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OHIO / Anthropology / ANTH 1010 / What is the difference between linguistics and sociolinguistics?

What is the difference between linguistics and sociolinguistics?

What is the difference between linguistics and sociolinguistics?

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Professor: Smoki musaraj
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology and Anthropology
Cost: 25
Name: Week 1 Notes
Description: Lecture Notes + Reading Notes for week one, covers the online reading/quizzes. I'll try to scan them in next time!
Uploaded: 01/12/2017
5 Pages 110 Views 1 Unlocks
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ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2 0}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-5}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-2 0}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-7}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-3 0}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8 0}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-3}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-5}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4 0}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-7}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-8 0}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3 0}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-3 0}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-2 0}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qmuxraaydxoo-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2 0}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-2}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-6 0}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-0}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-3}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-1}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-3}.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2}.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-7}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1 0}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-1 0}.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-7 0}.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_yxcc24g3n2ae-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-0 0}.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6ul6as5mj0lc-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-8 0}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0 0}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-0 0}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-6 0}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f056jfvudrl2-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-4}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-5 0}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-5}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-6}.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-8}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-4 0}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-2}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2}.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-8}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-4}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-4 0}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-1 0}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-5 0}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-7}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-1}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-1}.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-0}ol.lst-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pvm7eg1gjy7v-6 0}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4giv4ntis82w-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-0 0}ol.lst-kix_y4gjlz920795-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_y4gjlz920795-4 0}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-8 0}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hbcb9qbg1m8m-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6vaynjxqikfl-5 0}ul.lst-kix_rw2xzb2nsrgf-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_inwf0wr290th-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_inwf0wr290th-7,lower-latin) ". 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Cultural Anthropology -1/9- Lecture Notes If you want to learn more check out List down the two main functions of accounting.

Ethnocentrism - focus on one culture, often one's own If you want to learn more check out What are the different management methods?

⤷ single story: makes recognition of equal humanity difficult

Cultural appropriation - taking from another culture and re authoring it

⤷ i.e. sexy indian, geisha, etc. costumes Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between interest expense and interest payable?

Application of anthropology - use knowledge of human culture to sowe issues Don't forget about the age old question of Which part of psychology focuses on thoughts and emotions?

What is culture - routine of a specific group of people - music, language, science. Whatever people do. Don't forget about the age old question of In what way does a competitive market economy differ from a communist economy?

⤷  vs. nature : nature is in your DNA, culture is created by people If you want to learn more check out What does "avant garde" literally means?

Cultural Relativism: don't judge other cultures based on your own. Opp. of ethnocentric

Chapter 1 Notes

Anthropology - study of humanity, including prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity

⤷ 4 Fields:

  1. biological/ physical - studying humans as biological organisms, includes evolution and variation
  2. archaeology - study of past cultures through material remains
  3. linguistic - study of human communication, including its origin, history and variations
  4. cultura - the study of living peoples and their cultures, culture referring to people's learned and shared behaviors and beliefs.

Biological Anthropology Subfields

  1. Primatology - study of primates(non human) in the wild and in captivity.
  2. Paleoanthropology - study of human evolution based on fossils.
  3. contemporary human biological variation - study differences in bio. makeup (DNA) and contemporary human behavior

Archaeology and Subfields

 ⤷ study of the old but limited to the times humans were present.

 → spanning back up to 300.000 years ago

Subfields:

  1. Prehistoric - humans before written records
  2. Historical - humans in societies with written records
  • Prehistoric often has 2 classifications. old world (asia europe + africa) and new world (the americas).
  • Both fields have specialties within them, based on where archaeology occurs, i.e. underwater

Linguistic Anthropology subfields

  1. Historical - how language changes over time and how languages are related
  2. Descriptive - how modern languages differ in structure
  3. Sociolinguistics - study of relationships among social variation and context

Applied Anthropology is found across all 4 fields

History of cultural anthropology

  • Goes back as far as Herodotus (500 BCE)
  • Montesquieu of the french enlightenment period wrote a book on the differing human cultures around the world (he believed they varied due to climate)
  • Charles Darwin was among the first pioneers of biological anthropology
  • Sir Edward Tylor and Sir James Frazer were early founders of the cultural anthropology

     ⤷ developed a model of cultural evolution, going from lower → higher forms overtime,

with lower (primitive) cultures having to catch up or die out.

  • Bronislaw Malinowski - established functionalism, meaning cultures work together to support the function of the whole
  • Franz Boas - introduced cultural relativism - no culture is "better”
  • Margaret Mead - one of Boas’ students, wrote on child rearing and gender roles that shaped U.S. families in the 1950s.
  • Post WWII, cultural anthropology grew, bringing about theoretical diversity
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss - French structuralism, the best way to understand a culture is to know its myths and stories.

     ⤷ inspired symbolic anthropology culture as a system of meanings.

  • Marxist Theory arose in the 60s, gave way to Cultural Materialism which emphasizes the material aspect of life including wealth and power.
  • The 60s also gave rise to Interpretive Anthropology, which says understanding a culture should focus on people’s thoughts and ideas, what’s important to them.

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