebo?

• What occurs in a double blind procedure? Neither the participants nor the

researchers know who is in the experimental group or the control group.

• Another name for a bell shaped distribution, in which most scores fall near the middle

and fewer scores fall at each extreme is called . Normal Curve

• What are the differences between basic and applied psychology?

• Describe the types of Bias. (Emotional, conformational and expectancy)

• What are case studies?

Modules 5-7: Nervous System and Behavior

• The neuron fiber that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to

muscles and glands is the __. Axon

• What is the synaptic gap?

Stud

• What does the intensity of a stimulus determine? Whether or not a stimulus is

generated.

• What is saltatory conduction?

• What is split brain?

• In a sending neuron, when an action potential reaches an axon terminal, the impulse

triggers the release of chemical messengers called . Neurotransmitters

• What does the autonomic nervous system control? Internal functions. . The most influential endocrine gland, is the A. Pituitary B. Hypothalamus C. Thyroid D. Pancreas

• What is the part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing? Medulla

• What is the function of the thalamus?

• What is the lower brain structure that governs arousal? Reticular Formation

• What are the two parts of the limbic system?

• What are the differences between a phenotype and genotype?

• Describe the steps of an Action Potential.

• Is the pre-synaptic neuron electrical or chemical? Electrical

• Is the synapse electrical or chemical? Chemical

• Is the post synaptic neuron electrical or chemical? Electrical

Modules 18-20: Sensation vs Perception

• Sensation is to __ as perception is to __. Bottom-up processing; top down

processing

• The process by which we organize and interpret sensory information is called_

Perception

• Is sensation biological or cognitive?

• Does our perception often match our sensations?

• Sensation adaptation helps us focus on A. Visual Stimuli B. Auditory Stimuli C. Constant features of the environment D. Important changes in the environment

• What is transduction?

• What is the difference between absolute threshold and difference threshold?

• What is adaptation?

• What is the difference between bottom up and top down processing?

• Cones are the eye's receptor cells that are especially sensitive to light and are responsible for our vision. Bright; color

• What is the order of the cells in the retina?

Modules 21-23: Learning

• Learning is defined as, "the process of acquiring through experience new and

relatively enduring or __ ." Information; behaviors

• What is instinct?

• What is the process of classical conditioning?

• In Pavlov's experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a

__ stimulus. Conditioned

• Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. What is this process

called? Discrimination

• What is the process of acquisition?

• What is it called when you no longer compare the conditioned stimulus with a

reward? Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery

• What is the concept of generalization?

• What is the concept of discrimination learning?

• What is the process of Long Term Potentiation? Where is it most often studied?

• Does positive mean applied or removed?

• Does negative mean applied or removed?

• A restaurant is running a special deal. After you buy four meals at full price, your fifth meal will be free. This is an example of a schedule of reinforcement. Fixed

Ratio

• The partial-reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unpredictable

time periods is a schedule. Variable-Interval

• What is a variable ratio?

• What is a fixed interval ratio?

• What is the concept of cognitive maps?

• What is the concept of imitation?

Modules 24-26: Memory

• A psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember

having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your _ . Recall

• What are the three components of memory?

• What are the three types of memory?

• What are the three stages of memory?

• Sensory memory may be visual ( memory) or auditory L memory). Iconic;

echoic

• Our short term memory is limited to how many chunks?

• What are some efforts than can increase processing in an individual?

• Memory aids that use visual imagery or other organizational devices (such as

acronyms) are called __. Mnemonics

• What is procedure memory?

• What is declarative memory?

• The hippocampus seems to function as a A. Temporary processing site for explicit memories B. Temporary processing site for implicit memories C. Permanent storage area for emotion-based memories D. Permanent storage area for iconic and echoic memories

• Describe the state dependent concept.

• What is the concept of serial position?

• What is proactive interference?

• What is retroactive interference?

JO

Modules 8-10: Consciousness, Drugs & Sleep

• What is cognitive neuroscience directly focused on?

• How is consciousness defined?

• What are Freud's levels of consciousness? (Think of the ice berg analogy)

• What are the benefits of consciousness?

• What is failure to see visible object because our attention is focused elsewhere

called? Inattention Blindness

• We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of processing. When we devote deliberate attention to stimuli, we use_

processing. Unconscious, conscious

• What is the biphasic effect?

• After continued use of a drug, the drug user tends to need a larger dose to get the

same desired effect. This is referred to as Tolerance

• What is sensitization?

• The depressants include alcohol and A. Opiates B. Cocaine and morphine C. Caffeine, nicotine and marijuana D. Amphetamines

• Our body temperature tends to rise and fall in sync with a biological clock, which is soul

referred to as . Circadian Rhythm

• What is the most common Zeitgeber?

• How does jet lag work?

• Why is the suprachiasmatic nucleus so important?

• Describe the biochemistry of the circadian rhythm.

• How does melatonin relate to sleep?

SES

• What are the 7 potential errors in judgement?

• What is a fixation? Inability to view a problem from a new perspective.

• Which of the following is not a characteristic of a creative person? A. Expertise B. Extrinsic Motivation C. Outgoing/Venturesome personality D. Imaginative Thinking skills

• At what ages do babbling, babbling 2, one word state and two word stage occur?

• What is the critical period?

• What is an aphasia?

• What are the differences between Broca and Wenicke's area?

• What is Arculate Fasciculus?

• What is the definition of intelligence?

• How do you calculate IQ? Is it accurate?

• How are IQ and genetics related?

Modules 37-41: Motivation & Eating

• What is the Instinct Theory?

• What is the Drive Reduction Theory? How can it fail?

• What is homeostasis?

• What is the Optimum Arousal Theory designed to seek?

• Describe Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.

• An example of a psychological need is ___. An example of a psychological drive is

. Hunger; A push to find food

• With a challenging task, such as taking your psychology final, performance is likely to

peak when arousal is A. very high B. moderate C. very low D. Absent

• What is released from the small intestine that plays a role of satiety?

• How do the lateral and medial hypothalamus relate to eating?

• What factors control eating?

• How is society involved in weight management?

• What are the stages in the sex cycle?

• What is a refractory period?

• Describe the relationship of dopamine and sex.

• How are a job, career and calling different?

• What is the flow state?

Modules 46-48: Personality

• How is personality defined?

• What is the Psychodynamic Theory?

• Who is Sigmund Freud?

• The concept of blocking painful or unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings or memories from consciousness through an unconscious process is called

Repression

• What is Psychoanalysis?

• What is the process of Free Association?

• According to Freud's view of personality structure, the executive system, the

seeks to gratify the impulses of the ___ in more acceptable ways. Ego; ID

• The, "voice of conscious" is related to the ___, which internalizes ideals and

provides standards for judgements. Superego

• What are Freud's Psychosexual stages?

• Defense mechanisms are all in an effort to reduce our_ . Anxiety

• What is the Humanistic Theory and how is it related to Maslow?

• Rodgers believed that people are inherently good if three states exist, what are the

three states? Genuineness, Acceptance and Empathy

• __theories of personality focus on describing characteristic behavior patterns, such

as agreeableness or extraversion. Trait

• One famous personality inventory is the A. Extroversion-Introversion scale B. Person-Situation Inventory C. MMPI D. Personality Survey

• What is an empirically derived test?

• What are the Big Five Personality Factors? Conscientiousness, Agreeableness,

Neuroticism, Openness and Extraversion (Think of CANOE)

• What are the differences between external and internal control?

• What are the differences between the spotlight effect, self-esteem and self serving bias?

Modules 42-45: Social Psychology

• What is the Fundamental Attribution Error?

• How are attitudes defined?

• Celebrity endorsements in advertising often lead consumers to purchase products

through persuasion. Peripheral

• What does behavior tend to follow?

• Describe the stages of sleep.

• What is a person most likely to experience during Stage 1? Hallucinations

• At what stage does the brain emit large, slow delta waves? Stage 3

• What is the difference between narcolepsy and sleep apnea?

• How do DRIS and DRAS work with REM sleep?

Modules 14-17: Development

• How does a theorist view development? Continual or flowing

• How does a biologist view development? Broken into section or stages (easier to

study)

• How do newborns cries relate to their mother?

• What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?

• What are Teratogens? What is the most common one?

• Stroke a newborns cheek and the infant will root for a nipple. This illustrates A. a reflex B. nurture C. differentiation D. continuity

• What are visual habituations?

• Between the ages of 3 and 6, what lobe experiences the greatest growth? Frontal

• Which of the following is true about motor skill development? A. Determined ONLY by genetic factors B. The sequence, but not the timing, is universal. C. The timing, but not the sequence, is universal. D. Determined ONLY by environmental factors.

• What is infantile amnesia?

• Describe the stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

• What is stranger anxiety?

• Is attachment based on nourishment or comfort?

• What is adolescence marked by the onset of? Puberty

• How is the pre-frontal cortex involved in the adolescent stage?

• According to Piaget, a person who can think logically about abstractions is in the

__stage. Formal Operational

• How do cross sectional and longitudinal studies vary?

• Describe the neural destruction that occurs with Dementia and Alzheimers.

Modules 27-28: Thinking and Language

• What is the concept of cognition?

• A mental grouping of similar things is called a . Concept

• What are the strategies to facilitate thinking? What one is the most systematic?

Study S

• We tend to agree to a larger request more readily if we have already agreed to a

small request. This tendency is called the _-__-__-- phenomenon. Foot in

the door

• How does role playing impact attitude and behavior?

• What is cognitive dissonance?

• What is conformity?

• Researchers have found that a person is most likely to conform to a group if A. The group members have diverse opinions B. The person feels competent and secure C. The person admires the group's status D. No one else will observe the person's behavior

• What is obedience?

• What are the differences between social facilitation, social loafing and

deindividuation?

• What is group polarization?

• Prejudice towards a group involves negative feelings, a tendency to discriminate and overly generalized beliefs called _

_. Stereotypes

• The other race effect occurs when we assume that other groups are _ (more/less)

homogeneous than our own group. More

• Evidence of a biochemical influence on our aggression is the finding that A. Aggressive behaviors ranges from culture to culture B. Animals can be bred for aggressiveness C. Stimulation of the limbic system can produce aggression> D. Higher levels of testosterone is associated with violent behavior in men

• What is the difference between companionate love and passionate love?

• What is altruism?

• Describe the by-stander effect.

Modules 49-56: Disorders

• What two disorders are found worldwide? Schizophrenia and depression

• What is the DSM?

• Anxiety that takes on the form of an irrational fear of a specific object, activity or

situation is called a _ _. Phobia

• An episode of intense dread, accompanied by trembling, dizziness, chest pains, oroup

choking sensations and feelings of terror is called A. A phobia B. Compulsion C. A panic attack D. An obsessive fear

• What is generalized Anxiety Disorder?

• What is the difference between OCD and PTSD?

• What are the causes of Anxiety Disorders?

• What is Major Depressive Disorder?

• Treatment for depression often includes drugs that increase supplies of the

neurotransmitters_ and_ Norepinephrine and serotonin

• Bipolar disorder is an oscillation between what two stages? Euphoric and depressive

• What is Schizophrenia?

• People with Schizophrenia may hear voices urging self-destruction, an example of an

__. Auditory Hallucination

• What are the causes of Schizophrenia?

• What is Dissociative Disorder?

• A personality disorder, such as antisocial personality, is characterized by A. Depression B. Hallucinations C. Inflexible and enduring behavioral patterns that impair social functioning D. An elevated level of autonomic nervous system arousal

• How do the P300 waves of Psychopaths differ from those of normal individuals?

• What is the difference between Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa?

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