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ASU / Biology / BIO 181 / What is scientific method and its steps?

What is scientific method and its steps?

What is scientific method and its steps?


School: Arizona State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology I
Professor: Katsanos abraham
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 181 Week 1 notes
Description: Scientific method, cells, DNA & RNA
Uploaded: 01/14/2017
2 Pages 94 Views 2 Unlocks

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Nature of Science

  • Scientific Method steps:
  • Observation
  • Question
  • Hypothesis
  • Prediction
  • Experiment
  • Analysis
  • The study of how cognition, behavior, biomechanics, and physiology are all ways of approaching biology, the science of how life works.
  • Cognition - nerves carrying information to the brain, permitting identification.
  • Experimentation - disciplined and controlled way of asking and answering questions about the world in an unbiased manner.
  • A good hypothesis makes predictions about observations not yet made or experiments not yet run, and you need to be able to test them.
  • In a controlled experiment, they set up several groups to be tested, keeping the conditions and setup as similar as possible. The variable is different.
  • 4 key characteristics of living organisms
  • Complexity
  • Ability to change in response to environment
  • Ability to reproduce
  • Capacity to evolve
  • Both living and nonliving are subject to basic laws of chemistry and physics.
  • Hydrogen and helium make up 99% of known matter
  • Two laws of thermodynamics determine how living organisms are able to do work and maintain their spatial organization
  • First law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
  • Second law of thermodynamics states that the degree of disorder in the universe tends to increase. (possible positions and motions of molecules)
  • Entropy - amount of disorder in a system
  • The cell is the smallest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life.
  • First essential feature of a cell is its ability to store and transmit information
  • Proteins determine internal architecture, its shape, its ability to move, and its chemical reactions
  • Proteins create a copy of DNA information into RNA, the synthesis of RNA from DNA template is called transcription.
  • Translation then converts info stored in the language of nucleic acids to information in the language of proteins.
  • The pathway of DNA to RNA to central dogma.
  • Plasma membrane separates the living material within a cell from the nonliving environment.
  • Prokaryotes = no nucleus, first cell to emerge
  • A virus infects a cell by binding to the cell's surface inserting its genetic material into the cell.
  • Two types of variation: environmental and genetic
  • Nucleic acids store the information needed to grow and function.
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