Intro to Anthropology Anthropos- human beings Subfields • Social=cultural anthropology • linguistics • biological=physical- study of the biological aspects of humans and their relatives within Primates Study of evolution and how it relates to the human sWe also discuss several other topics like phi2010 uf
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pecies. • archaeology- study of humans and their material culture. • Study of humans as a zoological species • biocultural • comparative • evolutionary • ecological- how we exist with other species and the things around us • holistic • scientific Molecular Anthropology (genetics) • Disease, Population movements, evolution • role between genotype and phenotype? • Genetic Differences between humans and other living primates. Primatology • The study of the anatomy behavior and genetics of extinct and extant monkeys apes and prosimians • Aids in the understanding of what makes us human, what changes of led to make us humans Skeletal Biology and Osteology • The study of the skeleton • Anatomy, growth and development, life history • What can a skeleton tell about an individuals activities health ancestry culture and environment. Human Biology • Generally adopt a biocultural approach • physiological adaptations to extreme environments • relationships of diet and culture and evolution paleoanthropology • the natural history of humankind( fossil record of humans and our primate ancestors ) • Who are we and how did we get here? • what is the nature of these relationships? Forensic Anthropolgy • Application of biological anthropology principles to problems of medico-legal significance • modern skeletons- unidentified ind. trauma analysis- cause of deeaths, aging and sexing methods, ancestry Intro to Anthropology Bioarchaeology • Study of human remains in archaeological context • what can human remains reveal about the social and cultural interactions of someone. Beginning of biological anthropology • developed out of early studies of natural history Search for universal laws in nature seek testable explanations for observed phenomena tells stories that can be disproven- no sacred truths 1) observe 2) predict 3) hypothesize 4) experiment 5) reproduce 5 reasons we use science its pragmatic, reliable, rational, objective, dynamic evolution is a concept to explain the uncontroversial observation that biological systems change over time. Evolution is only a theory because of how far back and the history needed. Micro evolution vs macro evolution whats a theory- a set of general principles that explain a body of facts by means of natural processes A theory is scientific only if it permits the articulation of hypotheses that can be empirically tested and falsified. Origins: where do we come from, how did we get here who has the answers: theology, literature, astronomy, anthropology Biology Before Darwin- Natural Philosophy before 1850 • Anthropocentric universe • static earth History • deep knowledge of the biosphere • domestication • anatomy/physiology • biogeography • fixity of species • Typology • There was not this ever changing pattern of what what happening now so couldn't understand what was happening in the past. What they saw is what they got and thats all they needed. The Idea of evolution Key to its origin • Theory does not emerge in a vacuum • changing view of the universe • geology and astronomy spur changing view of biology • simultaneous discovery by Wallace and Darwin. • Geology and Astronomy are essential to the changes we see in biology. Intro to Anthropology Historical Context of evolutionary thought • Astronomy • Geology • Taxonomy • Economics People Claudius Ptolemy (85-165) • Greek geographer and astronomer based in Egypt ( Alexandria) • Poster child for geocentric view of the world- earth is the middle and everything revolves around us. • Ptolemy’s Universe Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • Danish Astronomer • Discovers new star • Comets pass through planetary shells • explodes idea of static universe The Greeks • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E) • studied under plato • remarkable zoologist • classified organism in very broad groups— referred to as genes and species • formulated THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING Most significant at top of ladder and least at the bottom Typological Thinking • Notion of type or idea used to explain the world: origin of animal species • looking at things that are either this or that, black or white. • undercut towards the perfect type— hierarchal- probably not achievable unless you wee God • Dominated Western World- view prior to Darwin • Matter in the middle, and then plants, then animals, then humans than primum mobile (God, Angels) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) • pushed the boundary of this geocentric idea. Said it didn't meet what he was seeing in the sky. • polish mathematician, astronomer • Heliocentric notion that planets move around the Sun rather than the Earth • 1st intellectual upheaval in Western World • Copernicus Grave Mystery- found bones in a church but didn't know if it was his and then they did DNA test on it and it matched the hairs that were found in the books from his library. Still kept idea that there was the supernatural view of man kind but agreed there was some humanity in the solar system.Intro to Anthropology Science Vs Religion Pope Urban VIII and Galileo Galilei Religion • Informs discussions of morality, compassion, fairness and love. Science • Informs concepts of mechanistic processes of the Universe Magisterial- how religion and science provided info for the people at the time Both make claims about the place of the earth in the universe religion’s claims are based on texts and doctrine faith and belief Science claims are baed on empirical knowledge- empiricism- collect data and analyze it Observation and Natural Theory • Researchers like Vesalius, focused on “design”— learning anatomy to understand how the body works (how it functions) how can we better understand the design of the human body contrasted to animal body • Scientific research in divinity schools Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) • Father of Human Anatomy • De humani Corporus Fabrica (1543) • On the fabric of the human body (his book) Bishop Usher (1581-1656) • Irish Archbishop • 1650 publishes his calculated date of the creation of the world- 4004 BC • Oct. 23, 4004 BC @ 12:00 • They believed that the earth was only 2000 or so year olds at the time. He reenforced this by using then bible and it got footnoted into the bible James Hutton (1726-1797) Geologist • Theory of the Earth (his work) • Established concepts of deep time for Earth’s origins • Three Cycles • Erosion • deposition • uplift • believe that the way the rocks and the earth move could prove that the earth was old, not this young thing as believed before John Ray (1627-1705) • English Naturalist, philosopher, and theologian • in search of the natural system among living organisms- pre-linnaean taxonomy Intro to Anthropology • identified genus and species as distinct types (reproductive isolates) so some how an animal in one place is different from one in another area which is different than a tree, idea that they cross bred in the past. (reenforcing old earth) Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) • Known for book System Naturae 1735 tried classifying everything in the world • Founder of taxonomy • developed system of binomial nomenclature system • Swedish Botanist • Felt he was answering the call of arms to understand all of Gods creation. • This made him have the idea that species did not change over time- Fixity of Species • This now shows us evolutionary biology even though he didn't believe thats what he was doing • Binomial Nomenclature examples, Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris. always italicized or underlined. uppercase genus and lower case species name Charles Lyell (1797-1885) • Scottish Geologist • Principles of Geology (1830-1833) — 3 volumes - put forward the principle of uniformitarianism • uniformitarianism is the slow geological processes produced continuous changes in earth’s surface. • No need for supernatural catastrophes, it could all happen because of what we knew from geology Four Principles of Geology • Uniformity of Law- natural laws remain constant • Uniformity of Process- the present is the same as the past • Uniformity of rate- change is ongoing and slow rather than fast • Uniformity of state- things are constantly changing. Makes for a much more dynamic earth than one that is fixed over time. Erasmus Darwin (Charles’ grandfather) (1731-1802) • Leading Intellectual in the 18th century • Pondered evolution as well • two questions: are living animals descended from a common ancestor? and how might species be transformed? Jean-Baptiste Lamarch (1744-1829) • naturalist, evolutionist • zoological philosophy • natural process produces radical changes in living organisms • Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics • notion of vitalismIntro to Anthropology Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) • French Geologist • Father of vertebrate paleontology- interested in study the fossils of ancient life. • created the comparative method • extinction + fact, BUT Cuvier was an extreme anti-evolutionist • Catastrophism • believes in serious of extinctions. Supernatural forces would wipe everything off and then restart. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) • economist • essay on the principle of Population (1799) • Populations increase and outrun food supply • struggle for existence • war disease, starvation limit population size. What will keep population in check so it doesn't get too high. • He argued that human populations are constantly increasing in size and that over time human populations will outrun their food supply. There are sources that can support human population but if this gets to high then problems will occur. Going to be a struggle for existence. On the Origin of Species • 2nd Intellectual Upheaval (1859)… a mechanistic view of the origins of life and mankind based on observed facts and logical inference. • Darwinian Revolution 1859… led to a paradigm shift Chalres Darwin (1809-1882) • Grandson of Erasmus • Upper middle class, educated, intellectual • enrolled at Cambridge University • Studied Medicine, theology, natural history, botany, geology, zoology. • Sailed 1831-Oct. 1836 Father objected this because it was a wild scheme, that the accommodations would be uncomfortable, they offered to many before you, would mess up reputation, the expedition is dangerous. His Finches • collected from all over the islands, it wasn't until after he got back to Europe that the finches became so important • The finches all over were very similar, except for small variations, Common Descent? • They looked distinctly different from the mainland finches • observing finches back in England lead him to consider beak form • Mutations in all populations maintain variation, the environment presents challenges to successful reproduction, individuals with beneficial traits will reproduce more, heritable beneficial traits are more represented in the next generations trait variation and this just kepps repeating according to DarwinIntro to Anthropology Darwin in England • By 1844 Darwin has formulated his Theory on Natural Selection • Does not publish book until (pressed) in 1859 • He wanted/needed to collect more data • Proceeds to do a series of breeding experiments. • He became a pigeon fancier and wanted to demonstrate that all fancy pigeons were derived from the common rock dove Artificial Breeding- mainly with dogs, breeding what we want Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) • Scottish Naturalist • Biogeography of Animals • Collected Copious amounts of date on animals in South America, Southeast Asia, Australia • Integrated Malthusian principles led him to the idea of natural selection • Independently developed the idea of evolution by means of natural selection • corresponded with Darwin (his senior)- It really was Wallace who pushed Darwin to get it done but Darwin was the senior. He would give Darwin ideas and the Charles would read it and like it. Told him to do it now or someone else would • Wrote “On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species” Published in 1855 • On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart…” His other work Natural Selection July 1, 1858 A series of paper were read to the Linnaean Society of London including works by Darwin and Wallace and showed that they were on the same page. Natural Selection is not the random survival of individuals generation to generation, it is a nonrandom difference n reproductive success among individuals from generation to generation. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) Darwin’s Bulldog- wanted o fight and debate Comparative anatomist How extremely stupid not to have thought of that The Oxford Debate, 1860 Wilberforce- is it through your grandfather or grandmother that you claim your descent from a monkey” Huxley- “I am not ashamed to have a monkey for an ancestor, but I would be ashamed to be connected with a man used great gifts to obscure the truth. Homunculus- an old concept of genetic transmission homunculus in a sperm cell. • Pangenesis (Darwin’s notion of heredity) Darwin was cautious but questions remained. • How are traits inherited? • Why isn't Heredity perfect? • Darwin never knew what a gene was.. • Hypothesis of “Pangenesis” Developed as a hypothetical mechanism of heredity.Intro to Anthropology • 1868. published The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. • Admits he does not know but feels he has to put the idea out there but knew he didn't have the data or tools to solve these questions • The Descent of Man and selection in relation to sex.