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PURDUE / Psychology / PSY 120 / arnold gesell facts

arnold gesell facts

arnold gesell facts

Description

School: Purdue University
Department: Psychology
Course: PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Professor: Jill gulker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: PSY 120 - Semester Class Notes
Description: These are notes taken from every lecture over the entire semester!
Uploaded: 01/08/2017
39 Pages 162 Views 0 Unlocks
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Genetics - Sex or in vitro fertilization  Friday, August 26, 2016 9:40 AMWhy does nearly every species prefer sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction? - genetic diversity Sexual Reproduction - involves the  Goals and Objectives - learn the facts of genetics - chromosomes, single gene inheritance, polygenetic inheritance, genetic  disorders - Heredity isn't destiny  What makes kids the way they are? - genes? - nature? - environment? Learning Perspective Development is determined by a  James Watson and Baby Al - from Hopkins - fear is learned - 9-mo Albert B. - not afraid of rats - loud noise + rat - Fear - created by certain events, phobias are developed over time) - Children are Blackboards - John Locke (tabula rasa "Blank Slate") Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) - "Innate sense and moral  Biological theory Arnold Gesell  (188 - Gesell's maturational theory says it's predetermined, Once you mix the ingredients - stand back! Biological theory Arnold Gesell  (188 - Gesell's maturational theory says it's predetermined, Once you mix the ingredients - stand back! SEXUAL Reproduction - It is all about sex, well, reproduction. Sperm and Egg - so happy together.  Chromosomes  - 23 from mom, 23 from dad, 46 total - 23rd set determines gender DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Every cell  has DNA Genotype - your biological blueprint  Phenotype - your physical and psychological characteristics - more heritable than  anything (personality and psychological disorders) Blue Eyes are recessive - Recessive - need two of the same to work Brown Eyes are dominant  - Dominant - when the presence of that gene means it happens This explains how the genotype and phenotype can differ in expression. Recessive genes have a purpose -Behavioral Genetics  Friday, September  2, 2016 9:32 AMBehavioral Genetics -the branch of genetics that deals with the inheritance of  behavioral and psychological traits - It's complicated Polygenic Inheritance  - most of these traits end up in a bell curve shape - most traits are determined my many genes - think of it as a football team; many players, one outcome - For the population, think of it was a stock portfolio; hundreds of stock photos;  only some are the best How much of a trait is actually genetic? - We can study twins - monozygotic - meaning one egg (identical) - dizygotic - meaning two eggs and two sperm (fraternal) Twin Studies - because monozygotic twins are genetically identical, any differences must be so to  nurture, and any similarities  could be due to genetics. - because fraternal twins are only about half genetically alike, have more control.  Adoption Studies - heredity is implicated when children are more like their biological parents over their  adopted parents - DNA markers - examine specific alleles What do they find? - Characteristics most affected by heredity - intelligence  - psychological disorders - personality  Heredity is Not Destiny  From Genes to Behavior -   - personality  Heredity is Not Destiny  From Genes to Behavior - Genes affect behavior indirectly - maybe very indirectly - the gene for popularity? Actually found the symmetry to faces  - the impact of genes on behavior depends on environment Changing Relations between Nature and Nurture - passive gene-environment relation - parents provide genes and environment  - evocative gene-environment relation - phenotypes (Angelina and Brad) evoke  different responses - active gene-environment relation - children actively seek environments that match  their genetic makeup - niche-picking (Michael Phelps - ADHD to swimming) The Nature of Nurture - Siblings are not much alike. Why? - Family environments affect each child differently. - Evocative gene-environment relationships  Even through intelligence is genetic, the environment can change whether it is  restricted or enriched.  Gene Replication - Meiosis - the normal process to create the DNA for a child  - Klinefelter's Syndrome - XXY - Turner's Syndrome - X - XXX Syndrome - XXX - XYY - XYY - Downs Syndrome - the 23rd chromosome is not completePrenatal Development Friday, September  9, 2016 9:34 AMFrom Conception to Birth - from fertilized egg to baby Period of the Zygote - fertilized mass of cells, not yet implanted - begins when the egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube. - ends 2  - implantation - when the zygote implants itself in the uterine lining  - germ disc - the inner cells that create  the baby  - blastocyst - the zygote with structure, the ball - Three layers of cells - all embryonic stem cells, can make any cell (equipotential) - Ectoderm (outside layer): hair, skin, and nervous system (develops on the  outside of your body) - Mesoderm (middle layer): muscles, bones, and circulatory system - Endoderm (internal layer): digestive system and lungs Period of the Embryo - if it sticks, it is an embryo through implantation  - cephalocaudal principle - babies grow from head to tail - proximodorsal principal - babies grow from inside out Differentiation - each embryonic stem cell  now has a code to what the cell is going to  make Period of the Fetus - 9 weeks after conception  - Amniotic Sac - the rock star hot tub for the baby; protects - Placenta - nutrient rich pocket for the baby - Increase in size, systems begin to function Age of viability: 22 to 28 weeks - if the baby was born, it would survive - Vernix - waxy protective substance -Lanugo - downy hair - DeCasper and Spence had expecting moms read "Cat in the Hat" the last 1.5  months.  - The babies can hear - Not trimesters!!! General Risk Factors - Poor nutrition - Increasing eating by 10-20% - Gain 25-30 lbs (1/3 baby, 1/3 fat, 1/3 more blood) -   General Risk Factors - Poor nutrition - Increasing eating by 10-20% - Gain 25-30 lbs (1/3 baby, 1/3 fat, 1/3 more blood) - Specific tastes (pickles and ice  cream) - Nausea ( linked to teratogens) - Not junk food! - Folic Acid - Stress - Can prolonged stress create problems? - Well, if we shock rats or overcrowd them, the babies are underweight - Mother's Age - 40 and up: higher risk of Downs - If adequate care, pregnancy can be normal from teens to 30's - older = less likely to get pregnant  Teratogens - any substance (agent) that causes abnormal prenatal development. - Environmental Hazards - unaware of their presence; led, mercury, cat litter, x-rays,  PVC) - Diseases - AIDS, Rubella… just don't get sick. - Drugs - Aspirin, Caffeine, Cocaine, Marijuana, Nicotine - Alcohol - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - 1 in 30 women report "risk drinking" - Prenatal Diagnosis and Treatment - Ultrasound (4 weeks) - CVS - chorionic villi  sampling (10-12 weeks) - Amniocentesis -testing the amniotic fluid (16 weeks)Labor and Delivery Monday, September  12, 2016 9:31 AMWhen do you know? - signs that Labor is near: week or so - Braxton Hicks contractions - false labor  - lightening or dropping (engagement) - the baby turns and prepares to leave NESTING - a sudden burst of energy before the baby is to be born A - amniotic sac - water breaks, 10-15% before B - "Bloody Show (i.e. blood-tinged mucus draining." C - regular contractions - more frequent, more intense, and longer.  Labor and Delivery - Stages Stage 1 (12 - 24 hours): starts when the muscles of the uterus contract and ends when  the cervix is fully enlarged (about 10 cm). Stage 2 (1 hour): baby is pushed down the birth canal. Stage 3 (10 -15 minutes): afterbirth comes out Key Terms Crowning - see the top of the baby's head Breech Presentation - feet first Afterbirth - 10-15 minutes  Natural Childbirth - Advantages - If you can't feel, you can’t push. - Do you really want your child on drugs? - Emphasis is no drugs - Instead relax  by deep breathing, picturing a happy place, and squeezing  someone's hand Birth Complications - Hypoxia (lack of oxygen) - Placental abruption - placenta detaches  - often leads to cervical removal of the fetus (C-section 25%) Prematurity and Low Birth Weight - Prematurity - less than 38 weeks. Less serious than low birth weight - Small-for-Date - born to mothers who drank or who didn't eat - Placental abruption - placenta detaches  - often leads to cervical removal of the fetus (C-section 25%) Prematurity and Low Birth Weight - Prematurity - less than 38 weeks. Less serious than low birth weight - Small-for-Date - born to mothers who drank, or who didn't eat - 3.3 pounds at 9 months, no good - BUT quality care is critical  Hawaii and Low Birth Weight - Werner, 1995 - Infants with low birthweight who grew up in a stable home are indistinguishable  from normal babies (two supportive, healthy parents) - Divorce, alcoholism, or mental illness amplified the problem Low Birth Weight - America is number one in low infant birth weight - leads to infant mortality rate of 9/1000 - Hypertension, rubella, teen moms or moms 35+, mom is underweight,  malnourished, marijuana or tobacco smoking Postpartum Depression - 10-15% of mothers have persistent irritability, disturbed sleep, and apathy.  - Environment and biological factors  - Could be passed on to baby - failure to thrive  How do you know if the baby is healthy? - Appearance: blue, body pink, pink - Pulse: none, fewer than 100, more than 100 - Grimace: no response, grimace, cries loud - Activity Level: flaccid, weak, strong - Respiratory: Absent, irregular, good Reflexes ON THE MIDTERM Babinski Reflex - foot pressure Blink Reflex - come at the baby to see if they blink  Moro Reflex - (hands up!) if they begin to fall Palmar Reflex - grabbing things given to them Rooting Reflex -turning toward touch Sucking Reflex - ability to eat Swallowing Reflex - ability to digest Stepping Reflex - babies innately walk (not testable) Withdraw Reflex - poke the baby and see if they move away Swimming Reflex - innately swim oong eex -urnng owar ouc Sucking Reflex - ability to eat Swallowing Reflex - ability to digest Stepping Reflex - babies innately walk (not testable) Withdraw Reflex - poke the baby and see if they move away Swimming Reflex - innately swim  3 Types of Cries 2-3 hours a day! - Basic Cry: soft first, then more insistent later. (when needs are met) - Mad Cry: sudden onset, rapid conclusion. (you pissed me off, took my raddle)  - Pain Cry: AHHHHHHHH! (breath) AHHHH!  How do you stop the crying?  - If cries because hungry, wet, or in pain. - Feed, change diapers, remove the mousetrap from the finger. - Rocking, Stroking, Singing - 45% less crying if held more. We have 25% contact - Swaddling - Sucking - Home remedies?? - The baby tamer: SHHHHHHHHH Sleep - 16-18 hours a day - But awake 1 out of every 4 hours - 1/2 of sleep REM (Dreaming?, consolidating memories) Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - SIDS - It is what it says - and no one knows why (by definition) - But risk factors include: - premature birth, low birth weight, smoking, teratogens  - overheating - lying on stomach Sensation and Perception Friday, September  16, 2016 9:31 AMWhat do infants see? - Visual Acuity (fonts test) - grey squares and stripes  Vision - 20/400 at birth CONES = COLOR? - Blue and Yellow are not seen at birth, developed during 3 to 4 months Infant Vision - Infant eye tracking is  - jerky (saccade) - That's good - Disorganized - babies are not reading, left to right, up to down. - 3D perception - But how? You ask? - Retinal Disparity - the amount of difference between two images can be used  as a cue for distance (finger jumps) - Strabismus - some children have difficulty with this - Occlusion - use of edges, shapes, and colors (use of motion to see shapes)  helps with depth - Texture Gradient - Visual Cliff (when you look at the world, the further away  something, the less detailed it is) Relative Size - Ames room - a use of perspective to create size difference (it  helps you decide the size of what it is; Honey I Shrunk the Kids)  What do infants hear? - Automatic Brain Stem Response  - Habituation - present the same stimulus over and over till babies bored  - useful for testing  Hearing - Newborns hear well, though not quite as accurately as adults. Smell  - Tested with facial expression, and preference. - Newborns react strongly to rotten eggs, ammonia - eworns ear we, oug no que as accuraey as aus. Smell  - Tested with facial expression, and preference. - Newborns react strongly to rotten eggs, ammonia Taste is pretty sensitive too! - The expression says it all Seeing and heating are poor at birth but improve rapidly as development occurs. Dynamic Systems - Differentiation of component parts - Integration - putting together the parts to move in a fluid motion - Stepping reflex  Myths of Perception - we see everything - we DON’T, we only catch bits and pieces - we see things as they "really" are - depth perception, linear perspective, camouflage   - it is a passive process - Static Perception? -NO - Some proof that perception that isn't instantaneous - persistence of vision  - motion pictures  - moving walls - we see what projects onto  the back of our eye - color influences  - it is a single "system" - prosopagnosia - can selectively lose the recognition of faces - a system made up of multiple parts  Change Blindness - not noticing something so obvious - texting and driving Why study this? - Optical Illusions Attention Rothbart & Co. suggests two kinds: - Orienting System - look towards new things (e.g. Reactivity/reflexive/visual  grasp). - Focus System - ability to stay focused on an object (e.g. task-directed, Attention Rothbart & Co. suggests two kinds: - Orienting System - look towards new things (e.g. Reactivity/reflexive/visual  grasp). - Focus System - ability to stay focused on an object (e.g. task-directed,  voluntary, executive control.) Attention Problems - Infants and young children not as selective in attention as adolescence and adults. - Frontal lobes are late to develop. - Results in a baby that can't stop orienting response.  - and a lack of focused attention or executive  control   - Multitasking - Get done 4 times faster without distractions


Why does nearly every species prefer sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?



Don't forget about the age old question of amenalite

ADHD - Symptoms: inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive - Mostly boys. Do poorly in school and are often disliked. - Causes: - NOT Sugar, TV, food allergies, or poor home life - Heredity, Stress, Poor frontal lobe activation - 37-50% of children with ADHD have problems as adults. - Not necessarily over-diagnosed, we are just more aware.  Treatment: medication (stimulants) + psychosocial (academic help)Cognitive Development Friday, September  23, 2016 9:36 AMJean Piaget (1896-1980) - Mr. Cognitive Development - No other person has been so influential in child development.  1. He was the first: the founder, the start! 2. He captured the essence of kids at different stages. 3. Gave us a new view of development - Active Child! - Object permanence  - if you can’t see something, it doesn’t exist Stages: Metaphor of a child as a scientist - Scientists have theories about how the world works. - Maybe kids do too! And just like scientists, kids do too! - All about the evidence: we construct knowledge through action and  observation (constructivist). Schemes (or theories, categories, ideas, or plans) - Schemes - "organize experience and knowledge." - Theories about why things are the way they are. - Is it dangerous? Predator or prey? - Can I eat it? Is it tasty? - Social Referencing -  looking to parents or teachers for reactions Schemes change through Adaptation - In assimilation, new experiences are incorporated into existing schemes. - In accommodation, existing schemes must be modified to incorporate new  information.  Equilibration - Usually things are in balance. - Periodically, all schemes prove to be inadequate. Nothing makes sense  (Disequilibrium) Stages of Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth to 2 years, concerned with senses and motor development  2. Preoperational Stage sequrum Stages of Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth to 2 years, concerned with senses and motor development  2. Preoperational Stage a. 2 to 7 years, Can use symbols to solve problems b. Children can use language but are many weaknesses in their thinking c. Egocentrism - they think you can see what they see i. Centration - when you're so focused in, you miss other important  features; causes them to fail concentration d. Reversibility - can I put it back together, are there all the same pieces; the  cure for centration 3. Concrete Operational Stage a. 7 to 11 years - here and now b. Thinking based on mental operations (logical, mathematical, spatial  operations) c. Operations can be reversed. (solves conservation) d. Limit: focus on the real, not the abstract. 4.Formal Operational Stage a. Begins at 11 to all of life b. Children now able to think hypothetically and abstractly. c. Can envision multiple realities Biological Processes Friday, September  30, 2016 9:34 AMWhat is neuroscience? An interdisciplinary field of study  directed  Getting on your nerves? Parts of a nerve cell Parts of the brain The Nervous Reflex Takes a stimulant to produce a response  No, it isn't paranoid. It's your body's way of sending instant messages. Reflexes The Internet of the body  (electrical and physical) Parts of a neuron Dendrites – input to  the cell Cell body Axon – wire, myelin – insulation  Glia - insulation,  fatty substance  that removes waste - Provide insulation  - Myelin sheath  - Remove waste products and foreign bodies 1/10th - the size of a neuron, but about 10 times as numerous Action Potential - “all or none” - Do not vary in strength or intensity  - Travel down  the axon between 2 or 200 mph Terminal buttons - come very close to the other dendrites but do not  touch Synapse – specialized junction between  the two neurons where chemical  messaes cross from one  to the others the sace between  the  terminal  -           Terminal buttons - come very close to the other dendrites but do not  touch Synapse – specialized junction between  the two neurons where chemical  messages cross from one  to the others (the space between  the  terminal  button  and the new dendrites of a new neuron) Neurotransmitter  Dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons,  synapses  Chemical messages are either excitatory or inhibitory  Neurotransmitters are released to act on  the post-synaptic  cell  Gamma-Amino-butyric Acid (GABA) – fast inhibitory synapse Glutamine – main excitatory synapse  Acetylcholine  Dopamine – reward, motivation, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia  Serotonin- mood, sleep, depression Norepinephrine/Epinephrine- alertness  Central nervous System - Forebrain – cerebral cortex (different from humans  than animals) - Midbrain  - Hindbrain  Peripheral nervous System Sympathetic nervous system – gears you up to  fight or flight, gets you  - ready to do something  Parasympathetic nervous system- calms you back down, like a parachute  - bringing you back down Fear could give you indigestion  Studying  the Brain Brain Damage - case study approach  Finnias Gage – spike stake through his face and he was fine physically,  - reverted back to a childlike state and couldn't plan or focus - Asomatognosia   - case study approach  Finnias Gage – spike stake through his face and he was fine physically,  - reverted back to a childlike state and couldn't plan or focus - Asomatognosia Structure and Function of the Brain Monday, October 3, 2016 9:35 AMBrain structure and function revealed from studies of adults and children with brain  damage, from electrical activity (EEG), and from imaging studies (PET - Positron  Emission Tomography) and fMRI. Brain regions specialize early (e.g.,  Right Hemisphere  Left Hemisphere Occipital Lobe - everything to do with vision  Temporal lobe - hearing and advanced visual processing Frontal lobe - Planning, emotion Primary motor cortex - fine movement controls Primary somatosensory cortex - senses  Broca's Area - producing language Wernicke's Area - listening/understanding language Parietal lobe - body sensations Amygdala - produces fear General Structure - Left and Right hemispheres - IN GENERAL: Left controls the rights side of the body, Right controls the left side of  the body (contralateral control) - Right - Spatial tasks, emotions - Left - Verbal tasks - Corpus Callosum - the connected tissues between the hemispheres of the brain - Split Brain - in case of a patient with grand mal seizures, epilepsy  The Forebrain - other structures under or near the temporal lobe - hypothalamus - influences the pituitary glands  - hippocampus - memory storage - amygdala - fear  The Midbrain - Main Function: "Relay Station" - coordinates sensory information -  -      - hippocampus - memory storage - amygdala - fear  The Midbrain - Main Function: "Relay Station" - coordinates sensory information The Hindbrain - "Life Support" - Breathing, Heart rate - Substructures  - ponds - medulla oblongata Neuron Development - 100 billion neurons at birth - 10,000x synapses (trillions) Hebb's Rule - Neurons that fire together, wire together - Unused synapses disappear - synaptic pruning   - Like topiary -trimming down a tree into shapes  Brain Plasticity  - "Flexible"  brain organization shown by children who recover from brain damage. - Adults have a harder time - Brain organization is neither completely plastic nor completely rigid.  The Endocrine System - Nervous System - electrochemical  - fast communication - Endocrine System  - release  of hormones - slower communication  - Pineal Gland - Regulates body rhythms and sleep cycles  - melatonin - Growth Hormones - HDH - Human Growth Hormone - Hormones controls  - thyroid - adrenal glands - testes  - ovaries - Pituitaty Glands - Too little means a person will be smaller than average -- adrenal glands - testes  - ovaries - Pituitaty Glands - Too little means a person will be smaller than average - Leads to dwarfism and gigantism - Pancreas - digestive functions - regulates blood sugar - tells you when you're full These different systems control the whole bodyLove Wednesday,  October 5, 2016 9:41 AMWas it love or adrenaline? Lust - androgens (estrogen and testosterone) and adrenaline = infatuation - sometimes misinterpreted - excited, feeling good, leading to liking, loving, and  lusting Attraction - dopamine and norepinephrine (systems of reward) = wanting to be  around them -   the nervous system, you're connecting the fun things with the person  Attachment - Oxytocin (released with physical contact) and Vasopressin  - you suddenly feel a commitment to the other person, wanting to protect  them  Language  Friday, October 14, 2016 9:42 AMWhat is language for? Children can sort - initially  start with broad perceptual categories Superordinate-Level Categories - animals - tools - people - vehicles Basic-Level Categories - Vehicles - cars - trucks - boats - motorcycles Subordinate-Level Categories - make, model, specifics  Benjamin Whorf - Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis - languages change how you thing and how you perceive the world Brian Wansink  - seafood filet, succulent Italian seafood filet  - PAY ATTENTION to the seasoning, flakiness  - description affects appearance and taste of food  - more filling food - more calories  Language lets you notice things that others don't. It gives you a way to hold on to  things that you would normally miss. Stranded in the Grassland - Animal Tracks SOS - know to save someone  Language lets you notice things that others don't. It gives you a way to hold on to  things that you would normally miss. Stranded in the Grassland - Animal Tracks SOS - know to save someone  Language is Extra Sensory Perception. Where does language come from and how do you learn it? The Challenge - finding clever ways to test infants, who may understand more than they seem Language: It’s Easy, Right? Sounds  > Words > Sentences > Meaning To a non-native speaker, language goes against all  natural tendencies Learning languages - Phonology - sounds of languages They suck and are aware from ba and pa.  They specialize in their native language. - Segmentation - finding units in fluent speech Speech is not punctuated with commas and periods. Stress Cues - different languages say words differently Statistical Cues - certain sounds follow others, certain sounds stick together Infant-Directed Speech - we talk funny to infants, find this utterly fascinating  - Semantics- Connecting the words to meaning - Grammar - the rules for combining units and expressing new meanings  Babies know a lot! They know phonology, segmentation, semantics, and grammar Children exposed to a foreign language when young, learn it better! no accent! - The sucking paradigm - The head turn preference procedure Helping Segmentation - use stress cues by speaking clearly and using Infant-Directed Speech - loud and emphasizing words - Use statistical cues through Theme and Variation - use infant redundancy andMotionese; moving things at same times can help  children identify a specific object with it’s name - use stress cues by speaking clearly and using Infant-Directed Speech - loud and emphasizing words - Use statistical cues through Theme and Variation - use infant redundancy andMotionese; moving things at same times can help  children identify a specific object with it’s name  What does it take to learn a language? Phonology, Segmentation, Segmentation, and Grammar  Babies Talking! Precolonial sounds - just noise from the baby Basic Canonical syllables - ba ba bae bae Advanced form - yada yada yada bada By 10 months, they recognize the sounds of words How do they know word meaning? How do we? How do kids know semantics? They look at a dog or a car, but mommy or daddy They would look at mom when they said mommy and looking at dad when they say  daddy! How do children learn words? Frequencies-saying the word over and over - overgeneralize - boo calling Sully 'kitty' - apple and orange - under generalize - don't use the word - fail to call Garfield a cat Parents need to talk to their children Social Cues - children of deaf parents turned on TV, did not learn language - the speaker has to mean to explain and label  Learned Heuristics - process of elimination - words are labeled by object and shape, not color - whole object and shape basis - New words label new objectsIntelligence & Personality Friday, October 21, 2016 9:36 AM"Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results." How do we know if someone is smart? - 3 different ways to answer this question Smart is Test Scores - Psychometric Theory  - Use patterns of test performance as starting point (factor analysis) - Test scores provide evidence for general intelligence and specific intelligences  - Hierarchical Theories - Fluid Intelligence -sequential reasoning, induction, quantitative reasoning  (flexibility) - Crystallized Intelligence - printed language, language comprehension,  vocabulary knowledge ⮚ Bright or Dull  - Have to come up with a test  MA - mental age ⮚ Stanford-Binet IQ = MA/CA x 100 These days, IQ simply compared you with others your age. ⮚ WISC-II  Bayley Scales of Infant Development  - 5 scales (milestones) - cognitive - language - motor movements -  Social  - Emotional Smart is Contextual - Sternberg's Theory Contest matters - we all look pretty stupid in another culture  Your beliefs change how you react to failure! Carol Dweck - you have to believe  that you can change your IQ to do it Flynn Effect - IQ scores have been steadily rising (3points per decade)   -          Your beliefs change how you react to failure! Carol Dweck - you have to believe  that you can change your IQ to do it Flynn Effect - IQ scores have been steadily rising (3points per decade) - Top 5% 100 years ago would be considered morons by today's standards - no just about taking tests Thematic Category - put the knife with the potato Taxonomic (Basic) Category - put all the silverware together, all the food together  Sternberg's Triarchic Theory  - it's determined by environment and culture 1. Analytical Ability - involves analyzing problems and figuring out a solution.  "Geek Smarts"  2. Creative Ability - adapting to novel tasks by discovering novel solutions. "Art  Smarts" 3. Practical Ability - involves knowing how solutions and plans would actually  work. "Street Smarts" Smart is Skills - Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Smart is a cluster of skills and talents.  Teaching shouldn't be focused strictly on test scores, but allowing everyone to thrive Theories of Multiple Intelligences  Linguistic - words and talking   Taught in school Logical - Mathematical - math   Taught in school


How much of a trait is actually genetic?




What makes kids the way they are?



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Don't forget about the age old question of qwwsw
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Spatial - visualizing and understanding how things look Musical - sounds in pitch, tone, and rhythm Bodily-Kinesthetic -sports and dance Interpersonal -really good at interacting with other people, connecting, networking Intrapersonal - understanding one's emotions, strengths, and weaknesses Naturalistic - people who love nature; really connect in the natural world Existential - considering "ultimate" issues, the meaning of life, associated with religion  Schools should teach all the parts!  - Labeling Effect - students labeled as smart or talented get more attention or  opportunities 10,000 hours - it takes 10,000 to get really, really good at something - Labeling Effect - students labeled as smart or talented get more attention or  opportunities 10,000 hours - it takes 10,000 to get really, really good at something  PersonalityMemory Friday, October 28, 2016 9:36 AMIt's not perfect, and we wouldn't want it to be! Cued recall - one word to remember phrases, the first word Method of Loci - gives structure too (memory palaces) Anterograde - inability to learn new memories Retrograde - inability to recall old memories  Savings Effect - it is learning the same thing but faster the second time because you  already learned it once Clive Wearing - worst amnesia  Origins of Memory - Babies can remember, forget, and can be prompted to recall  forgotten material. - Fun with Mobiles (Rovee-Collier) - 2mo. 1-3 days - 6mo. 15-16 days - both could be cued  - And are strongly affected by context What also helps memory? Knowledge  Gist - a fuzzy representation of information that preserves the central content but few  precise details  Development of scripted memory begins at age 2. Young children organize and interpret their experiences through scripts. (bedtime,  bath time) - autobiographical memory begins as a joint activity between children and adults - adult suggestions are rapidly incorporated into memory  Children as Eyewitnesses?  "Free Recall" is generally accurate. - Stereotype and suggestions can be very detrimental  Leichtman and Ceci Children as Eyewitnesses?  "Free Recall" is generally accurate. - Stereotype and suggestions can be very detrimental  Leichtman and Ceci Control condition Stereotypes conditionLearning, Condition, and Motivation Friday, November  4, 2016 9:38 AMNew Year's Resolutions  Wanting to Change which simply isn't enough Ivan Pavlov - Classical conditioning 1. Unconditioned stimulus (food), unconditioned response (salivation) 2. Neutral Stimulus(tuning fork), no conditioned stimulus (no salivations) 3. Unconditional response  4. Conditioned Stimulus, condition response  Dwight Schulte and Jim with the altoids  Temptation Bundling  Take advantage of combining one thing you like with one thing you hate - exercise and favorite TV show What about kids? What can make them act the way they do? Verruca Salt - who's to blame? The mother and the father  B.F. Skinner - Classical Conditioning - all about what happens before an involuntary reflex - Reinforcement - positive system, increases behavior - Punishment - decreases behavior - positive reinforcement - adding reward - negative reinforcement - removing something Reinforcement - unknowingly reinforcing a bad behavior; increasing behavior  - negative reinforcement trap - getting an A on the test you didn't study for Punishment -swift, consistent, explained, and warm Works best if you could replace the bad behavior! - reinforce good behaviors  Thorndike's Law of Effect - The effect of your actions is good, you will tend to do it more.  Works best if you could replace the bad behavior! - reinforce good behaviors  Thorndike's Law of Effect - The effect of your actions is good, you will tend to do it more.  - consequences affect behavior - reinforcement - increases behavior  - punishment - decrease behavior  More Operant Conditioning - Different reward schedules - continuous reinforcement - watching TV after every time you get your homework  done - Fixed vs Variable intervals and ratios - every other time - every sixth time - every 6 minutes Variable Reinforcement -there's a lot more energy and hope that there will be a  reinforcement (slot machines)  Power Effectiveness - 2 cents, 2 dollars, 20 dollars, 200 dollars, 2000 dollars Consistency and Immediacy  Learned Helplessness - The elephant is held back not by the puny rope but by its belief system. Are you  too? Other Types of Control - Direct Instruction - telling children what to do, when, and why. (not very effective,  kids do not listen well) - Observing - children learn from watching others, including parents and their  treatment of siblings (counter imitation)              - Bobo ball study - if the adult beats up a doll, the child will also Reverse Psychology - works amazingly well for children and a lot for adult  - never say NO to kids! Or they will have jam on the cat and beans in their ears Siblings, Friends,  Monday, November  7, 2016 9:28 AMQuestion: Sibling Rivalry - Why can't we get along? - ALL ABOUT THE RESOURCES - limited resources lead to conflict - Birth of a sibling can be distressing for toddlers and young preschoolers - Siblings most likely to get along when… 1. Of the same sex 2. Neither sibling is emotional 3. The younger sibling enters adolescence (both mature)  4. Parents show no favoritism  5. Parents have a warm relationship  Friends - the family we choose for ourselves  Peers as Equal Interactions - Emotional status - Intimacy -sharing secrets - Feedback and practice in role taking skills - Growth promoting conflicts of viewpoints - Practice in compromise  Characteristics of Groups  Clique: 4-6 friends  Crowd: larger group who have similar values and attitudes  Groups have a dominance hierarchy Groups exert pressure primarily where social standards are fuzzy  The Power of Groups  Wednesday,  November  16, 2016 7:43 AMGroups are amazing! They are more powerful than one alone. - and more dangerous… Group Dynamics - Social facilitation - improved performance on tasks when others are watching us,  competitive competition - Social Interference - decreased performance when people are watching; speeches  and nerves  *** The better practiced of the task, the more likely you are to have social  facilitation.  - Social Loafing - an individual group tends to exert less effort at attaining a common  goal than when testing individually  GroupThink - a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making  group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives  - Attack on Pearl Harbor Deindividuation - the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal  and anonymity  Robber's Cave Muzafer's Shift  In and Out Groups Ingroups - people with whom one shares a common identity  Outgroup - those percieved as different than one's ingroup  - prejudice - negative view of others based on group membership - helps in-group cohesion Media and Impressions Friday, November  18, 2016 9:36 AMTelevision Habits - 3-4 hours a day 20,000 hours by age 15 Television - The Good Side - TV is not, by itself, evil. - Like any of our creations, it has great potential Myths - no significant correlations between hours watched and creativity/attention span TV is a diversion - If kids didn't watch they would go on to movies, read comic books, listen to music,  and otherwise waste time. What's it matter? TV's Potential Undesirable Effects - Correlations of televised violence (very frequent) - 58% of programs contain violence without remorse - TV is strongly correlated with aggression - Mean World beliefs and desensitization  - Reciprocal Relation - Strongest effects are those that identity with the  violent characters. - Television is a source of Social Stereotypes Commercials - 20,000 television commercials each year - 18 or more minutes an hour - Fast food, toys, treats - Until 8 or 9 they believe commercials - Mere exposure effect - develop preference simply because it is more familiar  ( also called the familiarity principle) Computers like TV Emphasis on content, not media Video games - exposure to violent videogames makes kids less sensitive to violence  and associated with lower grades and aggression - Computers and apps used in education have a positive effect Computers like TV Emphasis on content, not media Video games - exposure to violent videogames makes kids less sensitive to violence  and associated with lower grades and aggression - Computers and apps used in education have a positive effect Watch Out! EAT THIS! PLAY This! Becomes Obese… Refers to individuals who are at least 20% over their body weight - Reflects heredity and environment - See food trap - vegetables aren't shown nearly as much as decadent food and  restaurants  Bacon and Eggs are advertised to become breakfast foods.  Anorexia and Bulimia - primarily effect adolescent girls MAJORLY to blame because of media Self Esteem - A person's judgement and feelings on how they feel about themselves.  Change and Stability in Self-Esteem  - Self-esteem is highest in the preschool years and very unitary.  - Drops and differentiates during the elementary school years, due to social  comparisons and media exposures - media can make us feel accepted or shunned  Sources of Self-Esteem - Value: what you value determines how happy you are If you value academics and you're doing well in school, you have higher self  esteem. WEIRD SCIENCE - a minority, can lead to first world problems  - ADHD - created by the Western Education System - Colic - Other cultures hold their children 98% of the time - Mental Illness - Culture specific, based on cultural media…  Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic  You're not just selling food, you're selling the experience. c Democratic  You're not just selling food, you're selling the experience.
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