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What is a spyware?

What is a spyware?


School: University of Florida
Department: Mass Media Communication
Course: Mass Media and You
Professor: Andrea billups
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: massmedia, Lecture, notes, and journalism
Cost: 25
Name: Mass Media & You Lecture Notes
Description: Lecture notes for the entire semester of MMC 2604/Mass Media & You
Uploaded: 01/13/2017
34 Pages 194 Views 0 Unlocks

Where is public opinion before a race really begins?

Appropriateness: What should be online?

- half the material comes from the book, & the other half comes from the lectures What is Mass Media?

8/23 TO REACH THE PROFESSOR:  - sfo@ufl.edu - 352-846-3903 - 101 Tigert Hall  - Office hours: Wednesdays 2-3 pm (call or e-mail first)  READ:  - the syllabus  - the textbook media & culture: mass communication in a digital age  - Any articles  EXAMS:  - two exams Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four goals of psychological research?
If you want to learn more check out What pertains to a system of beliefs and knowledge shared by members of a group or society that influences behaviors and attitude?
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If you want to learn more check out What is an evolutionary modification that improves chances of survival and reproductive success in a given environment?
We also discuss several other topics like nonmediated theatre
We also discuss several other topics like math 116 university of arizona
 - 50 questions each  - true/false, multiple choice - half the material comes from the book, & the other half comes from the lectures  What is Mass Media?  Mass Media - A medium of communication such as newspapers, television, or radio, that is  designed to reach the mass of the people.  examples of mass media:  - newspapers & magazines - gaming  - tv  - radio  - music  - movies - public relations - social media  News - information about new things that are happening in the world  Social Media -  Advertising - what companies do to have the public buy their products  8/25  Tests - pay attention to concepts, facts, dates, big ticket issues in the chapters Gatekeeper - people who decided which stories go to the top of the fold and the bottom of the  fold, and which stories go on the inside of the paper. Selective Exposure - Where people typically seek messages that correspond with their  personal beliefs, views, and interests.  Image makers - people that are deciding for you, with messaging, how you perceive the  candidate  Big pools of data decides messaging  you have a responsibility to find credible information that fits you, your beliefs, interests, etc  Media literacy - Understanding where messages come from, understand whether or not they’re  credible  Our media is owned by people who do other things. Ex: Owner of Washington Post also runs  Amazon  In our era, there is no filter on news. Most people can express their own opinions without any  pre-meditation. Quite useful but also incredibly dangerous. The “digital era” has changed  messaging & perception  8/30  The Internet, Digital Media and Media Convergence  1946: ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The computer is born. It had  3000 switches and that’s how you programmed the computers. Six women worked on the  ENIAC. Tigert Hall @ UF was the first building to have a computer.  1969: ARPAnet - Advanced Research Projects Agency network - the Internet is born.  1970s: e-mail (& bad taste) was born.  1976: The personal computer is born thanks to Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak. 1989: The World Wide Web is born due to Tim Berners-Lee.  Early 1990s: Convergence begins. Convergence is when an array of media - text, photos,  audio, and video - converge in one place, the Internet, are easily shared.  1994: Text messaging (SMS) is invented.  1995: Amazon - Online retail is born.  1998: Google is launched.  2002: Friendster - the first Social Media site. Launched by Jonathan Abrams. Function is very  similar to Facebook. 2004: Facebook is launched by Mark Zuckerberg. It now has 1.71 billion users.  2005: Youtube is launched - the viral video is born.  2006: Twitter is launched.  2007: iPhone is launched - the smart phone is born. It’s mainly used for text messaging, taking  photos, using the internet, emailing, etc.  2009: The selfie is created - bad taste is re-born.  2010: Instagram is created. 09/06  Guest Speaker: In charge of the Athletic Association social media, Bruce Floyd  - People in our demographic are getting news from social media than other news source.  His Personal account vs Professional account  Personal:  - Not hearing an onslaught of “you suck”  - Can make typos without receiving any negative feedback  - Can be more spontaneous and reactive, conversational  - Don’t get paid to tweet for personal account  Professional:  - A lot more followers than personal  - Way more passion - also deal with a lot of passion from fans/opposing team/etc  - Receive a lot of negativity/more scrutiny  - Have to be appropriate and aware of your posts  - You have access to a lot more info, insights, analytics. Use that data for insights on the posts  - how many people it reached, how well it was received, etc. Must generate traffic towards  their main website (floridagators.com)  - typically around 10% of your followers see your tweets.  - Primary goal is selling seats for events  09/08 The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence  *Media Convergence  - In less than 15 years, we have moved from a world in which each type of media was  consumed separately and its its own distinct format to a world in which we can experience  every form of mass media.  - Digital transactions: People can use their smartphones to conduct monetary transactions. The  goal is to eliminate credit card companies & their high fees. - The internet: The vast network of telephone & cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite  systems designed to link and carry uno worldwide, was initially described as an information  super highway  The Development of the Internet & the Web (ch 2)  The Birth of the Internet - Born in the 1960s - Created as a military communications network - Created a wire network so users could log on from multiple locations whenever they needed  to - ARPAnet: Enabled military & academic researches to communicate on a distributed network  system  - Packet switching broke down messages/information into smaller pieces which would be  reassembled at the other end  - One of the most hierarchically structure & centrally organized institutions (military) created the  internet, possibly one of the least hierarchical and most decentralized network ever conceived  - Every computer user has a equal status  - Nobody can be kicked off  - Nobody has a power switch  The Net Widens  - 1970s & 1980s  - Microprocessors are invented that allow people to have personal computers - 1986 NSFNET allows university research computers around the country to be linked, as well  as allow home users to become investor in the internet  - Fiber-optic cable makes information transmission much faster and basically unlimited  information can be transferred  The Commercialization of the Internet  - Mosaic & Netscape were the first browsers - The World Wide Web was the internet available to everyone - The internet quickly became commercialized, leading corporations vying for the most users.  The World begins to Browse  - Tim Berners-Lee at the CERN particle physics lab in Switzerland develops the World Wide  Web in order to help scientists better collaborate  - WWW was originally a data-linking system that allowed computer-accessed information to  link to other information no matter where it was on the internet (this is known as hypertext)  - HTML is the written code language that creates web pages & links  - The Web and HTML allow information to be organized in an easy-to-use, nonlinear way  - Web browsers are software packages that help users navigate the web  - Mosaic and then Netscape were the first browsers (1993-94)  - Microsoft released Internet Explorer in 1995  - IE was brilliantly bundled with other Microsoft products, quickly making it the most-used  browser  Users Link in through Telephone & Cable Wires  - AOL was the top ISP (internet service provider) - As broadband became more accessible, people moved away from phone-line access - In the US there is little competition in the broadband market  - Only 9 percent of Americans have access to 3 or more ISPs  - Compared to other internet countries, American users pay more money for lower speeds  People Embrace Digital Communication  - Digital Communication: An image, text, or sound is converted into electronic signals  represented by binary numbers, which are then reassembled as a precise reproduction.  - Email was one of the first popular use of the internet  - People used to use the email address associated with their ISP (@bellsouth.net, @cox.net)  Search Engines that Organize the Web  - In 1994 the web had only about 22,000 sites  - Yahoo! was the dominant web browser.  - Search engines allowed users to enter keywords to search.  - In 2014, Google said in indexed 60 trillion web pages, up from 1 billion in 2000  The Web Goes Social  Social Media  - Social media: New digital media platforms that engage users to create content, add  comments, and interact with others - Social media have also become a new distribution system for media as well, challenging the  one-to-many model of traditional mass media with the many-to-many model of social media  Blogs - Years before status updates, blogs enabled people to easily post their ideas to a Web site  - Blogs contain articles or posts in chronological, journal-like form, often with readers  comments and links to other sites (Blogger, Word Press, Tumblr, etc)  - Most popular form of blogging now is microblogging (Twitter)  Collaborative projects - Wiki Web Sites: Enable everyone to edit & contribute them (ex: Wikipedia & Wikileaks)  Content Communities - Content Communities: Exist for the sharing of all types of content, from text, to photos &  videos (ex: Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Vine, etc)  Social Networking Sites  - Perhaps the most visible examples of social media  - Users can create content, share ideas, and interact with friends and colleagues (ex:  Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, LinkedIn)  Virtual Game Worlds & Virtual Social Worlds  - Invite users to role-play in rich 3-D environments, in real time, with players throughout the  world Social Media & Democracy  - Social media have proven to be an effective tool for democracy and for undermining  repressive regimes that thrive on serving up propaganda and hiding their atrocities  Convergence & Mobile Media  Media Convergence on Our PC’s and TVs - PC-based digital convergence became a reality after broadband internet connections  improved the multimedia capabilities of computers - Users can now access TV shows, f s, music, books, games, magazines, newspapers and  other content on a computer  - Media are also converging on our TVs, video game consoles come internet ready  Mobile Devices Propel Convergence  - 2002: People could check their email on their Blackberry  - 2007: iPhone - 2010: iPad  The Impact of Media Convergence and Mobile Media  - Media consumption is mobile & flexible  - We don't have to miss out on media content just because we weren't home in time to catch a  show, didn't find the book at the bookstore, or forgot to buy the newspaper yesterday  - Traditional media companies have had to dramatically change their business models in order  to satisfy demands and stay relevant  Our Changing Relationship with the Media  - Social viewing: Sharing commentary with friends on social media while you are viewing a TV  event  - Shows like Game of Thrones and Mad Men have found audiences beyond their initial  broadcasts through streaming services (binge-watching) and audiences spreading word-of mouth praise  - Super Bowl XL VII watchers generated 24.9 million tweets during the broadcast  - Apple now makes more than five times as much money selling iPhones, iPads, and  accessories as it does selling computers  - The number of Facebook users (1.23 billion in 2014) keeps rising - Apps have changed the internet experience from a wide-open, web browser experience to  one managed by the apps  The Changing Economics of Media & the Internet  - Since Napster each media industry has struggle to re-think how to distribute its content for  the digital age  - Content is still important  The Next Era: The Semantic Web  - Semantic Web: Creating a more meaningful and more organized Web  - Make our lives even easier by placing information into categories - family, friends, calendars,  mutual interests, locations - and make significant connections for us - Better enable people and computers to work together The Economics & Issues of the Internet  Economics of the Internet  - Telecommunications Act of 1996: Overhauld the nations communications regulations,  including regional and long distance phone companies and cable operators  - No one owns the internet  - Ownership and control of the internet are connected to three things: 1. The security of  personal and private information, 2. The appropriateness of online materials, 3. The  accessibility and openness of the internet.  Ownership: Controlling the Internet  - The leading companies of digital media’s rapidly changing world  - Facebook is the only company here that does not operate cloud services, which ultimately  builds brand loyalty and generates customer fees for file storage  Microsoft - The oldest of the dominant digital firms - Software business is in a gradual decline  - Flourishing digital game business  - Office is now available on mobile devices  Google  - Algorithmic search engine with pay-per-click advertising  Apple - Started as a home computer company, now the most valuable company in the world  - Moderately successful until Steve Jobs returned in 2001, in 2003 iTunes and the iPod were  launched.  Amazon  - Started selling books online, now the worlds largest online retailer  Facebook - Because of all the information reveled, Facebook can sell extraordinarily detailed information  to advertisers  Targeted Advertising and Data Mining  - Data mining: Gathering users location and purchasing habits  - E-commerce: The buying and selling of goods and services on the internet  - Cookies: Information profiles that are automatically collected and transferred between  computer servers - Spyware: Information-gathering software that is often  Fall Information Practice Principles  - Websites must disclose their data-collection practices  - Websites must give consumers the option to choose where their data may be collected  Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Government Surveillance - USA Patriot Act: Grants sweeping powers to law-enforcement agencies to intercept  individuals online communications  Online Fraud - Identity theft:  - Phishing: Phony email messages that appear to be from official web sites asking customers  to update their credit card numbers,  Appropriateness: What should be online?  09/13  Sound Recording and Popular Music  Modern Era Begins  - MTV takes off on August 21st, 1981 “the best of tv combined with the best of radio”  - The first video on MTV was “Video Killed the Radio Star” by the Buggles  Part 1: Technology  1877: The phonograph - created by Thomas Edison. The first record was tinfoil and in the shape  of a cylinder. He introduced recorded music  1925: “Free” music is first broadcast on the radio. Marconi is credited with creating the radio.  1925: The Victrola - invented by a company called RCA Victor. It was smaller and portable. The  beginning of music portability  1948: The LP was introduced. The first “long playing” record, with several songs on each side.  Huge technological leap.  1950s: Transistor radio. Music is now becoming even smaller and even more portable.  Transistor is the miniaturization of electric wires that can be placed in things as small as radios.  1963: Cassette tape. You could pick your own music with a cassette tape.  1970s: FM radio becomes popular. Up until the 70s, almost all radio was on AM radio. Amplitude  modulation and Frequency modulation. FM Radio produced a much clearer signal that was  consistent and uninterruptible. FM became the “cool” place to listen to music.  1970s: The Walkman. Not only do you have the portability, but now you can listen to it  individually with headphones.  1983: CDs are created. CDs are cleaner and more efficient than tapes. They were supposedly  “indestructible”1990s: MP3 player is introduced. With the arrival of the MP3, the physical medium of music  disappears.  2001: the iPod is introduced. You were able to upload 1,000 songs onto your iPod, so you could  listen to more songs in one place than ever before.  2001: iTunes is released, which combines perfectly with the iPod.  2010s: Music streaming becomes popular  Part 2: The Music  1900s: Ragtime music was popular during this period. Ragtime is credited to a man named  Scott Joplin. He created this type of music utilizing syncopation. “The Maple Leaf Rag” can be  considered the first piece of popular music.  1920s: Jazz then became popular.  1930s: Swing becomes popular. Even with the Depression, people used music as a release  from the tough times.  1940s: Big bands and crooners such as Frank Sinatra & Bing Crosby. This could be considered  the “American soundtrack” to World War 2.  1950s: Rock ’n’ Roll comes along. The term refers to sex. The concept of the “teenager” started  a myriad of things with popular culture and music.  1960s: The British invasion, Motown. The 60s was complete and utter turmoil, both culturally  and politically.  1970s: Disco and big hair bands. A reaction to the craziness of the 60s. People wanted to turn  of their minds and have fun 1980s: New wave, punk. This decade was about political protests & creativity.  1990s: The decade of Grunge & Rap.  2000s: Indie and pop is reborn. It’s a golden era as so many types of music are now available.  09/15  Sound Recording & Popular Music  - Macklemore & Ryan Lewis “Thrift Shop” was the first #1 hit from an independent group since  1994 - did not even have a recording soundtrack  - The music that helps shape our identities and comforts us during the transition from  childhood to adulthood resonates throughout our lives - Throughout history, popular music has been banned by parents, school officials, and eve  governments under the guise of protecting young people The Development of Sound Recording  - Long before the internet, the first major media convergence involved the relationship between  the sound recording and radio industries.  - By the first decade of the 20th century, record playing phonograph were widely available for  home use  - The appeal of recorded music was really limited because the technology just wasn’t there.  - In the early 1940s, record & phonograph sales were dropping dramatically. The record  industry turned to manufacturing polyvinyl plastic records, which were much more durable  and less noisy, paving the way for more consumers to desire music.  - In 1953, CBS and RCA compromise on competing formats. LP becomes the standard for  albums. 45 for singles, and record players were designed to accommodate both.  From Phonographs to CDs: Analog goes digital  - Magnetic tape sound recording (audiotape) was developed in 1929 and refined in the 1930s.  By WWII, audiotape found its place in music recording - Audiotapes lightweight magnetized strands made editing and multi-track mixing possible.  Instruments and vocals could be record separately and mixed into a master recording.  - Large reel-to-reel audiotape later have way to cassettes, which people could dub at home.  This also led to portable cassette players (Walkman).  - Stereo permitted the recording of two separate channels, or tracks, of sound. Using  audiotape, engineers could record many tracks, which were mixed down into two stereo  tracks. Stereo creates a more natural distribution of sound.  - Analog Recording: Captures the fluctuations of sound waves and stores these signals in a  records grooves or a tapes magnetized particles  - Digital Recording: Translates sound waves into binary information stored as a numerical  code.  - Digital recordings leads to compact discs (CDs) in the 1980s. By 1987, CDs were selling  twice as well as records. By 2000, CDs rendered records and cassettes obsolete  Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age  - Music, perhaps more than any mass medium, is bound up in the social fabric of our lives - Since the introduction of the tape recorder and the heyday of homemade mixtape, music has  been something that we have shared eagerly, with friends  - The internet quickly became a hub for sharing music  - This convergence began to unravel the music industry in the 2000s  - Music industries considered Napster as “digital theft.” Sean Fanning created Napster at the  age of 18.  MP3s and File Sharing - In 2001, the US Supreme Court rule in favor of the music industry and against Napster,  declaring free music file-swapping illegal and in violation of music copyrights held by  recording labels and artists.  - The music industry was able to shut down Napster, but other peer-to-peer systems once  again enabled online free music file sharing  - The music industry fought illegal sharing with lawsuits, and enlisted ISPs to help identify  illegal file-sharers  The Next Big Thing: Streaming Music  - We are shifting from ownership of music to access the music - The access model has been driven by streaming services such as Spotify  - Users have an ad-supported free account or pay for a subscription, and have access to play  millions of songs from the Internet  Rock Relationship between Records and Radio  - in 1924, record sales dropped to only half of what they had been the year before, because  radio had arrived, providing free entertainment over the airwaves, independent of the  recording industry - In 1925, ASCAP established music rights for radio, charging stations between $250 and  $2500 a week to play recorded music.  - The recording and radio industries began to cooperate after TV came along in the 1950s and  stole radios variety shows, dramas, and comedies, as well as ad revenue and audiences.  - Rock music in the 1950s provided radio with much needed content just when it seemed like it  was become obsolete.  - After the digital turn, the mutually beneficial relationship between the recording industry and  radio began to deteriorate  - Now, radio groups have begun to forge agreements with Big Machine (Taylor Swift) and other  music labels, paying royalties for on-air play while getting reduced rates for streaming music  US Popular Music and the Formation of Rock  - Pop music: Music that appeals to either a wide cross section of the public or to sizable  subdivisions within the larger public based on age, region, or ethnic background  - US pop music today encompasses styles as diverse as blues, country, salsa, rock, etc - The word “pop” has also been used to distinguish pop music from classical music  The Rise of Pop Music  - Late 1880s, Tin Pan Alley in New York, artists start selling sheet music - John Phillip Sousa  and Scott Joplin  - At the turn of the 20th century, the ability to mass produce sheet music for a growing middle  class allowed for popular songs to move from being a novelty to being a major business - With the emergence of the phonograph, song publishers also discovered that records tunes  boosted interest in and sales of sheet music  - As sheet music grew in popularity, jazz developed in New Orleans  - Jazz absorbed and integrated a diverse body of musical styles, including African Rhythms,  blues, and gospel  - The first pop vocalists of the 20th century were products of vaudeville circuit. Crooners like  Bing Crosby and Rudy Vallee established themselves as singers of pop standards.  - Frank Sinatra arrived in the 1940s, and his romantic ballads foreshadowed the teen love  songs of rock and rolls early years  Rock n Roll is here to stay  - As with the term “jazz,” “rock and roll” was a blues slang term for sex, lending it instant  controversy  - Early rock n roll was considered he first “integrationist music” merging the black sounds of  rhythm and blues, gospel, with the white influences of country, folk, and pop vocals  - Only a few musical forms have ever sprung such diverse influences, and no new sound has  ever had such an impact on culture  - Robert Johnson ranks among the most influential and innovative - he was an American  guitarist- Blues: The Foundation of Rock ’n’ Roll, influenced by African American spirituals, ballads, and  work songs from the rural south  - Rhythm & blues: Featured “huge rhythm unites smashing away behind screaming blues  singers”  - Although it was banned on some stations, by 1953 R&B continued to gain airtime - Trade magazines tracked R&B sales on “race” charts, which were kept separate from white  record sales track on “pop” charts  Rock Muddies the Waters  - In the 1950s, legal integration accompanied a cultural shirt, and the music induststrys pop  charts blurred - Black artists like Chuck Berry played country  High & Low Culture  - In 1946, Chuck Berrys “Roll Over Beethoven” merged rock ’n’ roll  Masculinity & Femininity  - Rock ’n’ roll was also the first popular music genre to overtly confuse issues of sexual identity  and orientation  - Early rock n roll attracted mainly male performers, but Mick Jagger claims the most intriguing  thing about Elvis was his androgynous appearance - Little Richard was the first “rock and roll drag queen”  - He chose this identity to remain “harmless” and not become an overt sex symbol to white  audiences  The Country & the City  - Rockabilly: A combination of country music, southern gospel, and Mississippi delta blues - A blurring takes place between country music and urban music - Although rock lyrics in the 1950s were not especially provocative or political, record sales and  crossover appeal of the music rep The North & the South  - Rock and roll combined northern & southern influences  - Many people had migrated north after the Civil War and during the early 20th century. This led  southern cultural flavor to appear in the North  - Audiences in the North had absorbed blues music as their own, eliminating the  understanding  The Sacred and the Secular  - Many rock figures had close ties to religion  - Jerry Lee Lewis attended a bible institute in Texas - Little Richard and JLL were both sons of preachers, & both became convinced they were  playing the devils music  - By 1959, Richard left music to become a preacher  - Alan Freed, a DJ in Ohio, coined the phrase rock and roll. He played original black recordings  from the “race charts” on his station.  - Philadelphia DJ Dick Clark believed that making black music acceptable to white audiences  required cover versions - Payola*: Record promoters paying DJs or radio programmers to play particular songs.  - Although it was considered bribery, it was not illegal  - Congressional hearings followed, partly to address bad business practices, partly to ry and  blame DJS and radio for rock and rolls supposedly negative impact on teens  Fears of Corruption Lead to Censorship  - Rock n Roll was to blame for juvenile delinquency, which was statistically on the rise in the  1950s  - In 1959, JLL was exiled as “white trash,” Elvis was drafted into the army, Chuck Berry was  jailed for gun possession, and Little Richard became a preacher.  Reformations in Pop Music  - The success of all female groups challenged the male dominated world of rock and roll  - The “British Invasion,” the development of soul and motown, the political impact of folk rock,  the experimentalism of psychedelic music, the rejection of music mainstreams by punk,  grunge, and alternative artist, all significantly changed the industry  The British are Coming!  - In the late 1950s, the young Rolling Stones listened to Robert Johnson and Muddy Waters,  and the young Beatles tried to imitate Chuck Berry  - With the British Invasion, “rock and roll” officially became “rock”  - The Rolling Stones influenced generations of musicians emphasizing gritty, chord driven, high  volume rock  - The Beatles influence - Black musicians countered the British invaders with powerful vocal performances  - Motown Records, started by 1959 by Berry Gordy, had a string of hits that rivaled the British  Invasion  - The social upheavals of the 60s brought social concerns into music from the 60s and 70s - Folk music: Songs performed by untrained musicians and passed down mainly through oral  traditions  - The links between alcohol, drugs, and music became much more public in the late 60s and  early 70s  - The psychedelic era saw the use of LSD during musical performances  - By the 1970s, rock music was increasingly viewed as another part of mainstream consumer  culture  - Rock music was packaged and sold to audiences  - Some artists eat the rock dream alive (Bowie, Elton John, Springsteen), but “faceless”  supergroups dominated the airwaves (Boston, Styx) - Rock could only be defined by what it wasn’t; Disco  - Pink attempted to return to the basics of rock and roll: simple chord structures, catchy  melodies, and politically or socially challenging lyris - The punk movement took root int he small dive bar CBGB in NYC around bands such as the  Ramones and the Talking Heads  - Punk did introduce front woman like Joan Jett and Debbie Harry - In the 1990s, grunge took the spirit of punk and updated it  - Nirvana was the first grunge band to break through, leading the way for bands like Green Day  and Pearl Jam  - A key dilemma for successful alternative performers is that their popularity results in  commercial success, ironically a situation their music criticizes  Hip Hop Redraws Musical Lines  - Hip-hop: Urban culture that includes rapping, cutting (sampling), breakdancing, street  clothing, poetry slams, and graffiti art  - In the same way that punk opposed commercial rock, hip hop opposed soul  - People thought hip hop was a novelty  - Gangster rap drew attention in 1996 with the death of Tupac Shakur  The Reemergence of Pop  - The era of the digital download has made singles more populars than albums, which as  helped the reemergence of pop  The Business of Sound Recording  - The relationship between the musics business and artistic elects in often an uneasy one  - The business does need artist who are provocative, original, and appealing to the public  Music labels influence the industry  - File sharing peaked in 2005 and it has been declining  - US music sales were about $7 billion in 2013  - The US market accounts for about 1/3 of the global market  - Oligopoly*: A business situation  - Independent labels are on the rise  - With the advent of digital downloads, indie music labels become much more successful  - A&R Agents: Artist & repertoire, the talent scouts of the music business, who discover,  develop, and sometimes manage artists  09/20  Popular Radio & the Origins of Broadcasting  1844 - Samuel Morse invents the telegraph. Morse was actually a painter before he got into  telegraphy. The telegraph uses Morse code. First time it was use was in the US Capital Building.  First message was “What Hath God Wrought”  1894 - Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraph  1920 - KDKA, 1st radio station. It was initially used for non-commercial uses, by the military,  shipping companies, etc. KDKA was located in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. “KDKA” is a call sign.  Everything east of the Mississippi river starts with W, and everything west starts with K.  1925 - RCA creates NBC, 1st broadcasting network; David Sarnoff becomes a network pioneer.  The “red” network became NBC, and the “blue” network became ABC. 1927 - Radio Act of 1927 - Says radio stations must act in public interest  - Creates Federal Radio Commission (later FCC)  - No “obscene, indecent, or profane language”  1928 - William Paley creates CBS, competition begins.  1930s - Golden Age of Radio. Radio has become the primary source of information &  entertainment in the average American household.  Memorable moments in Radio History, Part 1 1937 - Hindenburg Disaster. One of the first big  dramatic moments to happen on a broadcasting network.  Memorable moments in Radio history, part 2 1938 - Orson Wells “War of the Worlds” broadcast.  1940s - World War II. The Pearl Harbor Attack was broadcasted on all networks, and was a very  prominent moment in broadcasting & American history.  1951 - CONELRAD (Control Electronic Radiation) is released. The purpose was for people to  tune to these stations in case of an air raid or attack from the opposition in the Cold War.  1950s - TV arrives, radio reinvents itself. Top 40, format radio are born.  1960s - FM radio begins to overtake AM radio in popularity.  1970s - Album-oriented FM radio  Top 40 Celebrity Extra: Casey Kasem He reinvented Top 40 in the 1970s with “American Top  40” Memorable moments in Radio History, Part 3 Casey Kasem Meltdown.  1980s - 90s - FCC repeals Fairness Doctrine, talk radio is born on AM radio  2000s - Satellite, HD radio are born (XM, Sirius, etc)  Memorable moments in Radio History, Part 4, Howard Stern on Sept 11, 2001  2000s - Streaming “radio” is born (i.e Spotify, iTunes, iHeart)  2000s - Podcasting is born  2014 - “Serial” is born, and becomes the first wildly popular podcast 09/22 Alan Berg - a famous Talk Radio host in the 1970s/80s. Was gunned down in his driveway by  White Supremacists Talkers Magazine - A webzine dedicated to talk radio - its personalities, industry, trends.  Rush Limbaugh has been the top talk radio host for years. His brash style ushered in a crop of  radio hosts. Their shows are loaded with opinion and allow fans to discuss issues of the day. He  garners headlines and definitely shapes opinion of his faithful listeners.  Sean Hannity comes after Rush Limbaugh in popularity. He’s also conservative like Rush  Limbaugh.  Dave Ramsey is the third most popular talk radio host. He preaches a finance strategy, of being  debt free. He helps listeners through their financial troubles and tells his followers how to save  and spend money. He is also Christian and encourages his followers that way on air.  Laura Ingraham is the only woman to make the top Talk Radio list in the country. Also a  conservative host and came into the 2016 Talk Radio host list at no. 20 Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues. Most shows are  regularly hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a number of different  guests.  Talk radio particularly includes an element of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live  conversations between the host and listeners who “call in.” Listener contributions are usually  screened by a show producers in order to maximize audience interest and, in the came of  commercial talk radio, attract advertisers.  Generally these shows are organized into segments, each separated by pay for advertisements.  Now, it is possible for an individual to use a variety of services to host an Internet-base talk radio  show without carriage by a traditional radio station.  Fairness doctrine - Introduced in 1949 by the United States Federal Communications  Commission (FCC). Required holders of broadcast licenses to both present controversial issues  of public importance and to do so in a manner that was, in the Commissions view, honest,  equitable, and balanced.  However, broadcast licenses were very limited.  The agenda behind the Fairness Doctrine was that it allowed listeners to be exposed to a  diversity of viewpoints. However, in 1969 the Supreme Court upheld the FCC’s general right to  enforce the Fairness Doctrine where channels were limited. But the courts did not rule that the  FCC was obliged to do so.  The FCC eliminated the doctrine in 1987  Equal-time rule - Specifies that US radio and television broadcast stations must provide an  equivalent opportunity to any opposing political candidates who request it. This means that if a  station gives one free minute to a candidate in prime time, it must do the same for another  candidate who requests it. The equal time rule was created because the FCC thought the stations could easily manipulate  the outcomes of elections 4 exceptions to the equal time rule  - If the airing was within a documentary, bona fide new interview, scheduled newscast or an on  the spot news event, the equal time rule does not apply. - Since 1983, political debates not hosted by the media station are considered “news events,”  and as a result, are not subject to the rule. Consequently, these debates may include only  major party candidates without having to offer air time to minor party or independent  candidates.  - Talk shows and other regular news programming from syndicators, such as Entertainment  Tonight (look @ PPT on canvas)  Regulations in Radio & TV - Equal time rule  - Right to reply rue  - Political editorializing rule In spite of radio rules, some say the medium has contributed to the growing political divide.  Radio’s political influence:  - In 2014, House Majority Leader Eric Cantor of Virginia lost his seat in Congress. It was a  shock.  - Pundits said his upset was due in no small part to two talk radio hosts based in Washington,  Mark Levi and Laura Ingraham, supporting his opponent vigorously.  Internet Radio:  - A smalls trade to equalize the airways - Opens up the world to all - But because there are so many channels - not much traction in swaying public opinion.  09/27  Television & Cable  1927 - Philo T. Famsworth, electronic TV is born  1939 - Worlds Fair, where the first demonstration of television first appeared  1940s - FCC begins assigning TV channels, cable tv is born  1941 - First TV commercial “America runs on Bulova time”  1950s - Color TV, TV Dinners are born. The “golden age” of TV. A lot of the shows that were  popular on radio transfer over to television. 1950s - The golden age of TV, sales of TVs surpass radios. “I Love Lucy” was one of the biggest  shows on air.  1950s - Networks gain control of programming.  1950s - The late-night talk show is born. Jack Paar was the first late night talk show host.  1950s - The morning show is born  1960 - Kennedy/Nixon debate was the first live debate on television.  1960s - 90+% of US households own a TV  1960s - Networks begin full regular programing in color  1962 - First satellite TV broadcast  1963 - During Army-Navy football game instant replay is born  1967 - First global satellite TV broadcast. The broadcast was of a performance by the Beatles  1967 - The Brady Brunch premieres  1970s - TV shows tackle social issues. Norman Lear (writer) was responsible for a lot of this  change on television.  • All In the Family  • M*A*S*H • The Jeffersons  1970s - The home VCR is born  1975 - HBO is born, cable TV begins to take over  Network control of programming  1950s-1970s: Networks control 95 percent of programing  2012: Networks control less than 40 percent  This happened for several reasons:  - Network TV became progressively worse - Technology shifted with VCR, DVD players, & online services like Netflix and Hulu  1980 - CNN launch (created by Ted Turner), cable news is born  1980s - Must-see TV is born  • The Cosby Show - one of the first times African-Americans were portrayed as well-to-do • Cheers  • Seinfeld • Hill Street Blues • Family Ties  1990s - Telecommunications Act of 1996  • Abolishes boundaries of ownership • Cable companies, phone companies and long distance carriers can enter each others  markets • Consolidation: Owners can operate TV and radio stations in same market where they  own cable systems  1990 - TiVO is born 2000s - Online, on-demand TV is born (Netflix, Hulu, Apple TV, etc)  2013 - “House of Cards” is the first TV show created by something (Netflix) other than a network  09/29  Public Opinion & Propaganda  - Polling is a big business. - If you hire a polling firm, you can expect to pay $25-$30 per phone interview  - National surveys usually have a sample of about 800 respondents  - In an election cycle, polling dollars go into the multi-millions as candidates seek to tap into  public thinking and ways to capture an audience  Are polls accurate?  - Political polling is a type of public opinion polling.  - Public opinion is an accurate social science with struct rules about sample size, random  selection of participants and margins of error  - Even the best public opinion poll is only a snapshot of a public opinion at the particular  moment in time, not an eternal truth  How do polls work? - Most polls are conducted by phone, but its gotten trickier by poller ID  - Before the widespread use of caller ID, telephone polls were much easier to carry out  - Statistically response rate & sample size are key Response Rates Matter  - Despite efforts to achieve a random sample. response rates still remain shockingly low  *Real Clear Politics: Compares polls. Uses results from different surveys to come up with a  polling average. Followed by a lot of political junkies and dissected by campaigns.  Types of political polls:  - Benchmark poll: Done at the beginning of an election cycle. Where is public opinion before  a race really begins? This is generally a short and simple survey of likely voters. A benchmark  poll can show a candidate what types of voters they are sure to win, sure to lose, and  everyone in between those betweens. - Brushfire poll: Are taken during the period between the benchmark poll and tracking polls.  The number of brushfire polls is determined by how competitive the race is and how much  money the campaign has to spend. These polls usually focus on likely voters and the length  of the survey varies on the number of messages being tested. It let’s the candidate know if  they've made any progress on the ballot.  - Tracking polls: A tracking poll is a poll repeated at intervals generally averaged over time. A  weekly tracking poll uses the data from the past week and discards older data. Candidates  follow tracking polls to chart shifts in voters responses and perception.  Push polling - beware  - Often criticized as a particularly sleazy form of negative political campaigning  - These questions are skewed to one side of an issue or candidate, the goal being to sway  large numbers of voters under the guise of survey research  History of polling  - In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, journalists would conduct informal straw polls of  average citizens to gauge public opinion on politicians and upcoming elections  - Today polling is much more scientific.  - To get the most accurate representative sample, political pollsters take a page from  probability theory.  - The goal of the probability theory is make mathematical sense out of seemingly random data.  Nate Silver - a “boy wonder” of statistics, especially in the political world.  Caveats on polling bias  - Most pollsters will describe 3 types of bias in the process:  - Response bias - Wording of questions - Coverage bias  Response bias: Survey results may be affected by response bias, where the answers given by  respondents do no reflects their true beliefs. Respondents may deliberately try to manipulate the  outcome of a poll. Respondents may also feel under social pressure not to give an unpopular  answer. “Bradley Effect” & the “spiral off science”  - “Bradley effect”: The political term is named after former Los Angeles Mayor Tom  Bradley’s ill fated run for California governor in 1982. The effect usually refers to race, where  voters hide their true preference from pollsters  - Phone polling is still the most reliable way to gather data and results.  - Public polling today is generally done for publicity.  Issues Polling:  Credible organizations like Gallup and Pew poll public sentiment on issues - everything from  race relations to gun law to immigration & beyond. Wording of questions: Its well established that the wording of questions, the order in which  they are asked and the number and form of alternative answers offered can influence results of  polls. Thus comparisons between polls often boil down to the wording of the question. On some  issues, question wording can result in quite pronounced differences between surveys. A common technique to control for this bias is to rotate the order in which questions are asked.  This involves having two different versions of a question  Reporting on poll data:  - Journalists must be discerning in reporting poll data because most often, the public has no  way to evaluate the survey results they see.  What to include in a story about a poll? - Who did the poll? - When was it conducted?  - The sample size - The margin of error  - A poll that falls within the sampling error would be what?  Online surveys are not polls! They are fun to respond to but they aren’t scientific. They are  mainly for entertainment.  10/11 Guest speaker: Ben Montgomery  What makes a good joke?  - Timing - Narrative  - Tension  usual disney narrative  main character who is sympathetic you have a desire there are complications and then the characters gets/fails to get their wish/desire and this relates to some moral  principle elements that allow us to tell stories:  - start with identifying your character - the character has something at stake  - important to pay attention to time & detail, not matter how seemingly pointless it is  10/18 Newspapers: The Rise and Decline of Modern Journalism  1690: First North American Newspaper, Public Occurrences Both Foreign & Domestic. - survived one issue, because the colonial government did not like the negative tones  towards the British 1848: AP (Associated Press) is formed, wire services are born. Six newspapers in NYC working  together to share news. It is now the largest wire service in the world. 1860s: Inverted pyramid is born. What people use to write news stories. Most important —>  Less Important —> Least Important. Created because of the Civil War  Mid-1890s: 1st comic strip, the Yellow Kid, is born. A political cartoon.  1898: Adolph Ochs buys the NY Times. Modern objective journalism is born. He wanted a  newspaper for intellectuals in New York at the time.  Early 1900s: The Muckrakers. The journalists that went out and dug down to find out what was  really going in behind the scenes of big companies (that had little to not government regulation)  & expose them.  - Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” (meat packing industry) - Lincoln Steffens “The Shame of the Cities” (political corruption)  - Ida Tarbell “The History of the Standard Oil Company” (monopolies)  1948: Biggest newspaper blunder ever - “Dewey Defeats Truman” by the Chicago Daily Tribune,  they were so sure he was going to win, that they wrote the headline ahead of time.  1955: 1st underground newspaper, the Village Voice, is born. Founded in Greenwich Village.  1960s: Literary journalism, aka, “New Journalism,” is born. A story that’s more than facts. Tom  Wolfe is credited with starting Literary Journalism. The real father of New Journalism was Clay  Felker.  1970s: Nixon & Watergate. This epitomized the golden era of Journalism.  1972: Woodward & Bernstein uncover the Watergate break-in  August 7th, 1974: Calls for Nixon’s resignation, but Nixon denied the claims.  August 9th, 1974: Nixon resigns.  1980: 1st online newspaper is published, the Columbus Dispatch. Very rudimentary.  1982: USA Today is born, 1st newspaper modeled after TV. They made newspapers colorful,  easy to read, & eliminated jumps.  1990s: The decline begins: Blogs are born  1995: Craigslist is born. This was when newspapers started to lost money. Craigslist made  classified ads pointless.  2000s: Citizen journalism is born. The public can now decide what’s news, with the advent of  smartphones. Democratized journalism  2000s: The decline accelerates. Advertising revenue now generates under $20,000 2007: ProPublica is born. 2010: Paywalls are born. Paying for online subscriptions of online papers, such as NYTimes.  2013: Jeff Bezos buys Washington Post  10/20 Extra Credit Assignment: Short paper on Page 1: Inside the New York Times  10/25  Environmental Journalist -  Why not to write a book:  - You want to make a lot of money  - You have a ton of material left in your notebooks that you weren’t able to put in your style - Your original piece got so much reader response - You want a bigger audience  - Your love for your subject has you convinced others will love it too if you can just get it out  there - despite signs to the contrary  Better reasons - You see a story hidden in plain view - You see an angle no one else noticed - You understand the quilt of the story - You’re completely obsessed  - You love your subject and you’re getting al the right signals that others love it too Writing Tips - Spend you time on dogged reporting, preferably in person, instead of reading writing tips.  - If you want to read something, read the best reporting instead of the writing tips.  What’s in a book proposal  - About the book - About the author - About the competition  - About the audience  - About marketing - Chapter Outline - Two sample chapters  Can you take rejection?  10/27  Magazines In the Age of Specialization  - Since the 1740s, magazines have played a role in our social and cultural lives, and are  America’s earliest mass medium.  - Today, more than 20,000 magazines are published in the US. The First Magazines  - Magazine: A collection of articles, stories and advertisements appearing in nondairy (such as  weekly or monthly) periodicals that are published in the smaller tabloid style rather than larger  broadsheet newspaper style.  Magazines In Colonial America  - The first colonial magazines appeared in Philadelphia in 1741 - Andrew Bradford started it all with American Magazine, but Benjamin Franklin put him out of  business after 3 issues (he had started his own magazine 3 days after Bradford) by rigging  the postal system - which he was in charge of  - Franklin’s magazine only lasted 6 months  - By 1776, about a 100 colonial magazines had appeared and disappeared  US Magazines in the 19th Century  - The magazine business was slow to start, but many communities had their own weekly  magazines  - As the 19th century progressed, the idea of specialized magazines devoted to certain  categories of readers developed  - Religious, literary, and professional magazines arose  - In 1821, the Saturday Evening Post was launched - the first general interest magazine  National, Women’s and Illustrated Magazines  - With increases in literacy and better mail service due to the railroad, national magazines were  created - Women’s magazines like Ladies Magazine began to appear in 1828  - The other major development during this time was the arrival of illustration  - By the mid 1850s, drawings, engravings, and woodcuts, and other forms of illustrations  became a major feature of magazines. The Development of Modern American Magazines - The Postal Act of 1879 assigned magazines lower postage rates and put them on an equal  footing with newspapers  - Advances in technology made large circulation national magazines possible  - Prices dropped and the middle class were able to purchase national publications  - Advertising became a viable option for magazine publishes as audiences for national  magazines grew  Social Reform & the Muckrakers - In order to attract readers, many magazines used a technique of yellow journalism -  crusading for social reform on behalf of the public good  - The rise in magazine circulation coincide with rapid social change in America - people moved  from the countryside to urban areas in search of industrial jobs, and immigrants flooded in  from Europe  - Magazines began to feature topics such as corruption in big business and government, urban  problems faced by immigrants, labor conflicts, and race relations  - Muckrakers: Investigative reporters who were willing to crawl through society’s muck to  uncover a story  - In response to Upton Sinclairs The Jungle, as well as many stories published in magazines,  in 1906 Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act Saturday Evening Post - Although it was successful in the 1800s, the Saturday Evening Post was reinvigorated in the  1920s  - It featured popular fiction writing and romanticized American virtues through words and  pictures (and Norman Rockwell illustrations)  - The Post was the first magazine to reach two million in circulation  Readers Digest  - Started in 1922, Readers Digest printed condensed versions of select articles from other  magazines  - The owners refused to sell advertising and relied on subscriptions  - It was expensive and fit in your pocket, and was the nations most popular magazine by 1946.  It was the worlds most popular by the mid 1980s with a circulation of 20 million in the US  - By 2014 it was in bankruptcy and circulation had dropped to 4.2 million  Time - Begun in 1923, Time developed interpretive journalism, assigning reporters to cover stories  and an editor would rewrite them in narrative form  - Time had a circulation of 3 million in the 1960s  - By 2014, Time’s circulation stagnated at 3.2 million  Life - Life magazine was an oversized pictorial weekly which advanced photojournalism  - Life appealed to the publics fascination with images, advertising, and fashion photography  The Fall of General Interest magazines - The decline of general interest magazines began in the 1950s as a result of changing  consumer tastes, rising postal costs, falling ad revenues, and most importantly, TV TV Guide is Born  - TV Guide appeared in 1953 and began to make sense of the impact of TV on their readers - It showed TV listings  Saturday Evening Post, LIfe, and Look expire  - All three magazines folded between 1969 and 1972  - Publishes were selling the magazines for far less than the cost of production  - Less people were reading magazines, thus advertising prices fell, People Puts Life Back into Magazines - Launched in 1974, People featured 11/01 Professor that teaches a variety of magazine/journalism courses  Co-author of about 20 books  9 Things You Need to Know About the Magazine:  1. The magazine is not dead. 1. Magazines are a mindset, a brand. 91% of all adults read print or digital magazines. 2. The magazine is not about PRINT or DIGITAL.  1. A brand that connects with audience  2. The speciality of readers likes & dislikes gives a chance to connect passions with a  career.  3. The magazine is the original medium where art & words collided  1. Depth + creativity  2. Writers like Tom Wolfe & Joan Didion pioneered what is now known as  literary journalism  4. Magazines have important place in Media History  - Capturing culture  - Journalism  - Literary journalism  5. The magazine is the original place for #foodporm & beautiful photography. Magazine is the  bridge between literary type of media and advertising & PR. Magazines are aspirational &  inspirational  6. Magazines are about moments. They capture moments in history.  7. Magazines aren’t afraid to mix things up.  8. Magazines sometimes mess things up. Or do they? It’s in the eye of the beholder. Photos on  magazines covers are often manipulated through photoshop & airbrushing.  9. Magazines give us the opportunity to slow down, digest & consumer purposefully packaged  content from and with like-minded people.  11/03 Steve Miller - True Crime & Rock Music Investigative Reporting  11/08 Advertising and Commercial Culture  What is advertising? The act of practice of calling public attention to ones product, service,  need, especially by paid  Advertising media - traditional  Advertising media - online  TV advertisements still dominates. Television is most influential in a purchasing decision  Four top agencies:  Interpublic Omnicom  Publicis  WPP  Ad appeals:  Profit  Health  Love Fear  Admiration  Convenience  Fun  Vanity  Cadillac, 1915 “The Penalty of Leadership” snob appeal campaign Listerine, 1920s adopted the fear tactic, in which they adopted the fear that people would be  socially unacceptable if their breath was bad.  Volkswagen created an ad for smaller cars to compete with Cadillac’s big ostentatious luxury  cars  11/10  Advertising: Paid form of non personal communication about an organization, product, service  or idea from an identified sponsor, using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.  Role of Advertising in Brand Promotion:  - Information & persuasion  - Introduction of new brand or brand extensions - Building and maintaining brand loyalty among consumers - Creating an image and meaning for a brand  How does advertising work?  Awareness —> Comprehension —> Conviction —> Action Some do’s: • Advertising should be informative • Advertising should be entertaining  • Advertising should be involving  Some don’ts:  • Advertising should never over claim any benefit in a product or a brand  • Never try to put down or talk down your consumers in manner that will insult them • Try not to compare your brand with a competitor and try not to show your competitor in bad  light • In case you do any comparison with your competitor or show your competition it should be  done in a intelligent and tactful manner that such that it is memorable and not in bad taste  Ad can be able to graph someone who glances for just a second. Force people to take a second  glance instead of simply moving on.  Be clever & creative: Attract people and represent the brand in a positive way. A clever ad  represents a clever company.  Speak loudly: The louder your talk, the better they can hear you Don’t make them think (too much)  Colors that pop but make sense: colors should work with the feeling one the brand and  environment in which the ad is being placed  Appeal to the targeted people through color, but don’t make the colors distracting  For a “fun” brand, use a collaboration of bright colors. If the ad is more serious, possibly use a  more simple color scheme.  Be informative Stand out & be memorable: Your ad should be unique and memorable  Give off a feeling: Someone should be able to tell the company’s tone by looking at an ad.  Use humor: Use a metaphor. Humor is a useful technique for attracting people to an ad.  Metaphors can be great way to add humor.  11/15  Public Relations and Framing the Message  What is public relations?  The professional maintenance of a favorable public image by a company or other organization  or a famous person.  1860s: Railroads bribed reporters for positive stories. It worked out, they received a lot of  funding and were able to build the railroads. 1880s: P.T. Barnum invented the publicity stunt. He wanted to sell tickets and have people go to  his circus. He generated a lot of excitement with posters and publicity stunts that garnered  excitement for his show.  Early 1890s: Ivy Lee, “Tell the Truth” is credited with inventing modern public relations. He was a  former newspaper reporter and had started his own PR firm when the Pennsylvania Railroad  brought him in to deal with bad press after a bad accident. He decided transparency was past,  and that they had to tell the truth to the public. He earned the name “poison ivy” because later in  life he decided facts were malleable.  1920s: Edward Bernays, American Tobacco Company. He made a PR campaign to persuade  women to buy cigarettes. Called their cigs “torches of freedom.” Lucky Strike cigarettes had a  green pack, and even went as far to convince women that green was a fashionable color.  1940s: P.R. as propaganda. Rosie the Riveter was a form of propaganda to convince women to  join the workforce while the men were out at war.  1948: PRSA is born. Public Relations Society of America is created to establish a code of ethics. 1965: Ralph Nader, “Unsafe at Any Speed,” consumer movement is born. GM came out with the  “Corvair” which Ralph Nader wrote negatively about and he launched a consumer advocacy &  protection movement  1982: Tylenol scare in which 7 people died after taking poison laced tylenol, tamper resistant  packaging is born.  1989: Exxon Valdez accident which dumped 11 million gallons of crude oil into the water, initial  denials, slow response. Their initial denial formed a negative view for the company.  1990s: Restoring Nixon’s image due to Watergate, used PR company Hill & Knowlton.  2005: FCC says broadcasters must disclose source of VNRS (video news releases). PR  companies were creating VNRs to provide to different TV stations for stories about their  companies, trying to “sell” an image.  2010: BP oil spill, 210 gallons of oil were spilled. CEO came out saying he “wanted his life back”  which wasn’t a good PR move 2015: Chipotle has E.coli scare. They handled it very well from a PR standpoint, closing  locations and re-educating employees on proper health standards.  2015: VW diesel scandal. They ruined their public image because of software installed in the  cars that made them test clean but would go back to a normal procedure, spewing out 30x more  gas than EPA normally allows. Offered to buy peoples cars back, but only in the United States  because they thought they only violated EPA standards in the US, which was bad PR. A judge  then approved a 15 billion dollar settlement for VW.  11/17  Public Relations and Framing the Message  What is public relations?  - Advertising is controlled publicity that a company or an individual buys  - Public Relations is a total communication strategy conducted by a person, a government, or  an organization attempting to reach and persuade an audience to adopt a point of view Early developments in PR - It started out with Press agents. Those who sought to advance a clients image through media  expsoure, primarily via stunts staged for newspapers.  - Individuals such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crocket employed press agents to repair their  images  PT Barnum & Buffalo Bill  - The most notorious press agent of the 19th century was P.T. Barnum, who used gross  exaggeration, fraudulent stories, and staged events to sexuce newspaper coverage for his  client, his American Museum, and later his circus.  - “Buffalo” Bill Cody promoted himself and his traveling show - Press agents shaped many of the legends about rugged American individualism and frontier  expansion that were later adopted by books, movies, etc. about the American West - Publicity definition:***  Big Business and Press Agents  - Utilizing the press brought with it enormous power to sway the public and to generate  business - The railroads began to use press agents to help them obtain federal funds  - Their first strategy was simply to buy favorable news stories about rail travel from  newspapers direct bribes - They also gave reporters free train tickets so that they could write positive stories about rail  travel  - Utility companies such as AT&T used PR strategies to derail competition and attain monopoly  status  The Birth of Modern Public Relations - By the beginning of the 20th century, reporters and muckrakers were investigating the  promotional practices behind many companies - An informed citizenry paid more attention it became more difficult for larger firms to fool the  press and mislead the public.  Ivy Ledbetter Lee***  - Considered one of the founders of modern public relations. He understood the publics  attitude toward big corporations had changed  - He counseled his clients that honestly and directness were better PR devices that the  deceptive practices of the 1800s  - After a railroad accident, Lee advised them to admit the mistake, vow to do better, and let  newspapers in on the story.  Edward Bern's - Bern's was the first person to apply the findings of psychology and sociology to public  relations (he was the nephew of Sigmund Freud)  - During WW!, Bern's developed propaganda that supported America’s entry in that conflict and  promoting the image of Woodrow Wilson as a peacemaker  - His wife - Doris Fleishman - was one of the first women in the industry, and paved the way for  others, so that now women outnumber in PR by 3 to 1  Approaches to Organized public relations  - PRSA: Public Relations Society of America gives this definition of PR, “PR helps an  organization and its publics adapt mutually with each other.  The PR industry uses two approaches:  1. There are independent PR agencies who sole job is to provide clients with PR services 2. Most companies, which may or may not also hire independent PR firms, maintain their own  in hour PR staffs to handle routing tasks, such as origin press releases, managing edit  requests, staging special events, and dealing with internal and external publics.  Performing PR - Public relations, like advertising, pays careful attention to the needs of its clients and to the  perspectives of its targeted audiences. - PR involves providing a multitude of services, including publicity, communication, public  affairs, issues of management, government relations, financial PR, and others - In addition, PR personnel produce employee newsletters, manage client trade shows and  conferences, conduct historical tours, appear on news programs, and organize damage  control  Research; Formulating the message  - One of the most essential practices in the PR profession is doing research  - Just like advertising, PR research is drive by demographic and psychographic research - Pr practitioners rely on mail, Google Analytics, and Twitter analytics to get a fix on an  audiences perception of an issue, policy, program, or a clients image  Conveying the message  - Press releases: Also known as news releases, are announcements written in the style of  news reports that give new information about an individual, company, or organization and  pitch a story idea to the news media.  - Through press releases, PR firms manage the flow of information  - Video news releases mimic the style of broadcast news, but are rarely used by actual news  outlets  - Public Service Announcement (PSA): Fifteen to sixty second audio or video reports that  promote nonprofit government programs, educational projects, volunteer agencies, or social  reforms  Media Relations - Media relations promote a client by securing publicity or favorable coverage in the news  media  - They also perform damage control or crisis management when negative publicity occurs  - Media relations professionals also recommend advertising to their clients when it seems  appropriate  Special Events and Pseudo-events  - Special events raise the profile of corporate, organizational, or government clients such as  Milwaukees Summerfest - A corporate sponsor can also align itself with a cause of an organization that has positive  status among the general public - such as John Hancock sponsoring the Boston Marathon  - Pseudo events are created **  Community and Consumer Relations  - Another responsibility of PR is to sustain goodwill between an agency clients and the public  - PR firms encourage companies to participate in community activities, such as hosting tours  and open houses, making charitable donations ,and participating in town events like parades  and festivals  Government relations and Lobbying  - Maintaining connections with government agencies that have some say in how companies  operate in a community, state, or nation, is a priority  - Lobbying: the process of attempting to influence lawmakers to support and vote for an  organization of industry best interests  - Lobbying can often lead to ethical problems- Astroturf lobbying is a phone grassroots public affairs campaigns engineered ** finish this Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age  - A company or organizations website has become the home base of public relations efforts  - PR professionals also connect with the public through social media - Some PR firms have edited Wikipedia pages in order to paint their clients in a better light  - A growing number of companies also compensate bloggers to subtly promote their products  - ( especially “non bloggers” who talk about household products)  Public relations during a Crisis  - One important duty of PR has been helping a corporation handle a public crisis or tragedy,  especially if the public assumes the company is at fault  PR vs. Journalism  - In 1932, Stanley Walker, a news editor, identified PR agents as “mass-minded” models,  fronts, mouther pieces, and special assistants to eh president”  - Much of the antagonisms is directed at PR professionals from journalists  - Journalists perceive of PR people as a pseudo profession created to distort the facts that  reporters work hard to gather  Elements of Professional Friction  - PR firms often raid the ranks of reporters for new talent  - PR needs journalists for publicity and journalisms needs PR for story ideas and access  - PR firms have enabled journalists to become lazy  Undermining Facts and Blocking Access - Journalisms most prevalent criticism of public relations is that it works to country the truths  reporters seek to bring to the public  - Modern PR redefined and complicated the notion of what “facts” are  - Journalists have also objected that PR professionals block press access to key burins  leaders, political figures, and other newsworthy people - PR agents are now able to manipulate reporters by giving exclusives to journalists who are  likely to cast a story in a favorable light, or cutting out a journalists entirely if they have been  critical of the past.  Promoting Publicity and Business as News - PR agents help companies “promote as news what otherwise would have been purchased in  advertising” - If PR can secure news publicity for clients, the added credibility of a journalistic context gives  clients a status that the purchase of advertising cannot offer  Shaping the Image of Public Relations - Dealing with both a tainted past and journalisms hostility has often preoccupied the public  relations profession, leading to the development 11/29 The Culture of Journalism: Values, Ethics, and Democracy  exam: ch 7-14 but not chapter 13  Why is journalism special?  Journalism is the only media enterprise that democracy absolutely requires - and the only media  practice and business that is specifically mentioned and protected in the US constitution  First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free  exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; of the right of the people…  Seven ways to spot fake news stories:  1. Stick with legitimate news organizations  Journalism Code of ethics - Seek truth and report it - Minimize harm  - Act independently  - Stand accountable  Ethical issues to consider - Anonymous sources  • The one time it has worked was for the Watergate scandal, in which they received  anonymous tips from a man called “Deepthroat” • However, it undermines a news organizations credibility  • It’s risky. Anonymous source can turn out to be wrong, which leaves the newspaper flapping  in the breeze - Plagiarism  • Complete breach of journalism ethics, could result in termination/firing • Internet = easier to do but easier to catch  - Undercover reporting  • Reporter can get a story they might no otherwise be able to get; uncovering social injustice,  corruption • However, it puts news organization at risk of being sued; more important, it requires lying  - Freebies • The giver may (and likely will) expect a quid pro quo - something in return for the gift  • Even if not, the possibility compromises the journalists objectivity and credibility  - Paying for stories  • Opens doors to influence, corruption, threat of exaggeration and deception  • Leaves smaller news outlets that cant pay at a disadvantage  • It’s just wrong  Offensive content  - Distasteful or shocking material  - Advance warnings of explicit or disturbing - Offensive words may be partially obscured or bleeped - Potentially offensive images may be blurred or narrowly cropped - Descriptions may be substituted for pictures; graphic detail might be omitted  - Disturbing content might be moved from a cover to an inside page, or form daytime to late  evening, when children are less likely to be watching  Conflict of interest  Happens when the reporter has a connection to the story subject, source or angle that  influences how they write it  - Money  - Activity  - Belief  News judgement  Who decided THAT was a story?  - Conflict - Something that humans are very interested in. Tension between two or various subjects.  - Impact  - How does this affect me? Ex: Favorite restaurant closes due to the recession  - Prominence  - How important the story is, or the subjects in the story are. If a person is prominent, it might  reach the level of an important news story  - Proximity  - The idea that if something happens close enough to you, it probably qualifies as news.  - Timeliness  - Refers to the time that something happens.  - Oddity  - How weird or out of the ordinary a story is  12/01/2016 How to get a job in a mass media market

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