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UNL / Sociology / SOCI 101 / unl sociology

unl sociology

unl sociology

Description


Example: What is the mood of the class?




Macro- How walkable is my neighborhood?




What do people do when they come together?



1.1 Sociology is… the study of society and human behaviors the study of human society Society is… people who share a culture and territory large group of people who live in the same area and participate in a common economy or culture Culture is… a system of beliefs and knowledge shared by members of a group or society that influences behaviWe also discuss several other topics like mcb 2010
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ors and attitude Sociological Imagination is… the ability to grasp the connections between history and biography C. Wright Mills History: Location in broad stream of events Biography: Specific experiences in a historical setting- orientation to life External Influence: Our experiences become part of our thinking and motivation History + Biography = Sociological Imagination 1.1Sociological perspective: Lets you gain a new perception of social life Social contents in which people live and how it affects their lives Social Location: Jobs, income, education, gender, race, and age affect people’s ideas and behaviors C. Wright Mills Personal troubles vs. Public Issues Personal troubles: Troubles to do with an individual’s character and with limited areas of social life he is directly and personally aware Public issues: Issues to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and range of his life *No one cares about personal troubles until the problem becomes big enough to where it affects more people Sociology: Enables us to look at both parts of our current reality; part of a global network and having unique experiences in life Science: applying systematic methods to obtain knowledge and by methods Goals of science: 1. Explanation 2. Generalization 3. Prediction Natural Sciences: Understand the world of nature (chemistry, biology) Social Sciences: Understand the social world (political, psychology, sociology)Anthropology: Focuses on tribal people Studied to understand culture Artifacts (tools, art, weapons) Structure (Members interacting with one another) Ideas and Values (group’s beliefs affect its members’ lives) Forms of Communication (language) Economics: Single social institution Studies the production and distribution of goods and services What’s produced, cost, and how they’re distributed Why someone buys one item instead of another Political Science: Politics and government Examine how governments are formed, operated, and related to other institutions in society How people attain ruling positions, how they’re maintained, and consequences of their actions for people they govern Psychology: Processes that occur within the individual Research intelligence, emotions, perception, memory, sleep, and dreams How personality is formed, causes and treatment of mental illness Sociology: Overlaps with the social sciences above Studies culture Research group structure, belief systems, and communicationOrigins of Sociology​: 3 main events set the stage for challenging tradition and the emergence of sociology: ● Industrial Revolution ● American and French Revolutions ● Imperialism Early Theorists (Europe): ● Auguste Comte = positivism ● Charles Darwin = survival of the fittest ● Karl Marx = class conflicts ● Emile Durkheim = social integration ● Max Weber = religion is central to social change Sociology in North America: ● Harriet Martineau ● WEB Du Bois ● Jane Addams ● Talcott Parsons ● C Wright Mills Symbolic Interactionism: Central idea of SI is symbols (things to which we attach meanings) SI analyze how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others Theorists: Mead, Cooley Functionalism:​ Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together Smaller parts are examined based on functions/dysfunctions and how it relates to the larger unit. Theorists: Comte, Spencer, Durkheim, Merton Conflict Theory:​ Society is composed of groups that compete with one another for scarce resources Emphasizes the role of powerTheorists: Karl Marx Culture: The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to another Material Culture: the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their: Art Buildings Weapons Utensils Machines Hairstyles Non-Material Culture: A group’s way of thinking and doing. Non-material culture is also called symbolic culture. Examples: beliefs, values and patterns of behavior Values- ● The standard by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly ● Forms the basis for norms Norms- ● Expectation of right behaviors ● Rules regarding appropriate and inappropriate behavior Folkways- ● Norms that are not strictly enforced ● Right and rude Mores (More-rays)- ● Norms that are strictly enforced ● Right and wrong Taboo: A norm so strong that brings disgust if violated Sanctions: Reactions received for following or breaking norms Positive- not complaining when a difficult customer comes in the store while you’re working Negative- parking meter fines, frowningSubculture: the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture Examples- Bodybuilding, goth, hip hop, preppy, Alcoholics Anonymous Counterculture: a group whose values and beliefs norms and behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture Examples- Hippies, civil rights groups, feminist, hell angels, militant groups, cults ● Challenging the norms in the larger culture Ethnocentrism: Nature vs. Nurture Nature (Biological/heredity) Nurture (Social Environment) Socialization Process of learning characteristics of a group ● Knowledge, skills ● Attitudes, values ● Norms, actions Society makes us able to.. Self-concept, take roles of others, to reason Cooley’s Looking Glass Self: The ‘self’ allows us to see ourselves from the outside Example: a skinny person looking in the mirror and seeing their flaws (overweight) Imagine: how we appear to others Interpret: other's reaction Develop: a self conceptMead and Role Taking: Imitation- the self is developed and children mimic others Play- We pretend to take the role of others Game- Children understand not only their own social position but also the positions of others around them “Self” (I/Me) ● “I” is spontaneous, unsocialized, unpredictable, and impulsive aspect of the self. The subject of one’s actions (born with it) ● “Me” develops gradually through interaction and internationalization of the society, it monitors the “I” (socialized) Micro & Macro Sociology Symbolic Interactionism: What do people do when they come together? Structural Functionalism and Conflict Theories: Focuses on the broad features of society Example: Walking Micro- The physical ability to walk and it influences the decisions on a daily basis. Macro- How walkable is my neighborhood? Is there sidewalks or crosswalks? Social Structure: ● Framework of society that surrounds me ● Guides behavior ● Behaviors are learned because of our social location in social structure Culture: Our shared culture makes us similar to one another and makes other people seen “different” Social Class:● Income ● Education ● Occupational Prestige Social Status: The position someone occupies in a social group Status Sets: All statuses/positions that an individual occupies Ascribed Status: Involuntary; you don’t ask for it and can’t choose it ● Race, sex, social class of parents, sibling Achieved Status: Voluntary; you earn/accomplish ● Friend, lawyer, spouse Master Status: A status that cuts across the other statuses Example: Taylor Swift Known as a singer Also a daughter and sister Macro Sociological Perspective Status Inconsistency: Ranking high on some dimensions of social status and low on others Example: Being a professor at age 18 Roles: behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Groups: People who interact and share values/interests ● Belonging to a group means yielding the right to have our behavior judgedSocial Institutions Standard or usual ways a society meets its needs Family: regulate reproduction, socialize, and protect Religion: life/death; meaning, connect with creator Education: Transmit knowledge and skills Economy: Produce and distribute goods and services Medicine: Heal the sick and injured; care for dying Politics: Allocate power; determine authority, order Law: Maintain social order, enforce norms Military: Provide protection from enemies Science: Understand the environment Mass Media: Transmit information, report events, mold public opinion Functionalist View: Social institutions work together to meet universal needs for a society Conflict View: Social institutions primary purpose is to preserve social order. Durkheim Social Integration: Degree to which members of a group/society are united by shared values and other social bonds Mechanical Solidarity vs. Organic Solidarity Mechanical (traditional/historical): A shared consciousness that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks ● Pre-Modern Organic: Interdependence that results from the division of labor; as part of the same unite, we depend on each other to fulfil their jobs● Modern Ferdinand Tonnies Gemeinschaft: Intimate community; everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness (village, small town) ● Mechanical solidarity Gesellschaft: A society dominated by impersonal relationships; individuals accomplishments and self interest (modern society, Lincoln) ● Organic solidarity Microsociological Perspective ● Symbols people use to define their worlds ● How people look at things ● How definitions affect their behavior Social Research​: ● Where ● When ● Why ● How ● What ● Who Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative (Numbers): Methods that obtain information on the social world that can be translated into numbers then manipulated mathematically. Example: 60% of the class is female, 40% is maleQualitative (Words): Methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted into numeric form. Example: What is the mood of the class? Sad, tired, stressed Deductive vs. Inductive Deductive: Use a theory, form a hypothesis, empirical observations, analyze data Inductive: Empirical observations, analyze data, form a hypothesis, develop a theory The Research Model: 1. Select a topic ○ What do you want to know more about? ○ Broad area of interest ○ Example: Academic performance of college students in the U.S. 2. Define the problem ○ What area of the broader topic will you examine? ○ What is the purpose of the study? ○ Example: To determine the effect sleep has on academic performance among college students in the U.S. 3. Review Literature ○ Comprehensive overview of what is and is not known ○ Why is this research important to begin with? 4. Develop a hypothesis/hypotheses ○ Testable explanations of a problem, phenomenon, or observation ○ Statement of what you expect to find ○ Example: Students who get eight hours of sleep are more likely to get higher grades 5. Develop a hypothesis/hypotheses ○ Dependent variable: the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain ○ Independent variable: A measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable ○ Example: Students who get eight hours of sleep are more likely to get higher gradesOperationalization: process of transforming a concept into something that can be measured ● Example: Students who get eight hours of sleep are more likely to get higher grades ● Example: Students who get higher grades are more likely to be religious 6. Analyzing Results ○ Use of statistical techniques and software used to analyze your data 7. Sharing the Results ○ Sharing findings with scientific community ○ If research is published, “it belongs to the scientific community” Validity The extent to which a variable measures what it is supposed to Reliability Likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure Choosing a research method: 1. Surveys 2. Participant Observation 3. Case Studies 4. Secondary Analysis 5. Documents 6. Experiments Population: Target group being studied Sample: Individuals from the target group that represent the population being studiedCensus: Studying the entire group (Everyone in the U.S.) Random Sample: Completely random group of people (Pull names out of a hat) Stratified Random Sample: It must consist of a variety of people ● Different races ● Age range ● Income 1. Survey Research: ○ Collection of data by having people answer a series of questions (questionnaires) ○ Examples: General Social Survey, American Community Survey, The National Survey of Family Growth, The National Crime Victimization Survey, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health 2. Participant Observation: ○ Qualitative research method in which researcher participates in research setting while observing what is happening 3. Case Studies: ○ An intensive analysis of a single event, situation, or individual 4. Documents: ○ Written sources that provide data or any sort of archival material 5. Secondary Analysis: ○ The analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers ○ Example: Census, National Crime Victimization Survey, American Community Survey 6. Experimentation: ○ The use of control and experimental groups and independent and dependent variables to test causationCorrelation: The relationship between variables in which they change together; may or may not be causal Poorer health ->Lower Income Causality: The notion that a change in one factor/variable directly produces a change in the other Conditions for Causality: 1. Correlation-there must be an associate of two or more variables 2. Temporal Order 3. No Spurious Correlation-ruling out other alternatives Correlation: Positive Correlation-values increase together Example: The higher the education, the higher the salary as well Negative Correlation-one values increase as the other decreases Example: The more parties attended, the lower the grades Temporal Order (Time Order): One thing happens before something else does Example: Can’t become pregnant without having sex first Spurious Correlations: The relationship between two variables may be due to some underlying third variable Example: Ice cream reduces the risk of drowning and people tend to do both of these things in the summer. Summer is the only way the two things are relatedEthics in Social Research: ● Privacy ● Anonymity ● Confidentiality ● No harm ● No falsification of results ● No Plagiarism ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Why are sociologists interested in types of societies? Principle: The type of society we live in is the fundamental reason for why we become who we are. Types of Societies: 1. Hunting and Gathering ○ Few social divisions and little inequality ○ Simplest forms of societies ○ Members have adapted to environments and they have leisures than members of other societies ○ Few still on Earth 2. Pastoral and Horticultural Societies ○ Pasturing of animals ○ Horticulture (gardening, production of crops) ○ Division of labor ○ Increase in possessions ->Decrease in inequality 3. Agricultural Societies ○ Development of cities and culture ○ People controlled the growing surplus of resources ○ Inequality becomes a part of society 4. Industrial Societies ○ Industrial Revolution○ Initially, very little workers’ rights ○ Eventually, more workers’ rights and less inequality ○ Less manual labor, steam engine ○ England 5. Post Industrial (Information) Societies ○ Don’t “produce” anything ○ Built on information ○ Currently in this society 6. Biotech Societies ○ Applying and altering genetic structures to produce food, medicine, and materials Group: people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant. (social group) Aggregate: individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but don’t see themselves as belonging together Example: People standing in line at the grocery store, people in an elevator Category: people, objects, and events have similar characteristics and are classified together Anomie (Durkheim): “Our society is huge and dominating, sometimes even threatening and oppressive. This can create a bewildering sense of not belonging” Small groups help prevent anomie: Small groups = buffer ● Individual and larger society Small groups provide: ● Intimate relationships ● Sense of belonging (all humans need belonging)Primary Groups: ● A small group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face associate and cooperation ● Buffer from larger society Secondary Groups: ● Larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, more formal, more impersonal based on some interest or activity Deviance and Social Control: Deviance: Any transgression/violations of socially established norms ● The violation may be minor or serious ● Sociologists use the term in a non-judgemental way ● A person doesn’t even have to do anything to be considered deviant Stigma: Characteristics that discredit people’s claim to a “normal” identity (Erving Goffman) ● Can be a person’s master status Informal Deviance: minor violations of norms Formal Deviance: major violations of norms ➢ Crime Crime: the violation of laws enacted by society Deviant Behavior: can change from time to time and place to place; “Normal” behavior in one cultural setting may be labeled “deviant” in another Norms: Without norms -> social chaos Norms -> social order Social order: a group’s customary social arrangement*Deviance undermines predictability, the foundation of social life Social Control: ​a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing its norms Sanctions: Negative sanctions: expression of disapproval for breaking the norm Positive sanctions: expressive of approval for following the norm Sociobiological: ● Genetic approach ● XXY theory (abandoned) ● Certain traits make survivability more likely Behavior (Deviant or Conforming) is made up of inherited propensities and modified by the environment Psychological: Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Differential Association Theory: ● From the different groups we associate with, we learn to deviate from or conform to society’s norms ○ Families ○ Friends ○ Neighborhoods ○ Prisons Control Theory: ● The idea that two control systems (inner and outer controls) work against our tendencies to deviate Inner control: internalized morality Outer control: consist of people who influence us not to deviateStronger bonds in society, strengthens our inner control. These bonds are based on: ● Attachment ● Commitment ● Involvements ● Beliefs Labeling Theory: ● Focuses on the significance of reputations, thus channeling behavior into deviance or conformity *Degradation Ceremony (Garfinkel) *Techniques of Neutralization Functionalist Perspective: Strain Theory: ● How mainstream values produce deviance ● Cultural goals = success of some sort ● Institutional means = legitimate ways to success ● Blocked institutional means = Anomie (feeling of not belonging) Conflict Perspective Criminal Justice System: ● A tool designed by the powerful to maintain power and prestige ● For the poor, the law is an instrument of oppression ● Power elite develop the legal system which is used to stabilize social order Street Crime (poor and lower class): ❏ Robbery, burglary, drug dealing, prostitution, pimping, etc. White Collar Crime (middle and upper class): ❏ Embezzling moneyRacial Relations Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations Population transfer: Forced transfer of a minority group (Indirect or Direct) Internal Colonialism: The policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain Segregation: The policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart Assimilation: The process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture (Forced or Permissible) Pluralism: A policy that encourages ethnic differences

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