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MSU / Engineering / PSY 353 / Why do mother's have a bigger need to take care of their offspring?

Why do mother's have a bigger need to take care of their offspring?

Why do mother's have a bigger need to take care of their offspring?

Description

School: Montclair State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Comparative Animal Behavior
Professor: Pierre leon
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: ComparativeAnimalBehavior and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Comparative Animal Behavior Final Exam
Description: This contains everything you need to know to get a 78 out of 78 on the final!
Uploaded: 12/19/2016
7 Pages 121 Views 15 Unlocks
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FINAL EXAM  


Why do mother's have a bigger need to take care of their offspring?



Male monogamy is a Darwinian puzzle because polygynous males generally have  access to more eggs to fertilize than monogamous males

The Fertility Insurance Hypothesis states: that mating with several males reduces the  risk of having an impotent partner leaving her infertile

Female Defense Polygyny is when males directly defend several maters, whereas  Resource Defense Polygyny is when a male attracts females through their resources that they  control

A bunch of women enter a club to try and have a meet and greet with Liam Hemsworth.  Knowing that there is going to be an over abundance of women at the club, John Doe and his  Brother Bob Doe decide to go to the club and pick up women. John and Bob are using the  Hotshot Hypothesis.  


What were some of the outcomes of the roeder a1/a2 receptor mother experiment?



John Doe and Bob Doe could not get into the club (Bob decided to wear sneakers and a  tacky shirt...c'mon Bob) so instead of going inside the club to meet women, they decided to go to  a known 24/7 eatery where they knew all of the women go to eat after exiting the club. This  tactic is best explained by the Hotspot Hypothesis.

Jill Doe is meeting a lot of great guys, but she is finding it very hard to compare and  choose between them. She has met each of them individually, but never in the same day where  she can make an in the moment good decision. She decides to invite them to a bar, where they  will all be in the same room, so she can decide through quick comparison. This tactic is best  explained by the Female Preference Hypothesis.


Using the machiavellian intelligence hypothesis what connection does it have to brain size?



We also discuss several other topics like What does the naram-sin stele suggest about akkadian concepts of kingship?

Why do mother's have a bigger need to take care of their offspring? Because the  mother has put many resources into birthing her offspring she must see to their successful  development and she does not want all her sacrifices to be in vain.

A male would engage in parental care to allow the female to go out in forage and  increase in size because an increase in size increases her fecundity.  

These two options are displays of parental favoritism: feeding the first Hatched larvae  more than the secondary hatched larvae and feeding the stronger looking offspring instead of the  sickly, weak looking offspring

Siblicide would cause tension in the family because the parents genetic pass on rate  has been dropped due to the death of a child. If there were 6 chicks and 1 died, the genetic  pass on rate dropped from 6 chicks passing on the genetics to now only 5.

When a tropical moth of the genus Automeris is touched on the thorax it lifts its  forewings up abruptly, exposing its brightly colored hindwings. Proximate causes cause the  moth to behave this way. This behavior is instinctive!

When a tropical moth of the genus Automeris is touched on the thorax it lifts its  forewings up abruptly, exposing its brightly colored hindwings. Ultimate causes cause the moth  to behave this way. Wing flipping scares some predators away! If you want to learn more check out The fastest-­growing segment of modern advertising is what service?

Which of the following statements is/are proximate in nature? Male white-throated  sparrows sing in the spring because males want to learn the song by listening to others at this  time, they learn the song from older males in their neighborhood, and that is when their  testosterone levels are high.

Evolutionary causes are to ultimate causes, as Immediate causes are to proximate  causes.

The following are examples of adaptive song learning: Males will be able to learn the  local version of their species-specific song can communicate better with rivals that will also  be singing that particular learned song from their territorial neighbors and it gives young  males the ability to fine tune his song as he acquires a dialect that can be transmitted  unusually effectively in particular habitats.

Quality of vocal learning affect a males chance to mate because song learning happens  very young and during rapid growth. If rapid growth is difficult to sustain; many if the  times lead to developmental deficits. So poor song quality can mean genetic defects. Don't forget about the age old question of What is malapportionment?

Studying twins is valuable for an understanding of the genetic causes of behavior because a comparison of identical and fraternal twins enables us to test the hypothesis that some  differences among individuals are genetically determined.

If an experimenter is able to select for increased barking in a population of domesticated  dogs over four generations, then there must have been genetic variation relevant to the  development of barking in the initial population in the experiment.

Gene knockout experiments have been carried out to create two categories of  individuals that differ with respect to a single gene and helps determine how that particular  gene contributes to its development.

The “Armpit effect” is the effect of using one's odor on the identification of related or  non-related individuals.

The Clark's Nutcracker bird has one of the most impressive memories (in regards to  food storage and spatial memory) that has been recorded and validated through experimentation?

An occurrence within a species of two or more alternative distinctions whose differences  are induced by key differences in the environment experienced by individual members of this  species. This is an example of a Polyphenism.  

The Innate Releasing Mechanism is responsible for detecting Sign Stimulus and  activating Fixed Action Patter. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the key difference between nature and nurture?

“Worm Grunters” are Floridians that use a vibrating stake driven within the earth to  bring the worms to the surface for easier collection.

"Worm Grunters" exploiting proximate neural mechanisms with the vibrating stake that  is being driven into the earth resembles the vibrations generated by one of the worms  primary predators, the Worm-eating American mole. We also discuss several other topics like What is the need for affiliation?

What were some of the outcomes of the Roeder A1/A2 receptor mother experiment? The  A1 receptor fires much more frequently in response to pulses of sound than to steady, uninterrupted sounds; the receptor cells do not respond at all o low-frequency sounds,  which means that moths are deaf to stimuli that we can easily hear; as a sound increases in  intensity, the A1 receptor fires more often and with a shorter delay between the arrival of  the stimulus at the tympanum and the onset of the first action potential; and the A1  receptor is sensitive to ultrasounds of low or moderate intensity, whereas the A2 receptor  begins to produce action potentials only when an ultrasound is relatively loud. (Basically,  all of the selections are correct.)

Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis proposes that advanced problem solving and the  like evolved in the context of one's own species and an increase in intelligence in some  individuals could favor an increase in (social) intelligence in others, setting up a positive  feedback loop leading to ever greater species-wide cognitive abilities up to a point. If you want to learn more check out What is the name of the book written by charles darwin?

Using the Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis what connection does it have to brain  size? It is predicted that social animals would have particularly large brains for animals of  their size.

You could you demonstrate that a particular circadian rhythm is adaptive for a given  cricket species by finding related species of the cricket species in question, those that exhibit  different circadian rhythms that can be linked to differences in the environmental  pressures acting on the different species.

An organism’s neural command center units can communicate and/or inhibit one another  thus changing an animal's behaviors.

A 24-hour cycle is a circadian rhythm, whereas a 365-day cycle is a circannual.

What are some costs of hormonal regulation? Hormones can influence an organism to  expend energy at a much higher rate; hormones may interfere with immunological  responses; and hormones may affect the clarity of thinking and focus within an organism.  

Consist of an assortment of cells capable of unified decision making, such as innate  releasing mechanisms, central pattern generators, and song control systems. This describes the command centers.

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus is so important because it contains a master clock that is  critical to the circadian rhythm and it receives inputs from nerves originating in the retina,  therefore it secures information about day and night length.

The FOXP2 gene effects how the human gene's transcription regulates other genes  involved in the development of the neural substrate for the acquisition of learned speech.

Broca’s area is associated with the loss of the ability to speak a language, while  Wernicke’s area is responsible for the ability to comprehend spoken language.

It is more difficult to learn a language after a certain age because once the neural  architecture of the brain has been shaped by early exposure to one language, the brain is  committed to that brain structure.

Neural mechanisms of speech are extremely costly due to brain tissue requiring 16  times as much energy to maintain than the equivalent of muscle tissue is considered an  evolutionary COST of the development of speech.

Transmission of useful information to offspring, partner, and members of group;  transmission of misinformation to used manipulation to increase fitness; allows an  individual to feel as if they belong, or gain access to a group; and increases the success of  selection of partners are all things that are BENEFITS of the development of speech.  (Basically, all four of the selections are correct.)

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