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GSU / Engineering / POLS 1101 / define marble cake federalism

define marble cake federalism

define marble cake federalism

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School: Georgia State University
Department: Engineering
Course: American Government
Professor: Larry stewart
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: POlS 1101
Description: Study guide exam 2
Uploaded: 01/13/2017
21 Pages 258 Views 3 Unlocks
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Why has it been important for the development of federalism over time?




What is judicial review?




What makes a federal system, like that of the United States, different from a confederate and unitary national government?



II. Federalism (Chapter 5) A. What makes a federal system, like that of the United States, different from a confederate and unitary national government? Unitary national government: a country with supreme central government that either is the oDon't forget about the age old question of hy 103
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nly government or does not share sovereign authority with lower governments B. What is judicial review? Why has it been important for the development of federalism over time?  Judicial Review: Authority of courts to decide whether an act of government is constitutional or  unconstitutional.The power of judicial review refers to the authority of courts to decide whether acts of government are constitutional or unconstitutional.When the U.S. Supreme Court declares a government action or law unconstitutional, all lower courts and government officials in the country (both federal and state) are understood to have a duty to abide by that ruling. C. Make sure to understand how the Article VI Supremacy Clause and Tenth Amendment help to define American federalism. Supremacy Clause­ All federal laws are the laws of the land. Tenth   amendment­ The federal government is limited to two powers (which are below) which are delegated to it by the U.S constitution. a. The U.S. Constitution “delegates” powers to the federal government in two ways: through enumerated powers ­Specific legislative powers explicitly granted to Congress.   and implied   powers­  not   specifically   granted,   but   implied   by   letter,   and   spirit   of constitution          Where in the Constitution are most of Congress’ enumerated powers listed? Most enumerated   powers   and   implied   powers   are   listed   in   Article   I, Section 8 of the constitution. What is the Necessary and Proper Clause? A clause that grants congress authority to make all laws   which can be necessary for carrying to execution, all other powers granted by constitution. This clause grants congress many implied powers. What   are   “amendment­enforcing   provisions”?  Provisions   of   6   amendments   that   grant congress  authority to enforce the rights guaranteed by those amendments.How are they sources of implied powers? Power not explicitly granted to congress, moreso implied  by the letter, and spirit of the text of the constitution. b. What are “reserved powers”? Areas of public policy over which only state government have authority D.   What is meant by “the police power”? ­ (HINT: It is not about police officers.) ­ Authority of government to make laws and regulations in order to promote the health, safety, welfare, and morals of the people. In the United States, it is understood that the police power is reserved to the states governments. What does it have to do with the constitutional law of American federalism? ­ The federal government only has the authority delegated to it by the constitution  Are there any constitutional limits on the police power of the state governments? ­ No, the states may to whatever they choose to promote the health, safety, welfare, and morals or the people E. What advantages of forming unions (like the European Union or the U.S. union) are pointed to by pro­unionists? ­ The problem with disunion is that it makes it more difficult for governments to resolve conflicts   peacefully.   When   governments   are   united   they   relate   to   each   other   through political   &   legal   processes.   Unions   also   make   it   easier   to   create   beneficial   economic arrangements, immigration policies, & environmental pollution controls What disadvantages do anti­unionists (e.g., secessionists) point to? ­ Opponents of unions emphasize the loss of autonomy & self determination F. Make sure to understand the five kinds of arguments (discussed in the textbook) made in favor of greater national government power and the four kinds of arguments made in favor of less national government power. GREATER national government ( less state government ) 1. Preserving the union ○Follows a strong national government and weak subordinate states 2. Creating uniformity○ If a business was seeking to expand beyond a single state, it’ll benefit if regulatory standards are the same state to state 3. Providing national public goods ○ Able to create incentives to lead “would be free riders” to contribute to the provision of public goods 4. Protecting minority rights ○ Civil rights of african americans 5. Preventing “races to the bottom” ○ “Race to the bottom”: competition between states leads them to enact socially suboptimal regulations in order to attract business investment LESS national government ( greater state government ) 1.Protecting liberty ○ If power were to be centralized in the national government, the government would become highly oppressive 2.Accommodating diverse values and interests ○Police power: promotes the “welfare” or “morals” of the people i. Reserved to the states 3.Policy experimentation (“laboratories of democracy”) ○Scientific knowledge 4.Fostering democratic citizenship ○ Increases   the   number   of   opportunities   for   citizens   to   participate   in democratic   government   and   thereby   develop   the   traits   essential   for democratic citizenship G. Generally   speaking,   has   the   power   and   authority   of   the   national   government   increased   or decreased over time? ­increased H. What impact (if any) did each of the following have on the development of federalism?: a. The   Supreme   Court’s   doctrine   that   the   regulation   of   economic   production   is   a   power reserved exclusively to the states. b. 16th , 17th , 18th , and 19th  Amendments 16th Amendment is an amendment that gives Congress the power to collect taxes.17th ­ direct election of senators 18th  amendment stopped  the sale and  drinking of alcohol in  the United States. This amendment took effect in 1919 and failed.   19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. I. In 1937, in upholding New Deal programs, the Supreme Court offered a revolutionary new interpretation  of the Constitution,  which  had the  effect  of granting  the federal government extensive authority to regulate the economy and enact the modern welfare state. Make sure to know and understand …. a. what is “the substantial effects doctrine”? ­ Substantial effects doctrine states that the federal government may regulate any economic activity that has a substantial effect on interstate commerce how it replaced the older way of interpreting the Commerce Clause? ­ Created a massive increase in the federal government's authority to regulate the economy why this matters for the federal government’s authority to regulate the economy; ­ The federal government can now regulate wages, the rights of workers to unionize, & the safety of working conditions b. how the Court interpreted the spending clause—which says Congress has power to tax and spend “to promote the general welfare”—in such a way as to allow for Social Security and other welfare state programs; and They limited powers c. how liberals, conservatives, and libertarians agree and disagree over the legacy and value of  the   New   Deal   with   respect   to  the   development   of  the   federal   government’s   power   and authority. ­ Some conservatives think parts of the new deal might have been necessary but that it put the federal government on a long­term path to growing out of control. Libertarians think that the new deal was unnecessary, ineffective, improper, & harmful. Liberals have thought the Court during FDR’s first term was on the wrong side of history. J. Federal government spending spiked to very high levels during World War II. After plummeting immediately after the war, it went back up (although not to World War II­levels). What two factors does the textbook point to as reasons for the continued high levels of federal government spending after World War II?­ 1. The world war immediately morphed into the cold war which led both republicans and democrats to support an active federal government role in assuring military, technology, and economic supremacy over the Soviet Union ­ 2. LBJ’s “great society” initiatives ie. promoting war on poverty, improving education & medical care. Etc. K. What is meant by “cooperative federalism”? ­ Form of federalism, sometimes called Marble Cake Federalism, in which federal and state  governments cooperate and their roles and functions are intermingled. Why is it referred to as “marble cake federalism”? – Conceives of federalism as a marble cake in which all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs How does it differ from “dual federalism” (AKA layer “layer cake federalism”)?rather than a layer cake, or  dual federalism, with fixed divisions between layers or levels of government. a. What are “categorical grants”? ­ A categorical grant  is a type of federal grant­in­aid that provides relatively strict   and   specific   guidelines   on   how   the   state   or   local   government receiving the money must spend it. How do they differ from the other major kind of grant­in­aid (i.e., “block grants”)? ­ By accepting these funds, states allowed the federal government to define and oversee implementation of many aspects of public policy that had previously been carried­out with little or no federal government involvement. This includes policies   aimed   at   urban   development,   education,   and   preserving   the environment. b. What does it mean to say that the increased use of categorical grants during LBJ’s administration led American federalism to move further from dual federalism and more toward cooperative federalism? ­ Cooperative federalism­ This increased intermingling of federal and state functions—with the federal government using categorical grants to induce states to implement national policy priorities in areas that   had   previously   been   handled   solely   by   the   states—gave   American   federalism   a distinctive new form. This new form is often called “cooperative federalism ,” which replaced the older form of federalism that is called  “dual federalism .” L.    Generally speaking, what did civil liberties and civil rights have to do with an increase in the federal government’s influence over state government’s during the 1950 and 1960s? ­      The second major development in this period affecting the relationship between the federal government and the states had to do with topics we will discuss in greater detail in future chapters: civil liberties  and  civil rights . ­ Both major Supreme Court decisions and major congressional legislation during this   period led toward a much greater federal government role in protecting (1) the rights of individuals from state government abuse and (2) historically oppressed groups— especially African Americans—from various forms of discrimination by state governments and private businesses. M. Libertarians and conservatives were strong critics of many aspects of LBJ’s Great Society programs. Why did they think the federal government’s activities during this period was better described as “coercive federalism” than “cooperative federalism”? ­ conservatives and libertarians to be more like “coercive federalism”—that is, a situation in which the federal government dictated policy to the states instead of working as a co­equal partner alongside them. Of particular concern was the fact that many federal regulatory requirements did not provide the funds necessary for the states to meet the requirements. State government officials, as well as conservatives and libertarians, began to complain about these so­called “unfunded mandates.” What did this critique have to do with “unfunded mandates”?­ State government officials, as well as conservatives and libertarians, began to complain about these so­called (unfunded mandates­  Federal regulatory or spending requirements placed on states, that states need to pay for with their own funds) Additionally, many conservatives,   especially   in   the   South,   opposed   the   federal   government’s   newfound commitment   to   securing   civil   liberties   and   civil   rights   against   state   government infringement in the 1950s and 1960s. N. The textbook points to two ways that President Ronald Reagan sought to “curb the size and influence” of the federal government. According to the textbook, which of these efforts was somewhat successful and which was unsuccessful? Reagan did reduce the spending on federal gov’t grants­in­aid to state and local gov’ts, however his tax cuts did not lead to reduced spending like he’d hoped.  The tax cuts reduced revenue to the Fed. gov’t, but spending increased (increase in military spending to defeat the Soviet Union in the cold war). a. Why, after three decades of decline, did the national debt double during the 1980s? Because of Reagan’s endorsements, increasing military spending, and it was easy for the fed, gov’t to borrow money to pay for spending programs, even when those programs weren’t being paid for by tax receipts. O. Working with Republicans in Congress, what did President Bill Clinton do to “welfare” (also known as AFDC) in order to devolve greater authority for that program back to the states? ­ Clinton worked with Republicans to convert categorical grants related to welfare, job training, and transportation into block grants. Of these conversions, the most important was that of AFCD (i.e., “welfare”). Clinton with congressional Republicans, consistent with a   promise   from   the   Contract   with   America,   converted   the   AFCD   categorical   grant program into a new block grant program called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Was it he or the Democrats in Congress who opposed doing the same with Medicaid? President Client opposedP. What modification to the “Substantial Effects Doctrine” did the U.S. Supreme Court offer in U.S. v. Lopez (1995)? ­     IN A LANDMARK CASE IN 1995 CALLED          U.S. V. LOPEZ ,   THE COURT ESTABLISHED A LIMIT ON THE SUBSTANTIAL EFFECTS DOCTRINE. ­ During   this   period,   the   Court   also,   for   the   first   time   since   1936,   declared   limits   on Congress’ authority to regulate society under the Commerce Clause .   As   we   have   seen,   ever since 1937, the Court has operated from what we now call the “substantial effects  doctrine,” which says Congress, under the authority of the Commerce Clause, may regulate activities  that (in  Congress’ judgment) have a substantial effect  on  interstate commerce. Did this mean the Supreme Court returned to the pre­1937 interpretation of the Commerce Clause? ­ No Q. Between 1968 and 2000, a  great deal of effort  was  put  into reducing the  size and influence   of   the   federal   government   by   President   Nixon,   President   Reagan,   Congressional Republicans, and President Bill Clinton. According to the textbook, were these efforts generally successful or unsuccessful (as measured by the number of non­military personnel employed by the federal government, the number of pages in the Code of Federal Regulations, and the amount of money given by the federal government to state governments)? ­ Although the total number of persons employed by the federal government is about 20% lower today than in 1980, that is entirely due to reductions in military personnel that began in the early 1990s when the Cold War came to an end. ­ The amount of regulatory activity by federal agencies has continued to increase since the mid­1960s. ­ The size and influence of the federal government has continued to grow is based on the amount of money it sends to the states in the form of grants­in­aid.R. Make sure to understand what is meant by the claim that, at least since the beginning of the 21st century, there neither party is committed to “principled federalism.” ­ A   preference   for   a   particular   allocation   of   authority   between   the   national   and   state governments that one consistently adheres to. For example, a principled commitment to "states' rights" would lead one to favor state authority even when one expects most states to enact policies one strongly disapproves of. S. According   to   the   textbook   since   the   beginning   of   the   21st   century,   what   two concerns seem to have contributed to an enduring increase in the federal government’s size and power? ­ The rising cost of health care ­ The threat of terrorism T. According to the textbook, looking ahead to the future of federalism, why are population aging and the rising costs of healthcare increasingly putting pressure toward greater federal government spending?  Unless something is changed, the national debt will continue to grow? How are Republicans and Democrats currently differing in their approaches to this challenge? ­ The aging population and rising cost of healthcare are projected to contribute to growth in federal government spending on social insurance programs­ especially Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security. ­ National debt will continue to grow ­ Republicans­ in general are often said to be proponents of state rights, and a smaller and less powerful federal government, except  when it comes to national security. Democrats would like to see an expansion of government. Chapter 12: Congress ∙ What is an incumbent? o Current Office holder ∙ What are some of the advantages to being an incumbent in Congress? What are some of the pitfalls of incumbency? o Advantages: Promotes   his   or   her   reelection   prospects   by   catering   to   the constituency: the people residing in the incumbent’s state or district.  Raising campaign funds.  Redistricting; have final electoral advantage o Pitfalls  Disruptive Issues  Personal Misconduct  Turnout Variation: The midterm Election Problem  Primary Election Challengers – widening ideological gap between the parties has made primary elections a riskier time for incumbents with moderate views  General Election Challengers: A problem for Senators o Which   group   raises   and   spends   more   money   on   average,   incumbents   or challengers?  Incumbents ∙ Be   sure   to   be   able   to   define   and   understand   the   following   terms:   reapportionment, redistricting, and gerrymandering. o Reapportionment: the reallocation of House seats among states after each census as a result of population changes. o Redistricting: the process of altering election districts in order to make them as nearly equal in population as possible. Takes place every ten years, after each population census o Gerrymandering: the process by which the party in power draws election district boundaries in a way that advantages its candidates. ∙ When should turnout be higher, in a midterm or presidential election year? o Presidential ∙ According to the book, has party unity in Congress gone up or down since 1970? o Gone up ∙ What are the different leadership positions in Congress (for example: House Majority Leader)? o House Leaders and Senate Leaders o What are the roles played by party leaders?  House Leaders: person presiding over by a Speaker, elected by the vote of its members. ∙ Developing the parties positions on issues and in persuading party members in the House to support them. ∙ Formal powers: right to speak first during House debate on legislation   and   power   to   recognize   members   (grant   them permission to speak from the floor).∙ Chooses the chairperson and the majority­party members of the powerful House Rules Committee (controls the scheduling of bills). ∙ Assigns   Bills   to   Committees   and   assigns   members   to conference commitees  Senate Leaders: ∙ Formulates   the   majority   party’s   legislative   agenda   and encourages party members to support it ∙ Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the chamber ∙ What is the role of standing committees? o Permanent congressional committee that is responsible for a particular area of   public   policy.   Can   draft   and   rewrite   proposed   legislation   and   can recommend to the full chamber the passage or defeat of the bills it handles. ∙ What   is   the   difference   between   a   standing   committee,   a   joint   committee,   a   select committee, and a conference committee?  Be sure to know at least one example of each. o Standing   Committee:     Permenant   congressional   committees   with responsibility for a particular area of public policy.  Ex. Senate Foreign Relations Committee o Joint   Committee:   composed   of   members   of   both   houses,   which   perform advisory functions  Ex. Joint Committee on the Library; oversees the Library of Congress o Select Committee: created for a specific time period and purpose  Ex. CIA o Conference Committee: temporary committees that are form to bargain over the differences in the House and Senate versions of a bill. The committee’s members   are   usually   appointed   from   the   House   and   Senate   standing committees that originally worked on the bill.  Ex.   Appointed   leads   from   each   party   side   to   discuss   differences between house and senate ∙ Which party has more seats on a committee, the majority or minority? o Majority ∙ What is the difference between a bill and a law? o Bill: a proposed legislative act. A proposed law with congress. o Law: a voted bill that passes congresss, senate, and with president signature, or if the president veto’s, congress can override the veto and mae a bill a law without presidents’ signature. o Be sure to know the steps before a bill can become a law.o What happens if the president vetoes legislation?  If the president rejects the bill through use of the veto, the bill is sent back   to   Congress   with   the   president’s   reasons   for   not   signing   it.Congress can override a veto by a two­thirds vote of each chamber; the bill then becomes law without the president’s signature. A bill also becomes law if  Congress is in session and the president fails to sign or veto the bill within 10 days (Sundays excepted). However if Congress has concluded its term and the president fails to sign in a bill within ten days the bill does not become law. ∙ What is a filibuster?  Which chamber allows for a filibuster of legislation? How many votes are needed to end a filibuster? o Filibuster: a procedural tactic in the U.S. Senate whereby a minority of Senators prevents a bill from coming to a vote by holding the floor and talking   until   the   majority   gives   in   and   the   bill   is   withdrawn   from consideration o Senate o three­fifths ∙ What are the three major functions of Congress discussed in the textbook?  Be sure to be able to describe each of them. o The first and most major function of Congress is to enact legislation. The role it plays in developing legislation depends on the type of policy involved.  Because of its divided chambers and committee structure, as well as the concern of its members with state and district interests, Congress, through its party leaders and caucuses, only occasionally takes the lead on broad national issues. Congress instead typically looks to the president for this leadership. Nevertheless, presidential initiatives are passed by Congress only if they meet its members’ expectations and usually only after a lengthy process of compromise and negotiation.  Congress   is   more   adept   at   handling   legislation   that   deals   with problems of narrow interest. Legislation of this sort is decided mainly in   congressional   committees,   where   interested   legislators, bureaucrats, and groups concentrate their efforts on issues of mutual concern. o A second function of Congress is the representation of various interests.  Members of Congress are highly sensitive to the state or district on which they depend for reelection. They do respond to overriding national interests, but for most of them local  concerns  generally come first.  National   or   local   representation   often   operates   through   party representation, particularly on issues that divide the Democratic andRepublican   parties   and   their   constituent   groups,   which   is increasingly the case. o Congress’s third function is oversight—the supervision and investigation of the way the bureaucracy is implementing legislatively mandated programs. Although   oversight   is   a   difficult   process,   it   is   an   important   means   of legislative control over the actions of the executive branch. ∙ What is logrolling? o The practice of trading one’s votes with another member’s so that both get what they want. ∙ What   are   the   differences   (discussed   in   the   textbook)   between   Congress   and   other legislatures around the world? o The U.S. Congress is fragmented in other ways as well: it has elected leaders with   limited   formal   powers,   a   network   of   relatively   independent   and powerful committees, and members who are free to follow or ignore other members of their party. It is not uncommon for a fourth or more of a party’s legislators  to vote against their party’s position  on  legislatures issues. In contrast,   European   legislatures   have   a   centralized   power   structure.   Top leaders here substantial authority, the committees are weak, and the parties are unified. European legislators are expected to support their party unless granted permission to vote otherwise on a particular bill. Chapter 13: The Presidency ∙ What are the different roles of the president?  Be sure to know the differences between them. o Head of State: symbolic representative of the country in the eyes of the world o Chief Executive: responsible for running the massive federal bureaucracy o Crisis Manager: act quickly and effectively when events around the world dictate American response o Commander­in­Chief: leader of armed forces o Chief Diplomat and Chief Foreign Policy Maker o Chief Legislator: set legislative agenda; o Party Leader: symbolic leader of his political party ∙ Which part of the Constitution establishes the two­term limit for presidents? o 22nd Amendment ∙ Who is the only president who served for more than two terms? o Franklin D. Roosevelt (4 terms) ∙ What is the process to remove a president from office? o Impeachment ∙ Which presidents have been successfully impeached?o Andrew Johnson o Bill Clinton ∙ Were those presidents removed from office? o NO ∙ Where in the Constitution are the powers of the president located? o Article II ∙ What are the powers of the president? o Power to Veto Legislation/ Powers to Limit Congress o Presidential War Powers o Powers of Appointment and Removal o Power to Grant Pardons o Executive Privilege o Power to Make Foreign Policy o Domestic Power during war time. ∙ What are the different options for a president when legislation is sitting at his or her desk? o Sign the bill into law o Veto the bill, which can be overridden by a two­thirds majority of both chambers of congress o Neither sign nor veto the bill, thus allowing it to become a law automatically after ten days ∙ What is a veto override? o Presidents’   veto   can   be   overturned   with   2/3   majority   votes   from   both chambers of Congress ∙ What is a line item veto? o A veto that only rejects part of a proposed bill. Congress attempted to allow presidents   to   employ   a line­item   veto in   the   1990s,   but   this   effort   was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Thus, presidents currently do not have line­item veto power. o Is it still used commonly today?  No ∙ What is a pocket veto? o A quasi­veto that results when the President does not sign a bill and then Congress adjourns fewer than ten days after the bill was presented to him or her. ∙ What is executive privilege? o a right to withhold information from Congress and the courts ∙ Is executive privilege limitless? o No ∙ What is the difference between a treaty and an executive agreement?o Treaty: an agreement between two or more nations, in which they promise to behave in specified ways. Require approval from Senate. o Executive Agreement: a non­binding agreement between two heads of state in which the president does not need approval from Senate. ∙ Which is harder to put into effect for a president? o Executive Agreement ∙ Which branch of the government has the power to declare war? o Legislative Branch (double check) ∙ What are the three main sources of staff assistance to the president? o White house staff o Executive Office of the President o The Cabinet ∙ Who is generally considered the president’s closest advisor? o Chief of Staff ∙ What are the different functions of the president’s cabinet? o Advising the president on any subject he may require relating to the duties of each members respective office. Advisory Duties. o Lead their departments, creating policies, managing program o Succesors to president if incapacitated in any way o Secretaries of the executive departments (State, labor, Defense, Education, etc..) ∙ What is the “honeymoon period” for presidents? o The timing of a new proposal is extremely important for a president. Even a president who enjoys congressional majorities realizes that a mandate does not last for long. A president must “move it or lose it” in trying to use the mandate to push legislation through Congress in the first hundred days, sometimes referred to as the honeymoon period. o When is a president most likely to pass legislation and influence major policy changes? Chapter 14: Judiciary ∙ What did Hamilton mean when he called the judiciary the “least dangerous branch”? o because it would have “no influence over either the sword or the purse; no direction of the strength or of the wealth of a society; and can take no active resolution whatever.” In Hamilton’s view, the judicial branch “may be truly said to have neither force nor will, but merely judgment.”1 o Who controls the “sword” and the “purse”? Sword – Executive branch  Purse ­ Legislative ∙ Be sure to explain the facts behind  Murbury v. Madison  and why it is important to judicial review. o Marbury   v.   Madison,   5   U.S.   137,   was   a   U.S.   Supreme   Court   case   that established   the   precedent   of   judicial   review.   This   judicial   review   power allows the Supreme Court to invalidate or declare unconstitutional actions or laws created by levels of government. The case surrounds the question of whether or not William Marbury’s right to a commission is valid and if he is due a mandamus from the court. The decision of the court also called into question the Judiciary Act of 1789 and if the constitution was superior or not. Given the supremacy clause, the constitution was deemed the supreme law and Marbury’s commission was denied and the case was discharged. o What is judicial review?  Authority of the courts to decide if an act of the government are constitutional or unconstitutional. ∙ Who is the plaintiff in a case? o A party filing a complaint alleging wrongdoing on the part of the defendant ∙ Who is the defendant? o a party to the case who is either sued or accused in court ∙ What are the different types of cases? o Civil Case begins when a plaintiff brings a lawsuit, usually seeking monetary damages for an injury that occurred as a result of the defendant’s actions o Criminal Case: a legal suit initiated by the government in prosecuting an individual for allegedly committing a crime. The losing party in a criminal case can be sentence to prison or death. ∙ What is jurisdiction? o The authority of a court to hear and decide a case. ∙ What is standing? o A   requirement   for   a   court   to   hear   a   case   in   which   a   party   must   have suffered , or will soon suffer an injury o Be sure to understand the “case or controversy principle”  A  principle  of jurisdiction  that there  must be some conflict  for a federal court to hear and decide a case. ∙ What is a political question?  Why doesn’t the judiciary answer political questions? o Doctrine of Political Questions: cases may be dismissed if the issues they present are regarded as extremely “political” in nature o Those issues are likely to draw the courts into a political battle with the executive or legislative branch or are simply more amenable to executive or legislative decision making ∙ What is stare decisis?  What role does it play?o Stare   Decisis:   literal   interpretation   is   “stand   by   decided   matters”   which states   that   under   similar   facts,   the   court   should   follow   the   precedent established by other (and higher) courts. o A precedent is an authoritative rule established by a court in an earlier case that   guides   future   decisions   in   relevantly   similar   cases.   A   long standing tradition   in   American   courts   of   law   stipulates   that   they   should follow precedent whenever possible, thus maintaining stability and continuity in the law. Justice Louis Brandeis once remarked, “Stare decisis is usually the wise policy, because in most matters it is more important that the applicable rule of law be settled than that it be settled right.” ∙ Which  article  of the  Constitution  establishes   the  constitutional  basics   of the  federal judiciary? o Article III o What does that article say about the Supreme Court?  Lower Courts?  the judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” o What protections are given to federal judges?  The Chase affair set an important precedent: a federal judge may not be   removed   simply   for   reasons   of   partisanship,   ideology,   or personality. ∙ What is the basic hierarchy of the federal judiciary? o U.S. Supreme Court o U.S. District Courts o U.S. Court of Appeals o Specialized Federal Tribunal ∙ What is the process for nominating and confirming a federal judge? o Yet, given the numbers of federal judges to be appointed in a typical term, presidents have to rely heavily on others to locate nominees. Lower federal court appointments are heavily influenced by patronage, although ideology and, increasingly, race and gender considerations play a role in the selection process. Under the custom known as senatorial courtesy, senators from the president’s   party   have   traditionally   exercised   significant   influence   in   the selection   of   judges   for   the   district   courts   within   their   states. Senatorial courtesy has   been   less   important  in   the  nomination   of  individuals   to  the courts of appeals and almost irrelevant in the selection of Supreme Court nominees. o What role does the Senate play?  Under the Constitution, the Senate must give its “advice and consent” to presidential nominations to the federal courts. The confirmation process begins in the Senate Judiciary Committee, which conducts abackground   investigation   and   then   holds   a   public   hearing   on   the nomination.   During   the   hearing,   the   nominee   appears   before   the committee to answer questions. Other individuals, often representing interest groups with a perceived stake in the appointment, testify in favor of or in opposition to confirmation. At the conclusion of the hearing, the Judiciary Committee votes on a recommendation to the full   Senate.   The   Senate   almost   always   follows   the   committee’s recommendation. o What is senatorial courtesy?  An informal process in the appointment process of a federal judge where   the   senators   from   the   president’s   party   seeks   to   exert significant influence on the selection of a judicial candidate in their state. Generally, if the senator is unhappy with the candidates, the Senate   will   reject   the   nomination   or   at   least   put   a   hold   on   the confirmation. ∙ How can a federal judge be removed? o The only means of removing a federal judge or Supreme Court justice is through the impeachment process provided in the Constitution. First, the House of Representatives must approve one or more articles of impeachment by at least a majority vote. Then, a trial is held in the Senate. To be removed from office, a judge must be convicted by a vote of at least two­thirds of the Senate. ∙ What are the steps of a case before the Supreme Court (starting with a writ of certiorari ending with opinions)?∙ What are the differences between judicial activism and judicial restraint? o Judicial Activism: a way in which to view the philosophy of a justice in which activists are seen to be more likely to support the expansion of the Supreme Court’s   Jurisdiction   and   powers   as   well   we   to   embrace   innovative constitutional doctrines. o Judicial Restraint: a way in which to view the philosophy of a justice in which they prefer a showing of restraint by the Supreme Court in letting the political branches to decide most questions and to follow precedent more strictly. ∙ What are the different constraints on the judiciary? o Constitutional Amendment:  most effective means of overruling a Supreme Court  or  any  federal   court  decision  is  for   Congress   to  use   its   power  of amendment. o The   Appointment   Power:  The   shared   presidential–senatorial   power   of appointing federal judges is an important means of influencing the judiciary ∙ How do the courts enforce their decisions? o Contempt of Court: a mechanism of enforcement available to the judicial branch in which a court may issue if a party fails to comply with a court order.

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