PSY101 Exam 3 Study Guide
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Chapter 7 MEMORY Amnesia A loss of memory over an entire time span resulting from brain damage caused by accident infection or stroke Anterograde amnesia Amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents new learning Automatic processing Processing that allows you to carry out a sequence of steps without having to pay attention to each one or to the relations between the steps Breadth of processing processing that organizes and integrates information into previously stored information often by making associations Central executive the set of processes that operates on information in one or another of two specialized STMs part of working memory Chunk a unit of information such as a digit letter or word Code a type of mental representation an internal representationquot such as in words or images of a stimulus or event Consolidation the process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain Controlled processing Processing that requires paying attention to each step of an action and using working memory WM to coordinate the steps Cues Stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering reminders Decay the fading away of memories with time because the relevant connection between neurons are lost Depth of processing the number and complexity of the operations involved in processing information expressed in a continuum from shallow to deep Elaborate encoding encoding that involves great breadth of processing Encoding the process of organizing and transforming incoming information so that it can be entered into memory either to be stored or to be compared with previously stored information Encoding failure A failure to process toberemembered information well enough to begin consolidation Episodic memories memories of events that are associated with a particular context a time place and circumstance Explicit or declarative memories memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM verbal and visual memories are explicit if they can be called to mind as words or images False memories memories of events or situations that did not in fact occur Flashbulb memory An usually vivid and accurate memory of a dramatic event Forgetting curve a graphic representation of the rate at which information is forgotten over time Recent events are recalled better than more distant ones but most forgetting occurs soon after learning Habit a welllearned response that is carried out habitually without conscious thought when the appropriate stimulus is present Hypermnesia memory that improves over time without feedback particularly with repeated attempts to recall Implicit or nondeclarative memories memories that cannot be voluntarily called to mind but nevertheless in uence behavior or thinking Incidental learning learning that occurs without intention Intentional learning learning that occurs as a result of trying to learn Interference the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information by the presence of other information Longterm memory LTM a memory store that holds a huge amount of information for a long time from hours to years Longterm potentiation LTP A receiving neuron s increased sensitivity to input from a sending neuron resulting from previous activation Memory store a set of neurons that serves to retain information over time Mnemonic devices strategies that improve memory typically by using effective organization and integration Modalityspecific memory stores memory stores that retain input from a single sense such as vision or audition or from a specific processing system such as language Primacy effect increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set Priming the result of having just performed a task that facilitates repeating the same or an associated task Proactive interference interference that occurs when previous knowledge makes it difficult to learn something new Reality monitoring an ongoing awareness of the perceptual and other properties that distinguish real from imagined stimuli Recall the act of intentionally bringing explicit information to awareness which requires transferring the information from LTM to STM Recency effect Increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set Recognition the act of encoding an input and matching it to a stored representation Rehearsal the process of repeating information over and over to retain it in STM Repetition priming priming that makes the same information more easily accessed in the future Repressed memories Real memories that have been pushed out of consciousness because they are emotionally threatening Retrieval the process of accessing information stored in memory Retroactive interference interference that occurs when new learning impairs memory for something learned earlier Retrograde amnesia Amnesia that disrupts previous memories Semantic memories memories of the meanings or words concepts and general facts about the world Sensory memory SM a memory store that holds a large amount of perceptual input from a very brief time typically less than 1 second Serial position effect having superior memory for the items at the beginning and at the end of a list serial positionquot refers to the order of the items in the sequence Shortterm memory STM AKA immediate memory a memory store that holds relatively little information typically 59 items for only a few seconds but perhaps as long as 30 seconds Source amnesia a failure to remember the source of information Statedependent retrieval recall that is better if it occurs in the same psychological state that was present when the information was first encoded Storage the process of retaining information in memory Transfer appropriate processing processing used to retrieve material that is the same type as was used when it was originally studied which improves memory retrieval Working memory WM the system that includes two specialized STMs auditory loop and visuospatial Sketchpad and a central executive that operate on information in them to plan reason or solve a problem Chapter 7 Memory 1 Types of memory a Ebbinghaus 18501909 i German psychologist known for his studies on memory and discovery of the spacing effect and the forgetting curve first person to describe the learning curve ii Did a good job but his work does not cover the whole picture iii Interference iv Meaningfulness V Distinctiveness Vi Von Restorf effect When people are shown a set of neutral stimuli and then a highly emotionally charged stimulus not only do they recall the emotional one best but they also tend to forget the stimuli that came immediately before and after this arousing one b Methods of testing i Recall ii Cued Recall iii Recognition c Information processing view i Mind acts as a computer ii Sensory memory iii Shortterm memory iv Longterm memory d Declarative vs Procedural Memory 2 Memory Improvement SPAR Method Frequent studying at intervals Recency effects Vary conditions statedependent memory Chunking Mnemonic devices 3 Memory Loss a Amnesia i Famous case of HM 1953 memento video detectivecom ii Declarative vs procedural iii Anterograde vs retrograde 4 The Reconstruction of Memory rm 91 crsv C Informationprocessing Mind as a computer Processing modules EXTERNAL SYIHULI Informationprocessing Maintenance rehearsal 3 a gt Encoding m Short Long Tu gt sensory gt term term 2 mommy swam9 memory memory 5 attention Q lt 4 p Retrievai Lu 1 i V All Information Unrehearsed Some Information is lost within 3 information is retained indefinitely second or so lost in about some is lost with the 15 to 30 seconds passage of time declarative mom mm W 1 39 1 1 r 1 Episodic Semantic Procedural Jaded Priming memory I memory mencry pacepunl speci c facts aw shits e 39ecu and wants ml habits up 93 ooudi knowledge rules Pm cmouoml nations Chapter 8 LANGUAGE AND THINKING Affirming the consequent a reasoning error that occurs because of the assumption that if a result has occurred a specific cause must also be present Algorithm a set of steps that if followed methodically will guarantee the solution to a problem Aphasia a disruption of language caused by brain damage Artificial intelligence Al the field devoted to building smart machines Availability heuristic the tendency to judge objects or events as more likely common or frequent if they are easier to bring to mind Baserate rule the rule stating that if something is chosen from a set at random the chances that the thing will be of a particular type are directly proportional to the percentage of that type in the larger set Basic level a level of specificity which is usually the most likely to be applied to an object Broca s aphasia Problems with producing language following brain damage typically to the left frontal lobe Category a grouping in which the members are specific cases of a more general type Childdirected speech CDS speech by caregivers to babies that relies on short sentences with clear pauses careful enunciation exaggerated intonation and a highpitched voice Cognitive control the processes that guide attention thought and action in the service of accomplishing a specific task Concept an unambiguous sometimes abstract internal representation that defines a grouping of a set of objects including living things or events including relationships Confirmation bias a tendency to seek information that will confirm a rule and not to seek information that is inconsistent with the rule Critical period a narrow window of time when a certain type of learning is possible Deductive reasoning reasoning that applies the rules of logic to a set of assumptions stated as premises to discover whether certain conclusions follow from those assumptions deduction goes from the general to the particular Deliberate practice practice that is motivated by the goal of improving performance usually by targeting specific areas of weakness and working to improve them Empiricism approach to language the approach that views language as entirely the result of learning Functional fixedness when solving a problem getting stuck on one interpretation of an object or one part of the situation Grammar the set of rules that determines how words can be organized into an infinite number of acceptable sentences in a language Heuristic a strategy that does not guarantee the correct answer to a problem but offers a likely shortcut to it Incubation processing that occurs when a person is not consciously working on solving a problem and that can lead to improved thinking about the solution Inductive reasoning reasoning that uses examples to figure out a rule that governs them induction goes from the particular examples to the general a rule Insight a new way to look at a problem that implies the solution Language acquisition device LAD an innate mechanism hypothesized by Chomsky which contains the grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language acquisition Language comprehension the ability to understand the message conveyed by words phrases and sentences Language production the ability to speak or otherwise use words phrases and sentences to convey information Linguistic relativity hypothesis the idea that perceptions and thoughts are shaped by language and thus people who speak different languages think differently Logic the process of applying the principles of correct reasoning to reach a decision or evaluate the truth of a claim Mental images Representations like those that arise during perception but based on stored information rather than on immediate sensory input Mental model an image or description of a specific situation used to reason about an abstract entity Mental set a fixed way of viewing the kind of solution being sought Morpheme the smallest unit of meaning in a language Nativism approach to language the view that people are born with some knowledge Neural network a computer program whose units interact via connections that imitate roughly the way the brain works Nonverbal communication facial expressions and body language that allow others to infer an individual s internal mental state Overextension an overly broad use of a word to refer to a new object or situation Overregularization error a mistake that occurs in speech because the child applies a newly learned rule even to cases where it does not apply Phoneme the basic building block of speech sounds Phonology the structure of the sounds that can be used to produce words in a language Pragmatics the way in which words and sentences in a language convey meaning indirectly by implying rather than asserting Problem An obstacle that must be overcome to reach a goal Propositional representation a mental sentence that expresses the unambiguous meaning of an assertion Prototype the most typical example of a concept category Representation problem the challenge of how best to formulate the nature of a problem Representativeness heuristic the heuristic that the more similar something is to a prototype stored in memory the more likely it is to belong to the prototype s category Schema a collection of concepts that specify necessary and optional aspects of a particular situation Semantics the meaning of a word or sentence Sensitive period a window of time when a particular type of learning is easiest but not the only time it can occur Specific language impairment a specific problem in understanding grammar and complex words that is not related to more general cognitive deficits Strategy an approach to solving a problem determined by the type of representation used and the processing steps to be tried Syntax the internal structure of a sentence determined by a set of rules grammar for combining different parts of speech into acceptable arrangements Telegraphic speech speech that packs a lot of information into few words typically omitting words such as the a and of Typicality the degree to which an entity is representative of tis concept category Underextension an overly narrow use of a word to refer to a new object or situation Wernicke s aphasia problems with comprehending language following brain damage typically to the left posterior temporal lobe Chapter 8 Cognition and Language 1 Thinking and Mental Processes a Categorization b Mental Imagery c Attention i Sustained vigilance ii Automatic vs controlled 1 Cognitive control 2 Problem Solving Expertise and Error a Expertise b Strategies in Problem Solving i Algorithm vs heuristic c Common Errors i Heuristics gone bad representativeness heuristic 3 Language CHAPTER 9 TYPES OF INTELLEGENCE Autism A condition of intense selfinvolvement to the exclusion of external reality about three quarters of autistic people are mentally retarded Creativity The ability to produce something original of high quality or to devise an effective new way of solving a problem Crystallized intelligence according to Cattell and Horn the kind of intelligence that relies on knowing facts and having the ability to use and combine them Down syndrome a type of mental retardation that results from the creation of an extra chromosome during conception it is a genetic problem but not inherited Emotional intelligence E1 the ability to understand and regulate emotions effectively Factor analysis a statistical method that uncovers the particular attributes factors that make scores more or less similar the more similar the scores the more strongly implicated are shared underlying factors Fetal alcohol syndrome a condition that includes mental retardation and is caused by excessive drinking of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy Fluid intelligence according to Cattell and Horn the kind of intelligence that underlies the creation of novel solutions to problems Flynn effect Increases in IQ in the overall population with the passage of time Fragile X syndrome A type of mental retardation that affects the X chromosome it is both genetic and inherited g General factorquot a single intellectual capacity that underlies the positive correlations among different tests of intelligence Gifted people who have IQs between 150 and 180 Intelligence the ability to solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material Intelligence quotient IQ A score on an intelligence test originally based on comparing mental age to chronological age but later based on norms and used as a measure of general intelligence Islands of excellence areas in which retarded people perform remarkably well Mentally retarded People who have an IQ of 70 or less and significant limitations in at least two aspects of everyday life since childhood Microenvironment the environment created by a person s own presence which depends partly on appearance and behavior Norming The process of setting the mean and the standard deviation of a set of test scores base on results form a standardized sample Primary mental abilities according to Thurstone seven fundamental abilities that are the components of intelligence and are not outgrowths of other abilities Prodigies children who demonstrate immense talent in a particular area such as music or mathematics but who are normal in other areas Raven s Progressive Matrices a nonverbal test that assesses uid intelligence and 8 Reaction range the entire scope of possible reactions to environmental events which is set by the genes 5 Specific factorsquot or aspects of performance that are particular to a given kind of processing and distinct from g Standardized sample A random selection of people drawn from a carefully defined population Test bias Features of test items or design that lead a particular group to perform well or perform well or poorly and that thus invalidate the test Theory of multiple intelligences Gardner s theory of eight distinct forms of intelligence which can vary separately for a given individual Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS The most widely used intelligence test consists of both verbal and performance subtests Chapter 9 Intelligence Lecture Definition of Intelligence The ability to solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material 1 History of IQ Tests a b PreIQ heredity eugenics selective breeding France Compulsory educated in late 1800 s needed a way to decide which children need remedial help c IQ Intelligence Quotient d 2 Test Construction and Evaluation David Wechsler verbal and performance WAISIV and WISCIV a Standardization and Norms on bell curve b Reliability vs Validity 3 Theories TABLE 95 The Nature of Intelligence Five Views Theorist Key Ideas Spearman 1927 39 g generalized ability contributes to all intellectual activities Thurstone and Thurstone 1941 I Cattell 1971 and Horn 1985 I 19861989 Gardner 19831993 1999 I Sternberg 1985 1988b I Carroll 1993 I s speCIalized abilities such as spelling or distinguishing among tones IQ mostly reflects 3 Seven primary mental abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial visualization N0 g Fluid intelligence producing novel solutions to problems such as by using burnt match heads to write Crystallized intelligence usmg previously acquired knowledge appropriately such as when doing arithmetic At least eight multiple intelligences including such nontraditional Forms as bodily kinesthetic and interpersonal intelligences Based on a wide variety of types of data such as effects of brain damage and areas in which child prodigies excel Analytic intelligence the kind oFreasoning relied upon in academic studies Practical intelligence the kind ofreasoning used to solve everyday realworld problems Creative intelligence the kind oFreasoning needed to invent new things or to solve problems in new ways Th re estratu m theory g at the top 8 broad abilities including Flmd and crystallized intelligences in the mid dle tier and 69 speCI c abilities such as ideational Fluency at the bottom 4 Nature and Nurture a BOTH CHAPTER 10 EMOTION AND MOTIVATION Androgens sex hormones that cause many male characteristics such as beard growth and a low voice Basic emotion an innate emotion that is shared by all humans such as surprise happiness anger fear disgust or sadness Bisexual a person who is sexually attracted to members of both sexes Collectivist culture a culture that emphasized that rights and responsibilities of the group over those of the individual Deprived reward reward that occurs when a biological need is met Display rule a culturespecific rule that indicates when to whom and how strongly certain emotions can be shown Drive an internal imbalance that motivates animals including humans to reach a particular goal that will reduce the imbalance Emotion A psychological state with four components 1 a positive or negative subjective experience 2 the activation of specific mental processes and stored information 3 bodily arousal and 4 characteristic overt behavior Estrogens sex hormones that cause many female characteristics such as breast development and the bone structure of the female pelvis Facial feedback hypothesis the idea that emotions arise partly as a result of the positioning of facial muscles Heterosexual a person who is sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex Homeostasis the process of maintaining a steady state in which bodily characteristics and substances are within a certain range Homosexual a person who is sexually attracted to members of the same sex Implicit motive a need or want that unconsciously directs behavior Incentive a stimulus or event that draws animals including humans toward a particular goal in anticipation of a reward Individualist culture a culture that emphasized the right and responsibilities of the individual over those of the group Instinct an inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli Insulin a hormone that stimulates the storage of food molecules in the form of fat Learned helplessness the condition that occurs after an animal has an aversive experience in which nothing it does can affect what happens to it and so it simply gives up and stops trying to change the situation or to escape Metabolism the sum of the chemical events in each of the body s cells events that convert food molecules to the energy needed for the cells to function Misattribution of arousal the failure to interpret signs of bodily arousal correctly which leads to the experience of emotions that ordinarily would not arise in the particular situation Motivation the set of requirements and desires that lead an animal including a human to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place Need a condition that arises from the lack of a requirement needs give rise to drives Need for achievement nAch the need to reach goals the require skilled performance or competence to be accomplished Nondeprived reward reward that occurs not when a need is being met but rather when a want is being satisfied Polygraph a machine that monitors the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems particularly changes in skin conductance breathing and heart rate in an attempt to detect lying Set point the particular body weight that is easiest for an animal including a human to maintain Sexual response cycle the stages the body passes through during sexual activity including sexual attracting desire excitement and possibly performance which includes full arousal orgasm and resolution Want a condition that arises when you have an unmet goal that will not fill a requirement wants turn goals into incentives Chapter 10 Emotion and Motivation Lecture EMOTION 1 Cognitive 2 Selfreport 3 Subjective experience 4 What is an emotion a Emotions are transferrable from animals to people make the same faces crosscultural including preliterate important communication b Physiology endocrine skeletal central but historically ANS c Common Sense d IamesLange 1884 e CannonBard 1929 f Schacter amp Singer 1962 g Biology physio may have stronger role in some emotions fear than in others guilt h Emotion and cognition interact i 3systems perspective j Lie Detection MOTIVATION Properties of Motivated Behavior a set of requirements that lead an animal including a human to behave in a particular way at a particular time and placequot Motivation is goaldirected and varies with context Variety of different motivations directed at achieving goals salience depends on biology and external factors 1 General Principals a Theories and Views i Instinctual theory ii Homeostasis theory iii 3 psychological needs 1 Need for achievement strong desire to attain goals to succeed 2 Need for affiliation social interaction and relationships 3 Need for Power have control of in uence over others iv Motivation as a need for stimulation V Arousal theory people have an optimal level of tension that they strive to maintain 1 YerkesDodson Law 2 Individual differences in required levels of arousal vi All motivation can t be explained by internal mechanisms so there is a need to consider external forces vii Incentive theories 1 Internal Push External Pull viii Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation 1 Over justification effect when there is more extrinsic motivation than necessary is provided intrinsic motivation may decline a Ex Pro athletes ix Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 1 Selfactualization 2 True hierarchy b Types of motivation c Motivation as a multifaceted construct 2 Motivation and Biology Hunger a Physiological Mechanisms i Shortterm hypothalamus ii Longterm 4Fs b Eating disorders i Obesity ii Anorexia iii Bulimia May want to take a look at the SEX SURVEY slides in case he asks a random question about the results on the exam Motivation B Hunger Hunger Overview Physiological and psychological homeo inc mtemal radars A External factors Internal factors External Factors ECIiniIJR 73 0 AM Time 39quotfrmsing 3 800 PM levels at tur hreakmst leveb 039 v quot T39me 3907 TV lucose In a lucosc in x 39 f ow Ir d f pf nattractive Emp39Y Attractive Full stuntach I 39 quot fund stomach mod remains Activity of I I thers Activitypt Others have centers in the are eating centers In tlu ttmshed eating hyputlmlanms hypothalamus Slide courtesy at John Allen Approaches to Detecting Deception lmotionArousal Vlcmmy mcr Cognitive Recognlion C On39elates r The Polygraph r Guilty Knowledge Test r Response Con ict r Foetal Expression rAutonomte SCR r Attention and Memory r Voice SII39Css r enttzil llrIRP lMRlquot Load lsucml Blood HO r Both 12R and lNlKl r 39I hennography r ngusmc Analysis i Demcanor Note that nonc dctcct lying per se What is an Emotion Threesystemsperspective Cognitive I Selfrepo I Subjective Experience Overt Behavior Expression V Physiology museums w a quotWWW I M a nld Autonomtc Sumu39m Conscious ecling 3mm L381 n 39WIMamc quot I Autunomlc 39 Conscious Stimulus mu tccltng Cannon nttdogmukmme gt Wealthd 39 wt Sulxurticul Consclous Stlmulus bum activity feeling Autonomic anqu sunduet gt w l W m Mn v 1 I gt Apptalul numus as M ham 1 W Stimulus A quotm m w feeling mm arousal CHAPTER 11 PERSONALITY Activity A temperament dimension characterized by the general expenditure of energy which has two components vigor intensity of the activity and tempo speed of the activity Archetype A Iungian concept of a symbol that represents some basic aspect of the world and is stored in the collective unconscious Big Five the five superfactors of personality extraversion neuroticism agreeableness conscientiousness and openness determined by factor analysis Castration anxiety a boy s anxietyladen fear that as punishment for loving mother and hating father his father will cut off his penis the primary zone of pleasure Defense mechanism an unconscious psychological means by which a person tries to prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious awareness Ego A personality structure proposed by Freud that develops in childhood and tries to balance the competing demands of the id superego and reality Emotionality a temperament dimension characterized by an inclination to become aroused in situations in which the predominant emotion is distress fear or anger Expectancies Expectations that have a powerful in uence on thoughts feelings and behaviors and in turn on personality Flow the experience of being completely absorbed with and merging smoothly into an activity and losing track of time Id a personality structure proposed by Freud that exists at birth and houses sexual and aggressive drives physical needs and simple psychological needs Impulsivity A temperament dimension characterized by the propensity to respond to stimuli immediately without re ection or concern for consequences Inferiority complex the experience that occurs when inferiority feelings are so strong that they hamper striving for superiority Locus of control the source a person perceives to be exerting control over life s events Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2 MMPIZ a personality inventory primarily used to assess psychopathology Neurosis an abnormal behavior pattern relating to a con ict between the ego and either the id or the superego Personality A set of behavioral emotional and cognitive tendencies that that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other Personality inventory a pencilandpaper method for assessing personality that requires the testtakers to read statements and indicate whether each is true or false about themselves Personality trait a relatively consistent characteristic exhibited in different situations Projective test a method used to assess personality and psychopathology that involves asking the testtaker to make sense of an ambiguous stimulus Psychological determinism The view that all behavior no matter how mundane or insignificant has an underlying psychological cause Psychosexual stages Freud s developmental stages based on each stage erogenous zones the specific needs of each stage must be met for tis successful resolution Reciprocal determinism the interactive relationship between the environment cognitive personal factors and behavior Repression A defense mechanism that occurs when the unconscious prevents threatening thoughts impulses and memories from entering consciousness Rorschach test a projective test consisting of a set of inkblots that people are asked to interpret Selfactualization an innate motivation to attain the highest possible emotional and intellectual potential Selfefficacy the sense of being able to follow through and produce specific desired behaviors Sociability a temperament dimension characterized by a preference for being in other people s company rather than alone Social desirability a source of bias in responding to questions on personality inventories that occurs when people try to make themselves look goodquot even if it means giving untrue answers Superego a personality structure proposed by Freud which is formed during early childhood and houses the sense of right and wrong based on the internalization of parental and cultural morality Temperament innate inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior Thematic Apperception Test TAT A projective test consisting of a set of detailed blackandwhite drawings about which people are asked to explain various elements Unconditional positive regard acceptance without any conditions Chapter 11 Personality Set of behavioral emotional and cognitive tendencies that people display consistently over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other 1 Major Approaches a Psychodynamic i Sigmund Freud 18561939 ii His theory is well known but not very scientific iii Personality is structured by the Id Devil and the Superego Angel which feed the Ego Compromise iv Pleasure vs Moral Reality v Igloo theory b Humanistic i Abraham Maslow 19081970 ii Hierarchy of needs amp selfactualization Harriet Tubman example c Traits i The Big 5 OCEAN Mnemonic ii Openness iii Conscientiousness iv Extroversion v Agreeableness vi Neuroticism 2 Assessment a Objective b Projective i Black spot pictures c Different tests are useful for different purposes some aren t useful at all know the tests and their purposes 3 Nature Nurture and Culture a Temperament i BIS Behavioral Inhibition System 1 Sensitivity to punishment and nonreward a Neuroticismwithdrawlanxiety ii BAS Behavioral Activation System 1 Sensitivity to reward and nonpunishment a Extraversion positive emotion happiness relief iii Neurotransmitters EEG learning b Biologically oriented theories c Genes learning and culture i Gender Roles ii Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 1 MMPI 1940 s 1990 s 500 TF items CHAPTER 12 PSYCH OVER THE LIFE SPAN Accommodation in Piaget s theory the process that results in schemas changing as necessary to cope with a broader range of situations Adolescence the period between the onset of puberty and roughly the end of the teenage years Assimilation in Piaget s theory the process that allows the use of existing schemas to take in new sets of stimuli and respond accordingly Attachment an emotional bond that leads a person to want to be with someone else and to miss him or her when separated Bereavement the experience of missing a loved one and longing for his or her company Concrete operation In Piaget s theory a reversible manipulation of the mental representation of an object that corresponds to an actual physical manipulation Conservation the Piagetian principal that certain properties such as amount or mass remain the same even when the appearance of the material or object changes provided that nothing is added or removed Crosssectional study a study in which different groups of people are tested with each group composed of individuals of a particular age Egocentrism In Piaget s theory the inability to take another person s point of view Embryo a developing baby from the point where the major axis of the body is present until all major structures are present spanning from about 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception Fetus a developing baby during the final phase of development in the womb from about 8 weeks after conception until birth Formal operation in Piaget s theory a mental act that can be performed and reserved even with an abstract concept Gender identity a person s belief that he or she is male or female Gender roles the culturally determined appropriate behaviors of males vs females Grief the emotion of distress that follows the loss of a loved one Longitudinal study a study in which the same group of people is tested repeatedly at different ages Maturation The developmental process that produces genetically programmed changes with increasing age Moral dilemma A situation in which there are moral pros and cons for each set of possible actions Object permanence the understanding that objects including people continue to exist even when they cannot be immediately perceived Private speech the language used by a child in planning or in prompting himself or herself to behave in specific ways also called inner speech Psychosocial development the effects of maturation and learning on personality and relationships Puberty the time when hormones cause the sex organs to mature and secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts for women and a beard for men to appear Selfconcept the beliefs desires values and attributes that define a person to himself or herself Separation anxiety fear of being away from the primary caregiver Schema in Piaget s theory a mental structure that organizes perceptual input and connects it to the appropriate responses Teratogen any external agent such as a chemical virus or type of radiation that can cause damage to the zygote embryo or fetus Theory of mind a theory of other people s mental states their beliefs desires and feelings that allows prediction of what other people can understand and how they will react in a given situation Zygote a fertilized ovum egg Chapter 12 Development 1 Early Development a Prenatal development b Object permanence objects continue to exist even when we cannot see or here them c Social and emotional development d Temperament gender identification culture family 2 Development of thinking and reasoning Jean Piaget 18961980 a Cognition i Cognitive development according to Piaget 1 Sensorimotor 02 years old 2 Preoperational 27 years old 3 Concrete operations 711 years old 4 Formal operations at least 11 years old ii It is more of a continuous process then the quotstagesquot account for b Morality i Ethics empathy and perspective ii Kohlberg stages Preconventional conventional and postconventional levels iii Moral Dilemas iv Adolescent risktaking 9 risk vs reward 3 Social and emotional development a Attachment i Halow s monkeys 1960s ii Comfort through food or contact iii Ainsworth s Strange Situation 70 s80 s 4 Temperament family gender and culture
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