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by: Carolina Martin

EVRnotes.pdf EVR 1001

Carolina Martin
GPA 3.95
Environmental Science and Sustainability
Stephen Leatherman

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Midterm Study Guide!
Environmental Science and Sustainability
Stephen Leatherman
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolina Martin on Thursday April 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EVR 1001 at Florida International University taught by Stephen Leatherman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 04/09/15
22415 Amazon High habitat fragmentation Red Clay turns into Brick Meteorite evidence for dinosaur extinction irinium Radioactive material was found mostly in the Yucatan peninsula 1816 Irish Potato famine Round Snow in Italy 0 18000 endangered species Dodo birds Volcanos o 129 volcanos in the US 18 really dangerous volcanos Yellowstone is at risk 0 Caldera Volcano created 640000 years ago still active 5 miles deep of magma Supervolcano bc its capable of an eruption of more than 240 cubic miles of magma Supporting the role of volcanism from reversals in the Earth s magnetic eld Sea Level Rise Increased carbon dioxide levels Martha s Vineyard experienced evolution due to sea level rising James Lazell When sea level rose the animals were isolated Extinction of the trilobite Trilobite mean three lobed one Cephalon Thorax and Pygidum Marine arthropod Sheds exoskeleton Appeared 600 million years ago Peak in Paleozoic era Went extinct 245 million years ago Theories for disappearance Increase in predators Inefficient molding and poor adaptation Easy squish prey 439 million years ago OrdovicianSilurian extinction Sea levels dropped as glaciers formed followed by rising sea levels as glaciers melted 359 million years ago Late Devonian extinction O Corals began to die out 248 million years ago Permian extinction 96 of species died out 200 million years ago TriassicJurassic extinction Marine reptiles died out 65 million years ago CretaceousTertiary extinction The KT extinction 20000 species of plants and animals in danger of becoming extinct Dakosaurus O Discovered in Germany 0 Reached a length of 16 feet Megalodon O 65 feet in length Megatooth shark O Fed off whales Similar to Great white 0 Mosasaurus 0 Head like crocodile o TReX of the sea 22615 Lecture 3515 South Florida built on limestone Sand Broken down coral Largest coral reef Great barrier reef Swimming with sharks and dolphins Dolphins are kept in captivity Many dolphins die young and are highly stressed Shark diving Cage diving and scuba diving Sharks can become more aggressive because of their dependence on human feeding Introduction of Zebra Mussels into the Great Lakes Great lakes are largest source of freshwater on earth More than 180 non native species are in the great lakes Mammals and fish rely heavily on the Great Lakes Zebra mussels are found attached to underwater surfaces They damage to many cities they colonize on hard substances and surfaces LionFish Carnivorous and lives up to 15 years 26 pounds 200 per acre Found Year round from Texas to North Carolina some can even be found by Rhode Island A new Florida resident first report was in 1985 in Dana Beach FL Population has then increased drastically Some people have them as extotic pets and then release them to the water Swimming closer to the shore rarely fatal but it can cause a human to feel pain and nausea One lionfish can destroy a small population of a native species by 80 in just 5 years One can consume 20 smaller fish in just 20 minutes Lion Fish Derby in Key Largo Garbage Pile in the Pacific 0 We know less than 5 about our oceans 0 600000 barrels of oils have been accidentally spilled a year 0 Collection of harmful debris in the middle of the Paci c the size of Texas 0 As deep as 90 ft 0 Located between the west coast of the US and Japan acts as a whirpool o HumanOcean currents Trash Vortex O 760 plants in the everglades are endangered USA Beach Cleanup o 1 Problem with litter on the beach is cigarettes 0 First beach to ban cigarettes Sarasota 31715 0 Russia United States and Saudi Arabia are the largest petroleum producing countries 0 Oil is natural First oil well in the united states Bindlecock outside of Houstone A salt dome an area where salt had migrated to the service 0 Success rate of oil well 1 out of 9 turn out to be an economic success 0 Veracity needed for oil to ow 0 Oil booms in Texas Oklahoma and California 0 1969 Santa Barbara Oil blowout 324 15 0 Greatest threat to manatees motorboats Chapter 10 Evolution and Extinction Founder Effect Reduced Genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors Size of a population makes a difference in how quickly natural selection can produced a change in production Bene cial traits are spread more quickly in smaller populations because of the likelihood of mates having similar traits is better Extinction is normal but has been rising over the past few years 99 Of all species have been extinct human caused threats are the highest reasons for extinction Climate change threatens species that cannot adapt to changing conditions or relocate to a more suitable habitat Human societies generate pollution that harms organisms outright damage environments or habitats Literature Review Dinosaur Extinction o 65 million years ago the last of the dinosaurs went extinct The base of the ocean food chain plankton went extinct sharks died and more than half of the world s species died 0 Most mammals frogs and alligators survived 0 Mass extinction marked the end of the Cretaceous period and the beginning of the Paleogene 0 Scientists have conveyed two hypotheses as to why the dinosaurs became extinct extraterrestrial impact comets and asteroids or volcanic impact 0 Both scenarios would have lled Earth s sky with smoke and debris and blocked the sun s energy 0 Greenhouses were locked in the atmosphere causing severe climate change Extraterrestrial Theory 0 A 150 Km wide crater lies off the Yucatan peninsula rumored to have been due to the extraterrestrial impact it has been dated 65 million years old 0 Fractured crystals have been found near the area to which some scientists claim are due because of asteroid or comet impact 0 Some Fossil records show that prior to their extinction many dinosaurs were doing well however this theory is argued because it is also shown that dinosaurs were not doing very well Volcano Theory 0 Volcano theory states that so much volcanic activity released a lot of debris dust and soot into the atmosphere blocking the sunlight and changing the climate Human Extinction o It is highly unlikely that an asteroid could wipe every human out because of our technology however if a huge asteroid does enter our atmosphere we would be aware of it and try our best to prevent it it is unlikely but it is possible 0 Human extinction is said to be a result of different reasons than that of the dinosaurs 0 Nuclear War Climate change although it won t be a fast death it would take years and years Overpopulation Pandemics unlikely to occur Black holes We don t know if it could happen but we d like to think it wouldn t 0000 0 Chapter 13 Marine Ecosystems O Pollution is affecting marine life 0 So is overf1shing and misuse of resources 500 billion tons of C02 have been released since the start of the industrial revolution 0 30 of this has been absorbed by oceans Increase in Ocean Acidity less plankton means that less 02 is taken in by the organisms and more is left in the ocean Continued acidi cation results Less nitri cation means that less N02 is produced and less is released into the climate Healthy Coral Reefs are made up of a variety of coral species and inhabited by a wide variety of sh and invertebrates Chapter Review Marine Ecosystems Around the world ocean temperatures are rising glaciers are melting and the ocean s chemistry is being altered negatively Human have burnt enough fossil fuels and cut down enough trees to have released more than 500 billion tons of Carbon Dioxide CO2 and this has begun to affect the oceans Ocean and atmosphere come into direct contact over 75 of the Earth s surface and 30 of CO2 released was absorbed by the oceans Acidification caused by too much CO2 emissions has begun to really harm and threaten life in the oceans 0 CO2 have reduced the ocean s pH but 01 but a drop of 01 equals a 30 increase in acidity By 2100 the ocean s water could be 150 more acidic if this cycle continues 0 Vital organisms such as plankton have slowly been dying because of acidification effects nitrification 0 Marine calcifiers ocean organisms that make shells have been on the decline as well 0 Pteropods tiny swimming snails that are important food for many organisms have been dying Marine ecosystems are diverse and many coral reefs have been harmed Coral reefs offer protection of coastal areas from storms purification of water and support of commercial fisheries they are rumored to serve medicinal purposes but coral reefs have been dying 0 complex communities with interspecific interactions 25 of animals have spent a portion of their lives in a coral reef 0 Have a mutualistic relationship with zooxanthellae an algea 80 of all sunlight is absorbed in the rst ten meters of the ocean upper layers are warmer and more productive and most life forms are found in the shallow levels The closer to land an ocean is the more nutrient they have often estuaries will be known as nurseries of the sea and have a lot of nutrient value Ocean life zones Continental shelf most ocean life is found in coastal waters close to inputs of nutrients from rivers or land runoff Epipelagic Sea level not as densely populated but home to species on the move sharks Mesoand Bathypelagic 660 ft to 3300 ft Deeper regions that are home to creatures such as squid and plankton Abyssopelagic zone 13100 ft Darker o Hadal Zone Deep trenches 19700 ft Organisms such as tube worms sea stars and some sh These organisms and plants do not depend on photosynthesis to thrive but get energy from chemicals in vents Fate of our Oceans Oceans everywhere are threatened by over shing pollution and invasive species The best way to save the oceans is to change our ways of living on land we produce more than 30 billion tons of C02 each year and steps to decrease this amount must be taken into consideration It will take ten of thousands of years for the ocean to return to its original state but we can start xing things now Hardy Corals Today s coral reefs face serious damage because of human activity pollution and water acidi cation 0 As a result many coral reefs in warmer waters are becoming bleached coral bleaching A research team in Belize discovered the following Some coral can reproduce through fragmentation and budding when broken pieces regenerate and form new colonies 0 Since then they ve transported genetically diverse crops and then let them grow in their natural habitat They ve planted 8000 bleach resistant corals which have been a success Some researchers at the University of Hawaii are trying to nd corals that withstand stressful situations and then use them to recolonize a process which they call SuperCorals O In order to create SuperCorals they re exposing resilient coral to conditions that they will face in damaged water they re modifying their pairings with algae and freezing hardy corals and their sperm Hardy Coral seems to be a good idea to heal reefs therefore I fully support government spending in order to protect a vital part of our oceans Living Shorelines Sea level rise has been ruining many people s homes and crops as well as causing erosion Now some people are using living shorelines adding plants and rock walls that reduce wave energy but still allow plants to build or rebuild However the using of shorelines remains controversial 0 It all depends on a site s condition and on the actual design of the shoreline 0 Living Shoreline plants help improve water quality because they take up excess nutrients and sediments from the water 0 The vegetation in the shorelines can also become a nursery for some life such as sh and herons O The survival of Shorelines are not guaranteed however Some shorelines may be destroyed by currents 0 While salination is determined prior to planting it can change overtime and harm the shoreline 0 Living shorelines can also be quite expensive so not many people can result to it 0 While a good idea Living Shorelines pose only a temporary solution Chapter 20 Petroleum Chapter 20 Review Petroleum 0 Oil coal and natural gas are the three principal fossil fuels in which we depend on heavily for energy 0 Fossil fuels form over millions of years when organisms die and are buried into the sediment They decompose with pressure and heat and the material then turns into oil natural gas or coal 0 Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource because we use it up faster that it can be produced 0 Petroleum oil is valuable but it has its negative consequences 0 It is found 300 to 9000 meters below the Earth 0 Extraction is expensive and harmful to the environment I Oil can disrupt marine and land wildlife and cause many of them to die Some oil reserves destroy habitats 0 Oil reserves are not easily distributed and it is not expected to last longer than 100 years We depend too much on it 0 Demand for oil rises 2 every single year and many experts fear we will surpass our peak oil a hypothetical point where oil reaches its maximum rate and will begin to decline from that point on 0 It has been argued that we already passed our peak oil but if we haven t we are very close to doing so 0 Oil is extracted by drilling wells that go into the underground reservoir 0 Three stages of extraction primary secondary and tertiary O Tertiary extraction is the most difficult and most expensive 0 Natural gas has been considered an alternative cleaner source of energy but it is a nonrenewable source as well and will eventually run out 0 Extracting natural gas can be harmful to the environment as well It is usually done through a process called Fracking in which uids with toxic chemicals are injected into the ground in order to allow the natural gas to be extracted 0 The United states is the main consumer of energy which can become a dire problem since oil and natural gas will eventually become scarce 0 President Obama has proposed funding for the search to alternative energy resources that can be used in place of Petroleum I Petroleum Industry 0000 O 0 000 00 Not of recent origin Goes back a long way Used to built the walls of Babylon I Tar Oil wells first drilled in China I Drills made out of bamboo Japan called petroleum burning water I Found and used Others termed it oil rock First streets in Baghdad were paved with oil Marco Polo brought back ships of oil he found in Persian Empire 1889 Drake drilled the first oil in US used a steam engine made money I Founded oil well I Led to an oil boom Poland founding oil in places like Romania During WWI coal powered much of our navel ships I Not very efficient I Petroleum is most dense form of energy and portable By WWII everything was mechanized I Huge navel vessels running on oil 3 largest oil producing hydrocarbons oil nations in the world I Saudi Arabia lst nd I The US 2 because of frackmg I Russia 3rd Labrea I Tar pit in downtown I When oil reaches the surface condenses and forms asphalt I Oil has been seeping into the surface for thousands of years Spindletop first oil well that led to oil boom in TX I Salt has lower density migrated to surface over thousands of years I Nothing would grow over land Drilling process I Pipe with drill bit tip I Shove them into high pressure drilling mud I 300400 ft Formation of oil petroleum I Anything that falls down to the bottom of the ocean and with lack of oxygen anaerobic environment stays preserved O I Over millions of years with huge amounts of dust animals are buried I ie nonrenewable resource bc it takes millions of years to form 0 to do oil exploration set off dynamite charge artificial earthquake and sets off seismic waves success rate of finding productive amounts of oil is 19 perocity I I pore space empty space in between spaces of the rock I if a rock doesn t have poor perocity oil cannot ow I water has to be able to ow through permeability 0 1940s California Texas 0 1969 santa Barbara oil explosion began environmental movement 0 1979 Peanex petroleum company of Mexico I hit high pressure zone 0 1989 alaska oil spill I not a blowout O EXON VALDESE MOST TRAUMATIC OIL SPILL NOT BP 0 Coal is dirties fuel 0 Natural gas produces most energy per carbon dioxide Powerpoint notes Chapter 13 Marine Ecosystems Changes initiated by climate change may result in cooling Acidification C02 from a factory to atmosphere to ocean where C02 becomes a weak acid The acid interferes with shell formation and causes a breakdown of existing shells Small organisms in deep parts of the ocean are better adapted to acidic conditions and high levels of C02 Might offer clues for potential responses by other reef organisms Marine ecosystems are diverse oceans make up 70 of Earth s surface and have more diversity than all land masses combined 75 of coral reefs around the world are threatened by human activities or environmental changes Reefs in Florida contain more than 80 species of coral and 450 species of fish Reefs in the south Pacific can have hundreds of species of coral and more than 1000 fish species Major loss of reefs around the world includes the Pacific Ocean at about 7 loss to a high of 59 in the Indian Ocean Overfishing changes the community composition and disrupts relationships between and among the remaining organisms Coastal development adds sediment changing the light levels and bringing runoff from construction and agriculture Ecosystem services temperature moderation nutrient cycling habitat commercial fishing storm protection water purification medicine C02 absorption Bleaching occurs when coral spit out their zooxanthellae under stressful conditions like those caused by pollution or drastic changes in light levels Interspecific interactions in coral reefs include mutualism between clownfish and sea anemones commensalism between remora fish and manta rays and sea urchins as the groundskeepers for the overall reef 25 of all ocean species spend at least sometimes in coral reefs 33115


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