ADHD - Symptoms: inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive - Mostly boys. Do poorly in school and are often disliked. - Causes: - NOT Sugar, TV, food allergies, or poor home life - Heredity, Stress, Poor frontal lobe activation - 37-50% of children with ADHD have problems as adults. - Not necessarily over-diagnosed, we are just more aware. Treatment: medication (stimulants) + psychosocial (academic help)Cognitive Development Friday, September 23, 2016 9:36 AMJean Piaget (1896-1980) - Mr. Cognitive Development - No other person has been so influential in child development. 1. He was the first: the founder, the start! 2. He captured the essence of kids at different stages. 3. Gave us a new view of development - Active Child! - Object permanence - if you can’t see something, it doesn’t exist Stages: Metaphor of a child as a scientist - Scientists have theories about how the world works. - Maybe kids do too! And just like scientists, kids do too! - All about the evidence: we construct knowledge through action and observation (constructivist). Schemes (or theories, categories, ideas, or plans) - Schemes - "organize experience and knowledge." - Theories about why things are the way they are. - Is it dangerous? Predator or prey? - Can I eat it? Is it tasty? - Social Referencing - looking to parents or teachers for reactions Schemes change through Adaptation - In assimilation, new experiences are incorporated into existing schemes. - In accommodation, existing schemes must be modified to incorporate new information. Equilibration - Usually things are in balance. - Periodically, all schemes prove to be inadequate. Nothing makes sense (Disequilibrium) Stages of Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth to 2 years, concerned with senses and motor development 2. Preoperational Stage sequrum Stages of Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage a. Birth to 2 years, concerned with senses and motor development 2. Preoperational Stage a. 2 to 7 years, Can use symbols to solve problems b. Children can use language but are many weaknesses in their thinking c. Egocentrism - they think you can see what they see i. Centration - when you're so focused in, you miss other important features; causes them to fail concentration d. Reversibility - can I put it back together, are there all the same pieces; the cure for centration 3. Concrete Operational Stage a. 7 to 11 years - here and now b. Thinking based on mental operations (logical, mathematical, spatial operations) c. Operations can be reversed. (solves conservation) d. Limit: focus on the real, not the abstract. 4.Formal Operational Stage a. Begins at 11 to all of life b. Children now able to think hypothetically and abstractly. c. Can envision multiple realities Biological Processes Friday, September 30, 2016 9:34 AMWhat is neuroscience? An interdisciplinary field of study directed Getting on your nerves? Parts of a nerve cell Parts of the brain The Nervous Reflex Takes a stimulant to produce a response No, it isn't paranoid. It's your body's way of sending instant messages. Reflexes The Internet of the body (electrical and physical) Parts of a neuron Dendrites – input to the cell Cell body Axon – wire, myelin – insulation Glia - insulation, fatty substance that removes waste - Provide insulation - Myelin sheath - Remove waste products and foreign bodies 1/10th - the size of a neuron, but about 10 times as numerous Action Potential - “all or none” - Do not vary in strength or intensity - Travel down the axon between 2 or 200 mph Terminal buttons - come very close to the other dendrites but do not touch Synapse – specialized junction between the two neurons where chemical messaes cross from one to the others the sace between the terminal - Terminal buttons - come very close to the other dendrites but do not touch Synapse – specialized junction between the two neurons where chemical messages cross from one to the others (the space between the terminal button and the new dendrites of a new neuron) Neurotransmitter Dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal buttons, synapses Chemical messages are either excitatory or inhibitory Neurotransmitters are released to act on the post-synaptic cell Gamma-Amino-butyric Acid (GABA) – fast inhibitory synapse Glutamine – main excitatory synapse Acetylcholine Dopamine – reward, motivation, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia Serotonin- mood, sleep, depression Norepinephrine/Epinephrine- alertness Central nervous System - Forebrain – cerebral cortex (different from humans than animals) - Midbrain - Hindbrain Peripheral nervous System Sympathetic nervous system – gears you up to fight or flight, gets you - ready to do something Parasympathetic nervous system- calms you back down, like a parachute - bringing you back down Fear could give you indigestion Studying the Brain Brain Damage - case study approach Finnias Gage – spike stake through his face and he was fine physically, - reverted back to a childlike state and couldn't plan or focus - Asomatognosia - case study approach Finnias Gage – spike stake through his face and he was fine physically, - reverted back to a childlike state and couldn't plan or focus - Asomatognosia Structure and Function of the Brain Monday, October 3, 2016 9:35 AMBrain structure and function revealed from studies of adults and children with brain damage, from electrical activity (EEG), and from imaging studies (PET - Positron Emission Tomography) and fMRI. Brain regions specialize early (e.g., Right Hemisphere Left Hemisphere Occipital Lobe - everything to do with vision Temporal lobe - hearing and advanced visual processing Frontal lobe - Planning, emotion Primary motor cortex - fine movement controls Primary somatosensory cortex - senses Broca's Area - producing language Wernicke's Area - listening/understanding language Parietal lobe - body sensations Amygdala - produces fear General Structure - Left and Right hemispheres - IN GENERAL: Left controls the rights side of the body, Right controls the left side of the body (contralateral control) - Right - Spatial tasks, emotions - Left - Verbal tasks - Corpus Callosum - the connected tissues between the hemispheres of the brain - Split Brain - in case of a patient with grand mal seizures, epilepsy The Forebrain - other structures under or near the temporal lobe - hypothalamus - influences the pituitary glands - hippocampus - memory storage - amygdala - fear The Midbrain - Main Function: "Relay Station" - coordinates sensory information - - - hippocampus - memory storage - amygdala - fear The Midbrain - Main Function: "Relay Station" - coordinates sensory information The Hindbrain - "Life Support" - Breathing, Heart rate - Substructures - ponds - medulla oblongata Neuron Development - 100 billion neurons at birth - 10,000x synapses (trillions) Hebb's Rule - Neurons that fire together, wire together - Unused synapses disappear - synaptic pruning - Like topiary -trimming down a tree into shapes Brain Plasticity - "Flexible" brain organization shown by children who recover from brain damage. - Adults have a harder time - Brain organization is neither completely plastic nor completely rigid. The Endocrine System - Nervous System - electrochemical - fast communication - Endocrine System - release of hormones - slower communication - Pineal Gland - Regulates body rhythms and sleep cycles - melatonin - Growth Hormones - HDH - Human Growth Hormone - Hormones controls - thyroid - adrenal glands - testes - ovaries - Pituitaty Glands - Too little means a person will be smaller than average -- adrenal glands - testes - ovaries - Pituitaty Glands - Too little means a person will be smaller than average - Leads to dwarfism and gigantism - Pancreas - digestive functions - regulates blood sugar - tells you when you're full These different systems control the whole bodyLove Wednesday, October 5, 2016 9:41 AMWas it love or adrenaline? Lust - androgens (estrogen and testosterone) and adrenaline = infatuation - sometimes misinterpreted - excited, feeling good, leading to liking, loving, and lusting Attraction - dopamine and norepinephrine (systems of reward) = wanting to be around them - the nervous system, you're connecting the fun things with the person Attachment - Oxytocin (released with physical contact) and Vasopressin - you suddenly feel a commitment to the other person, wanting to protect them Language Friday, October 14, 2016 9:42 AMWhat is language for? Children can sort - initially start with broad perceptual categories Superordinate-Level Categories - animals - tools - people - vehicles Basic-Level Categories - Vehicles - cars - trucks - boats - motorcycles Subordinate-Level Categories - make, model, specifics Benjamin Whorf - Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis - languages change how you thing and how you perceive the world Brian Wansink - seafood filet, succulent Italian seafood filet - PAY ATTENTION to the seasoning, flakiness - description affects appearance and taste of food - more filling food - more calories Language lets you notice things that others don't. It gives you a way to hold on to things that you would normally miss. Stranded in the Grassland - Animal Tracks SOS - know to save someone Language lets you notice things that others don't. It gives you a way to hold on to things that you would normally miss. Stranded in the Grassland - Animal Tracks SOS - know to save someone Language is Extra Sensory Perception. Where does language come from and how do you learn it? The Challenge - finding clever ways to test infants, who may understand more than they seem Language: It’s Easy, Right? Sounds > Words > Sentences > Meaning To a non-native speaker, language goes against all natural tendencies Learning languages - Phonology - sounds of languages They suck and are aware from ba and pa. They specialize in their native language. - Segmentation - finding units in fluent speech Speech is not punctuated with commas and periods. Stress Cues - different languages say words differently Statistical Cues - certain sounds follow others, certain sounds stick together Infant-Directed Speech - we talk funny to infants, find this utterly fascinating - Semantics- Connecting the words to meaning - Grammar - the rules for combining units and expressing new meanings Babies know a lot! They know phonology, segmentation, semantics, and grammar Children exposed to a foreign language when young, learn it better! no accent! - The sucking paradigm - The head turn preference procedure Helping Segmentation - use stress cues by speaking clearly and using Infant-Directed Speech - loud and emphasizing words - Use statistical cues through Theme and Variation - use infant redundancy andMotionese; moving things at same times can help children identify a specific object with it’s name - use stress cues by speaking clearly and using Infant-Directed Speech - loud and emphasizing words - Use statistical cues through Theme and Variation - use infant redundancy andMotionese; moving things at same times can help children identify a specific object with it’s name What does it take to learn a language? Phonology, Segmentation, Segmentation, and Grammar Babies Talking! Precolonial sounds - just noise from the baby Basic Canonical syllables - ba ba bae bae Advanced form - yada yada yada bada By 10 months, they recognize the sounds of words How do they know word meaning? How do we? How do kids know semantics? They look at a dog or a car, but mommy or daddy They would look at mom when they said mommy and looking at dad when they say daddy! How do children learn words? Frequencies-saying the word over and over - overgeneralize - boo calling Sully 'kitty' - apple and orange - under generalize - don't use the word - fail to call Garfield a cat Parents need to talk to their children Social Cues - children of deaf parents turned on TV, did not learn language - the speaker has to mean to explain and label Learned Heuristics - process of elimination - words are labeled by object and shape, not color - whole object and shape basis - New words label new objectsIntelligence & Personality Friday, October 21, 2016 9:36 AM"Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results." How do we know if someone is smart? - 3 different ways to answer this question Smart is Test Scores - Psychometric Theory - Use patterns of test performance as starting point (factor analysis) - Test scores provide evidence for general intelligence and specific intelligences - Hierarchical Theories - Fluid Intelligence -sequential reasoning, induction, quantitative reasoning (flexibility) - Crystallized Intelligence - printed language, language comprehension, vocabulary knowledge ⮚ Bright or Dull - Have to come up with a test MA - mental age ⮚ Stanford-Binet IQ = MA/CA x 100 These days, IQ simply compared you with others your age. ⮚ WISC-II Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 5 scales (milestones) - cognitive - language - motor movements - Social - Emotional Smart is Contextual - Sternberg's Theory Contest matters - we all look pretty stupid in another culture Your beliefs change how you react to failure! Carol Dweck - you have to believe that you can change your IQ to do it Flynn Effect - IQ scores have been steadily rising (3points per decade) - Your beliefs change how you react to failure! Carol Dweck - you have to believe that you can change your IQ to do it Flynn Effect - IQ scores have been steadily rising (3points per decade) - Top 5% 100 years ago would be considered morons by today's standards - no just about taking tests Thematic Category - put the knife with the potato Taxonomic (Basic) Category - put all the silverware together, all the food together Sternberg's Triarchic Theory - it's determined by environment and culture 1. Analytical Ability - involves analyzing problems and figuring out a solution. "Geek Smarts" 2. Creative Ability - adapting to novel tasks by discovering novel solutions. "Art Smarts" 3. Practical Ability - involves knowing how solutions and plans would actually work. "Street Smarts" Smart is Skills - Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Smart is a cluster of skills and talents. Teaching shouldn't be focused strictly on test scores, but allowing everyone to thrive Theories of Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic - words and talking
Taught in school
Logical - Mathematical - math
Taught in school
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Spatial - visualizing and understanding how things look Musical - sounds in pitch, tone, and rhythm Bodily-Kinesthetic -sports and dance Interpersonal -really good at interacting with other people, connecting, networking Intrapersonal - understanding one's emotions, strengths, and weaknesses Naturalistic - people who love nature; really connect in the natural world Existential - considering "ultimate" issues, the meaning of life, associated with religion Schools should teach all the parts! - Labeling Effect - students labeled as smart or talented get more attention or opportunities 10,000 hours - it takes 10,000 to get really, really good at something - Labeling Effect - students labeled as smart or talented get more attention or opportunities 10,000 hours - it takes 10,000 to get really, really good at something PersonalityMemory Friday, October 28, 2016 9:36 AMIt's not perfect, and we wouldn't want it to be! Cued recall - one word to remember phrases, the first word Method of Loci - gives structure too (memory palaces) Anterograde - inability to learn new memories Retrograde - inability to recall old memories Savings Effect - it is learning the same thing but faster the second time because you already learned it once Clive Wearing - worst amnesia Origins of Memory - Babies can remember, forget, and can be prompted to recall forgotten material. - Fun with Mobiles (Rovee-Collier) - 2mo. 1-3 days - 6mo. 15-16 days - both could be cued - And are strongly affected by context What also helps memory? Knowledge Gist - a fuzzy representation of information that preserves the central content but few precise details Development of scripted memory begins at age 2. Young children organize and interpret their experiences through scripts. (bedtime, bath time) - autobiographical memory begins as a joint activity between children and adults - adult suggestions are rapidly incorporated into memory Children as Eyewitnesses? "Free Recall" is generally accurate. - Stereotype and suggestions can be very detrimental Leichtman and Ceci Children as Eyewitnesses? "Free Recall" is generally accurate. - Stereotype and suggestions can be very detrimental Leichtman and Ceci Control condition Stereotypes conditionLearning, Condition, and Motivation Friday, November 4, 2016 9:38 AMNew Year's Resolutions Wanting to Change which simply isn't enough Ivan Pavlov - Classical conditioning 1. Unconditioned stimulus (food), unconditioned response (salivation) 2. Neutral Stimulus(tuning fork), no conditioned stimulus (no salivations) 3. Unconditional response 4. Conditioned Stimulus, condition response Dwight Schulte and Jim with the altoids Temptation Bundling Take advantage of combining one thing you like with one thing you hate - exercise and favorite TV show What about kids? What can make them act the way they do? Verruca Salt - who's to blame? The mother and the father B.F. Skinner - Classical Conditioning - all about what happens before an involuntary reflex - Reinforcement - positive system, increases behavior - Punishment - decreases behavior - positive reinforcement - adding reward - negative reinforcement - removing something Reinforcement - unknowingly reinforcing a bad behavior; increasing behavior - negative reinforcement trap - getting an A on the test you didn't study for Punishment -swift, consistent, explained, and warm Works best if you could replace the bad behavior! - reinforce good behaviors Thorndike's Law of Effect - The effect of your actions is good, you will tend to do it more. Works best if you could replace the bad behavior! - reinforce good behaviors Thorndike's Law of Effect - The effect of your actions is good, you will tend to do it more. - consequences affect behavior - reinforcement - increases behavior - punishment - decrease behavior More Operant Conditioning - Different reward schedules - continuous reinforcement - watching TV after every time you get your homework done - Fixed vs Variable intervals and ratios - every other time - every sixth time - every 6 minutes Variable Reinforcement -there's a lot more energy and hope that there will be a reinforcement (slot machines) Power Effectiveness - 2 cents, 2 dollars, 20 dollars, 200 dollars, 2000 dollars Consistency and Immediacy Learned Helplessness - The elephant is held back not by the puny rope but by its belief system. Are you too? Other Types of Control - Direct Instruction - telling children what to do, when, and why. (not very effective, kids do not listen well) - Observing - children learn from watching others, including parents and their treatment of siblings (counter imitation) - Bobo ball study - if the adult beats up a doll, the child will also Reverse Psychology - works amazingly well for children and a lot for adult - never say NO to kids! Or they will have jam on the cat and beans in their ears Siblings, Friends, Monday, November 7, 2016 9:28 AMQuestion: Sibling Rivalry - Why can't we get along? - ALL ABOUT THE RESOURCES - limited resources lead to conflict - Birth of a sibling can be distressing for toddlers and young preschoolers - Siblings most likely to get along when… 1. Of the same sex 2. Neither sibling is emotional 3. The younger sibling enters adolescence (both mature) 4. Parents show no favoritism 5. Parents have a warm relationship Friends - the family we choose for ourselves Peers as Equal Interactions - Emotional status - Intimacy -sharing secrets - Feedback and practice in role taking skills - Growth promoting conflicts of viewpoints - Practice in compromise Characteristics of Groups Clique: 4-6 friends Crowd: larger group who have similar values and attitudes Groups have a dominance hierarchy Groups exert pressure primarily where social standards are fuzzy The Power of Groups Wednesday, November 16, 2016 7:43 AMGroups are amazing! They are more powerful than one alone. - and more dangerous… Group Dynamics - Social facilitation - improved performance on tasks when others are watching us, competitive competition - Social Interference - decreased performance when people are watching; speeches and nerves *** The better practiced of the task, the more likely you are to have social facilitation. - Social Loafing - an individual group tends to exert less effort at attaining a common goal than when testing individually GroupThink - a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives - Attack on Pearl Harbor Deindividuation - the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Robber's Cave Muzafer's Shift In and Out Groups Ingroups - people with whom one shares a common identity Outgroup - those percieved as different than one's ingroup - prejudice - negative view of others based on group membership - helps in-group cohesion Media and Impressions Friday, November 18, 2016 9:36 AMTelevision Habits - 3-4 hours a day 20,000 hours by age 15 Television - The Good Side - TV is not, by itself, evil. - Like any of our creations, it has great potential Myths - no significant correlations between hours watched and creativity/attention span TV is a diversion - If kids didn't watch they would go on to movies, read comic books, listen to music, and otherwise waste time. What's it matter? TV's Potential Undesirable Effects - Correlations of televised violence (very frequent) - 58% of programs contain violence without remorse - TV is strongly correlated with aggression - Mean World beliefs and desensitization - Reciprocal Relation - Strongest effects are those that identity with the violent characters. - Television is a source of Social Stereotypes Commercials - 20,000 television commercials each year - 18 or more minutes an hour - Fast food, toys, treats - Until 8 or 9 they believe commercials - Mere exposure effect - develop preference simply because it is more familiar ( also called the familiarity principle) Computers like TV Emphasis on content, not media Video games - exposure to violent videogames makes kids less sensitive to violence and associated with lower grades and aggression - Computers and apps used in education have a positive effect Computers like TV Emphasis on content, not media Video games - exposure to violent videogames makes kids less sensitive to violence and associated with lower grades and aggression - Computers and apps used in education have a positive effect Watch Out! EAT THIS! PLAY This! Becomes Obese… Refers to individuals who are at least 20% over their body weight - Reflects heredity and environment - See food trap - vegetables aren't shown nearly as much as decadent food and restaurants Bacon and Eggs are advertised to become breakfast foods. Anorexia and Bulimia - primarily effect adolescent girls MAJORLY to blame because of media Self Esteem - A person's judgement and feelings on how they feel about themselves. Change and Stability in Self-Esteem - Self-esteem is highest in the preschool years and very unitary. - Drops and differentiates during the elementary school years, due to social comparisons and media exposures - media can make us feel accepted or shunned Sources of Self-Esteem - Value: what you value determines how happy you are If you value academics and you're doing well in school, you have higher self esteem. WEIRD SCIENCE - a minority, can lead to first world problems - ADHD - created by the Western Education System - Colic - Other cultures hold their children 98% of the time - Mental Illness - Culture specific, based on cultural media… Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic You're not just selling food, you're selling the experience. c Democratic You're not just selling food, you're selling the experience.
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