Ch 1 - The scientific method will never prove or disprove: o Existence of God o Beauty of Shakespeare - Which of the following would be the most reasonable testable prediction for the hypothesis: "All birds can fly"? o Examine the list of all known species of birds and determine if any cannot fly - Applying your knowledge of the scientificDon't forget about the age old question of nau eco 201
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We also discuss several other topics like ninety-six percent of the base-pair sequences in chimps and humans are the same. this finding indicates that:
We also discuss several other topics like in the 1790s, georges cuvier found the fossil remains of mastodons. this conflicted with the prevailing worldview in europe because:
method, which of the following BEST explains the correct contrast between a hypothesis and theory? o A hypothesis attempts to explain natural phenomenon and can be tested through experimentation; a theory attempts to summarize a large expanse of natural phenomenon and has already been tested thoroughly without contradictory results. - If your hypothesis is "Eyewitness testimony is always accurate," which of the following is a reasonable testable prediction? o Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented one at a time or all at the same time. o Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented in person or in photographs. o Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented wearing different styles of clothing or the same style of clothing. o Individuals who have witnessed a crime will correctly identify the criminal regardless of whether multiple suspects are presented in a police line-up or at the scene of the crime. - Which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method? o make observations - If the results of an experiment turn out differently from what you expected, then: o you should explore the possible reasons for this in the "conclusions" section of your experimental write-up. - The pie charts above are related to the following analysis: In 2001, the journal Behavioral Ecology changed its policy for reviewing manuscripts submitted for publication. They changed their policy from a single-blind to a double-blind process. In an analysis of papers published between 1997 and 2005, it turned out that after 2001, when the double-blind policy took effect, there was a significant increase in the number of published papers in which the first author was a female. What can you conclude from this figure? o When the journal changed their review policy, the proportion of papers accepted that had female first authors increased from 23.7% to 31.6%.- The placebo effect: o is the frequently observed, poorly understood, phenomenon that people tend to respond favorably to any treatment. - Biological literacy is the ability to: o use the process of scientific inquiry to think creatively about real-world issues that have a biological component o communicate ideas about biology to others. o integrate ideas about biology into your decision making - During an experiment to determine if people with more symmetrical body features have a lower incidence of disease, a researcher first measures the length of several bones in the subject's hands and arms. The device used to measure length does not display a readout of the measurement taken. Instead, a wire connects the measuring device to a computer that records the data. The computer monitor is kept out of sight of the subject and the researcher. Why is such an elaborate device used? o So that the measurements are not biased by the researcher. - An experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the subject knows which treatment (if any) is being applied is called a: o double-blind experiment - what is Step 3 in the scientific process? o Devise a testable prediction - Why is it that creationism can never be accepted as a scientific explanation of the origin of life? o Because the ideas of creationism cannot be tested through experiment and observation. - The scientific method is: o a deductive process based on testable and measurable events - A relationship that has been established based on a large amount of observational and experimental data is o a theory. - Which of the following statements could NOT arise from making scientific observations? o The quartz crystal I had in my pocket today increased the likelihood of life being discovered on other planets by ten times - If you were to propose one additional step in the scientific method beyond the common last step of "conclusion," which of the following choices is a reasonable selection? o Create a further question, based on your new conclusion, that can lead to further experiments in the future - Empirical knowledge is knowledge that is based on experience and observation. Which of the following are characteristics of reliable empirical data? o Rational, repeatable, testable CH 2 - In DNA, adenine from one strand binds to _______ in the complementary strand o Thymine- Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from: o Carbohydrates, proteins and fats - Enzymes are composed of o Amino acids - Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts of DNA? - A protein is a polymer of : o Amino acids - Water’s tendency to stick to other water molecules is described as o cohesion - Which of the following statements in NOT true of amino acids? o They are distinguished from each other by variation in their carboxyl group - RNA differs from DNA with regards to the use of the nitrogeneous base ___ instead of ____ o Uracil and thymine - Acids are solutions in which the concentration of hydrogen ions ([H+]) is ____________ than the concentration of hydroxyl ions ([OH-]). o greater - Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a ____________ at room temperature. o Fewer double bonds; solid - One consequence of protein denaturation is: o The protein loses its functionality - All of the following are carbohydrates EXCEPT: o Spider’s silk - All macromolecules important in living systems contain o carbon - Considering the principle of complementary base pairing, you would expect an equal ratio of which two nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule? o Cytosine and guanine - Enzymes are composed of: o Amino acids - RNA differs from DNA with regards to the use of the nitrogenous base __ instead of __. o Uracil instead of thymine - Because enzymes are proteins, they are sensitive to denaturing conditions that disrupt protein structure. Which of the following is an example of a denaturing condition? o High salt concentration, low salt concentration, toxins, changes in pH - Which of the following are all monosaccharides? o glucose, fructose, and galactose - Dietary fiber is composed of: o carbohydrates - Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of how many fused rings? o 4 - A peptide bond is a ________ bond between two __________. o Covalent bond between two amino acids- When you put a piece of chocolate on your tongue, your brain registers a sensation of sweetness. What aspect of molecules is responsible for their having a particular taste? o the molecule's shape - What is the actual proportion of these bases? o Adenine = t, g = c - What are the essential components of all nucleotides? o Only a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-containing molecule. - Within the cells of any organism, the living substance comprises a multitude of non-living components. Included in these non-living components are all of the following EXCEPT: o Parasites - An enzyme that can bind to and break apart molecules of lactose should also be able to bind: - None; it cant bond Ch 3 - The lysosome: o digests and recycles cellular waste products and consumed materials. - Secretion of cell products like milk proteins and mucus from glandular cells is accomplished via: o exocytosis - The cell on the left is _________________ and the cell on the right is _________________. The organelle labeled B is ________________. o an animal cell ; a plant cell ; a mitochondrion - Hydrophobic molecules can pass freely through the plasma membrane, but ions and polar molecules are impeded by the hydrophobic core. For this reason, plasma membranes can be considered: o partially permeable. - Which of the following organelles is responsible for degrading waste within the cell? o lysosome - You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside of a cell. You find that the concentration is high and gradually increasing inside the cell. You also measure the ATP concentration inside the cell and find that it is dropping. Your best hypothesis for the process that is occurring would be: o Active transport - What major advantage does the presence of organelles offer eukaryotic cells? o they separate chemicals into different compartments, concentrating them for certain reactions. - Which of the following cellular components contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules? o Lysosomes - In the brain of a prairie vole the regions associated with bonding and caring for young would be most likely: o to have the most receptors for vasopressin and oxytocin. - The tube like things are the smooth endoplasmic reticula- Which of the following allows the passage of small molecules between animal cells? o Gap junctions - The rough endoplasmic reticulum: o modifies proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism. - If the solution surrounding a cell contains less solute than the cytoplasm the osmotic condition is said to be: o Hypotonic - In aquatic environments, water moves _____________. o Down the concentration gradient - The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells. The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as: o Active transport -