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UGA / Cellular biology / CBIO 3400 / What is the smallest unit of a biological system?

What is the smallest unit of a biological system?

What is the smallest unit of a biological system?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Cellular biology
Course: Cell Biology
Professor: Cordula schulz
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: Free
Name: Lecture 1 Notes
Description: These are the notes from the first lecture on Friday, January 6!
Uploaded: 01/11/2017
4 Pages 267 Views 8 Unlocks
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Lecture 1 : Intro-Cells, Eubacteria and Archaea Ch.1.2 We also discuss several other topics like eng 1010

What is a cell?

  • Smallest unit of biological system that is alive, and possess the capacity for:
  • Acquisition and utilization of material and energy
  • Self maintenance, repair, homeostasis
  • Growth and reproduction
  • Detection and response to environmental stimuli
  • Archaea let to 1st eukaryote

If you want to learn more check out chromatin that is extended and transcribable is called

 

Robert Hooke

  • one of first people to see cells
  • looked at insects, fabric, leaves, lint
  • described compound structure of insect eye

We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by introspection?

 Anton van Leeuwenhoek

  • designed microscope using lenses made of diamond Shavirus (magnifying glass)

Don't forget about the age old question of Why are hydrogenation reactions exothermic?

The cell theory

  • Organisms are composed of cells → basic unit of life
  • both animals and plants are multicellular composites that arise from a single cell
  • so, development Mud bl epigenetic and not performed since a single cell (fertilized egg results in many different types of cells
  • liver & bone cells have the same DNA but have different functions.
  • so genetic material must have some way of saying it needs to be a certain thing
  • only germ cells (sperm and egg) pass characteristic to offspring

  • How did life begin? What was the first cell like?
  • Pedigree of life on Earth: archaea led to 1st eukaryote
  • Protists come in many shapes and sizes -pictures on slides

Don't forget about the age old question of uga sona systems

Cell organelles with 2 membranes & DNA

  • Nucleus: where all DNA is stored - protects DNA (double membrane)
  • Mitochondria: double membrane
  • Plastids (in plants/ protists)
  • Chloroplasts (in green plants).

We also discuss several other topics like Which puntuation usually indicates an omission in the middle of a quote or citation?

Prokaryotes

Don’t sexually reproduce

Eukaryotes

Always reproduce

Mitochondria / Plastids

Genome size

> 1,000,000 bp

~3,000,000,000 (Hs)

~150,000 bp (plastids)

~17,000 (Hs mitochondria)

Genome organization

One circular molecule

Several lineal molecules (chromosomes)

Multiple copies of one or several circular molecules

Ribosomes

70s ribosomes

(30s + 50s subunits)

80s ribosomes

(40s + 60s subunits)

70s ribosomes

(30s + 50s subunits)

Rods, or cocci shape

Many different types of shapes and sizes

Many different types of shapes and sizes

Endosymbiosis theory

  • rRNA data suggest that mitochondria are related to proteobacteria and plastids to cyanobacteria

  • mitochondria originated from free-living oxygen-metabolizing (aerobic) bacteria that were engulfed by an ancestral cell that could otherwise make no such use of oxygen (it was anaerobic)

  • theory suggests that there are some eukaryotes without mitochondria but no example of this yet!!

Eukaryotes evolved from archaea

A Model For The Development Of Eukaryotic Cells 

  • the development from prokaryota to Eukaryota was most likely a gradual process which took millions of years
  • diagram explaining process →⇂print from people

The Condition On Earth Promoted Eukaryotic Life 

  • phonosynthesis (+ATP and)
  • Respiration (+30-36 ATP)
  • Fermentation (+2 ATP)

Basics Of Cell Biology

  • cells and everything inside cells are constantly active(flux)

Are all structures static? NO!!

  • cells are active, they never hold still
  • cells are dynamic structures in constant motion

The chemistry dictates how cells function.

What are cells made of? 70% + 30% Chemicals

  • macromolecules
  • phospholipid
  • RNA, DNA, proteins etc

Cellular processes are driven by chemistry

  • when 2 atoms that are connected by a covalent(2 atoms share electrons) bond exert different attractions for the electrons, a molecule becomes polar. In water the oxygen draws an electron away from the hydrogen.

        (+) charge →

        (-) charge →

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