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UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY / Special Education / SPED 3060 / What are the only parts of DNA code for protein?

What are the only parts of DNA code for protein?

What are the only parts of DNA code for protein?

Description

School: Utah State University
Department: Special Education
Course: Genetics
Professor: Gregory podgorski
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and Genetics
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 14
Description: Genetics Ch 14 from the book "Genetics A Conceptual Approach
Uploaded: 12/20/2016
3 Pages 138 Views 0 Unlocks
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Chapter14 RNA ProcessingWe also discuss several other topics like Who are the first, second and third parties in healthcare situations?

Intro

Introns and Exons

Splicing

snRNAs

Caps and TailsIf you want to learn more check out Give an example of macronutrients.

We also discuss several other topics like Which has not been found in any creatures other than humans?

RNA Processing

  • Eukaryotic RNA are spliced and processed to a mature form

Only parts of DNA code for proteins

  • Introns
  • Transcribed in the first place, but don't actually show up in mature RNA
  • Exons
  • Sequence of DNA or RNA that’s transcribed and present in mature RNA
  • Not always protein coding regions
  • Consensus sequences in Intron Exon Junctions
  • Splicing
  • Removing introns and joining exons
  • Splice site is cut and folds over onto the branch point
  • Other splice site is cut and intron is released and degraded
  • Exons are connected and translated
  • snRNPs
  • Lie within the spliceosome and facilitate in cutting out the intron and connecting the exons
  • Splicesome
  • Group of snRNPs

We also discuss several other topics like cns nerve fibers regenerate because of the actions of schwann cells.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of cell envelope?

5’ capping

  • Cap is added to the end of the pre MRNA
  • Added cotranscriptionally (not coded for in original DNA)
  • Creates a binding site for the ribosome
  • Protects the S end from being degraded

Polyadenylation

  • Enzyme Poly(A) polymerase adds a string of ~200 adenoshes to the 3’ end from being degraded
  • Acts as a signal for transport of mRNA from nucleus to the cytoplasm
  • Needed for ribosome attachment to mRNA

Alternative Splicing

  • Makes it possible for a fewer number of genes to produce a large number of products
  • > 90% of human pre mRNAs are alternatively spliced
  • LRNA: require extensive splicing and modification RNA interference
  • siRNAs
  • Double stranded RNA is cut up and the pieces help in cleavage degradation
  • Single strand parts land perfectly with a protein into target RNA and then its degraded
  • MicroRNA
  • PrimiRNA is transcribed and forms a stem loop structure
  • Stem Loop it cut up by dicer and the two parts of the system become miRNAs
  • Bind protein to the target RNA(imperfectly) and translation is inhibited
  • RISC
  • Protein that helps miRNA and siRNAs bind to target

Don't forget about the age old question of moodle 2 ull

MicroRNAs

  • From 600 to 1000 human genes code for miRNAs
  • Because the pairing of the bases isn't perfect one miRNA can pair w/ many genes
  • ~ ⅓ of human genes are controlled by miRNAs
  • Remember they start out w/ single stranded DNA

Non coding RNAs

  • Many transcribed segments are never used for anything (introns)
  • Function is unknown
  • Sometimes a regulatory role is found for some sequences
  • Xist transcript that controls the condensation of inactive mammalian x chromosome is one example of this
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