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CLEMSON / Biology / BIOL 1040 / What is the process of ingestion in digestion?

What is the process of ingestion in digestion?

What is the process of ingestion in digestion?


School: Clemson University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology II
Professor: Surver
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 1040 week one notes
Description: Information from powerpoint and information that was said in class but was not on the powerpoint slides.
Uploaded: 01/14/2017
2 Pages 98 Views 1 Unlocks

WEEK 1 Biology

Hat is the process of ingestion in digestion?

Chapter 20 1-12-17


-There are three; Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

-Archaea and Bacteria are prokaryotes and Eukarya are eukaryotes

What is an animal?



-heterotrophs (cannot produce their own food so they must go acquire it) -Individual cells lack cell walls

-gain food and nutrition through ingestion with internal digestion

-Typically diploid (two sets of chromosomes) and reproduce sexually Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the limit of a function of a function?

~form haploid eggs and sperm fusing during fertilization to form a zygote ~zygotes divide by mitosis forming a multicellular embryonic blastula We also discuss several other topics like What is concept of the systems theory in psychology?

~blastula enfolds to form a gastrula with 2-3 germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and  mesoderm)

What are the three germ layers formed during gastrulation?

~The ectoderm (outmost layer of the gastrula) becomes the skin

~ The endoderm (innermost layer of the gastrula) becomes the digestive system ~The mesoderm (middle germ layer) becomes everything in between

Evolution does not have a perfect design

-example: Laryngeal nerve focuses on swallowing, vocal sounds, and breathing -However, the nerve goes from the brain to the heart and loops under the aorta and goes back  to the brain.

-Not perfect because it could just connect from the brain to the mouth/throat. Structure fits function:

-There is a hierarchy of organization, structure, and function Don't forget about the age old question of Why did plato and not socrates write everything socrates said and did?

~cells????tissues????organs????organ systems???? organisms

What type of tissue covers body surfaces lines internal surfaces and forms glands?

Anatomy: study of the form of an organism’s structures

Physiology: study of the functions of an organism’s structures

Animals exhibit different forms of organization

Tissue: similar cells, same structure performing a common function

~Not a tissue until cells are working with other cells of the same type

Organ: specialized structure consisting of 2 or more different tissues working together to  perform a task or function.

Organ system: group of related organs working together to perform vital body functions. ~you cannot live without one of your organ systems

Organism: A living thing usually comprised of many organ systems functioning together to  sustain life of the living thing.

EXAMPLE: Multiple cardiac cells work together to form cardiac muscle tissue which functions to  help contract the heart. Then There is connective tissue and epithelial tissue to help connect the  cardiac muscles and move the blood through the heart with help of contractions from the  cardiac muscles. Since it has two tissues it is now an organ which is the heart. Now if you include  the blood vessels which also contain different types of tissues (muscle and epithelial) you now  have two organs which composes an organ system.We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of prejudice in implicit attitudes?


-There are four main types; epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous Epithelial tissue:

-Sheets of closely packed cells covering body surfaces, lining organs and body cavities and  forming glands.

~ (cheeks, skin, etc.)

-They are named through shape of cells on the apical surface and the number of cell layers ~The apical surface is the surface facing the environment

-Note- The layer under the apical surface is the basal membrane (or basal matrix) which is  fibrous proteins that give support to the cells attached.

~The layer under that is just underlying tissue

So, the basal membrane helps connect the apical surface and the underlying tissue together. Epithelial tissue has 3 basic shapes

-squamous: flattened like a fried egg

-cuboidal: as tall as they are wide (like a cube)

-columnar: taller than they are wide

Cell layers:

-simple: single layer

-stratified: multiple layers If you want to learn more check out How are drugs excreted from the body?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of basal ganglia?

general functions of epithelial tissue:


-higher level selectively permeable barrier involved in secretion, absorption, excretion &  filtration.

~NOTE: not all epithelial tissues will have the functions listed above

Simple squamous epithelium:

-Irregularly shaped cells flatted like an egg and are only one layer.

-layers capillary walls and the walls of alveoli in lungs

-offers protection from infection (airborne)

Simple Cuboidal epithelium:

-cells that are cube shaped and are only one layer.

-cells line tubules in kidneys and glands secreting fluid

~In liver where secretions are held in sacs/ducts with simple cuboidal epithelium.

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