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BAYLOR UNIVERSITY / Engineering / PSY 1305 / which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious thought process

which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious thought process

which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious thought process

Description

School: Baylor University
Department: Engineering
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Rachel clark
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: Free
Name: PSY 1305, week 1
Description: Prologue and Chapter 1
Uploaded: 01/14/2017
9 Pages 99 Views 2 Unlocks
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∙ Why is intuition overused and errors made?




⮚ How might they have helped our ancestors survive?




⮚ What function might they serve?



Psychological Science is Born ∙ Aristotle (4th century BCE) o Used observation and questioning to understand the body-psyche relationship o Questions were answered through observations (and guesses) ∙ Wihelm Wundt (1832-1920) o Defined psychology as “science of mental life” o Added 2 key elements to enhance scientific nature of psychIf you want to learn more check out mollye demosthenidy
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ology ⮚ Carefully measured observations ⮚ Experiments Structuralism: early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal  the structure of the human mind ∙ Edward Titchener (1867-1927) o Mentored by Wundt o Relied on “self-report” data o Introspection: reporting on sensations and other elements of experience in reaction to  stimuli ⮚ Used these introspective reports to build a view of the mind’s structure Functionalism: early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how  mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish  ∙ William James (1842-1910) o Studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and asked… ⮚ What function might they serve? ⮚ How might they have helped our ancestors survive? o Authored Principles of Psychology First Women in Psychology ∙ Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) o Became memory researcher and 1st APA female president o Studied with James but discriminated against and denied her PhD ∙ Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) o Became 2nd APA female president o Wrote The Animal Mind o Barred from an experimental psychology organization Psychological Science Develops ∙ Behaviorism o Defined psychology as “scientific study of observable behavior” without reference to  mental processes (most psychologists today disagree that it be without reference to  mental processes)  o Became major force in psychology into 1960s ∙ Proponents o John B. Watson (classical conditioning) and B.F. Skinner (operant conditioning)  dismissed introspection o Watson and Rayner conduced famous “Little Albert” experiments ⮚ presents an example of how classical conditioning can be used to condition an  emotional response (fear) ∙ Sigmund Freud  o Emphasized ways unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood  experiences affect later behavior o Was second major force until 1960s ∙ Humanistic psychology o Revived interest in study of mental processes o Focused on ways current environments nurture or limit growth potential and  importance of having need for love and acceptance satisfied o Led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ∙ Cognitive Revolution (1960): focus returns to interest in mental processes o Cognitive psychology: scientifically explored ways in which information is perceived,  processed, and remembered o Cognitive neuroscience: ties the science of the mind (cognitive psychology) and the  science of the brain (neuroscience) and focuses on brain activity underlying mental  activity Modern Definition of Psychology Mental  processes:  internal  subjective  experience  inferred from  behavior Psychology:  science of  mental  processes  and  behavior Behavior:  any action  that can be  observed  or  recordedContemporary Psychology ∙ Psychology is a growing and globalizing field o Psychology’s pioneers have come from many fields: physiology, philosophy, medicine, and  biology o This contributed to the growing understanding of biology and experience and fueled the  nature-nurture debate ∙ Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics (nature v. nurture) o Nature ⮚ Plato: character and intelligence inherited; some ideas inborn ⮚ Descartes: some ideas are intuitive ⮚ Darwin: some traits, behaviors, and instincts are part of species; natural  selection o Nurture ⮚ Aristotle: content of mind comes through senses ⮚ Locke: mind is blank slate Psychology’s 3 main levels of analysis ∙ Biological influences o Genetic predispositions (genetically influenced traits)  o Genetic mutations o Natural selection of adaptive traits and behaviors passed down through generations o Genes responding to the environment ∙ Psychological Influences o Learned fears and other learned expectations o Emotional responses  o Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations ∙ Social-cultural influences o Presence of others o Cultural, societal, and family expectations o Peer and other group influences o Compelling models (such as in the media)SQ3R study methodThe Need for Psychological Science  ∙ Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense ∙ Three phenomena illustrate this o Hindsight bias: tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have  predicted it; “I knew it all along” phenomenon o Judgmental overconfidence: thinking you know more than you actually do; this occurs in  academic and social behavior o Tendency to perceive patterns to make sense of their world (random events);  coincidence error ∙ Why is intuition overused and errors made? o Hindsight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random  events often lead us to overestimate our intuition o But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion The Scientific Attitude ∙ Curiosity o Having an interest to explore and understand the world without misleading or being  misled o Questions to consider ⮚ What do you mean? ⮚ How do you know? ∙ Skepticism o Asking questions about behavior and mental processes ∙ Humility  o Being aware that mistakes are possible o Willingness to be surprised ∙ Critical thinking o Carefully forming and evaluating knowledge o In addition to the scientific method, critical thinking helps develop more effective and  accurate ways to figure out why people think the way they do The Scientific Method ∙ Theory o Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and  predicts behaviors or events o A good theory… ⮚ Effectively organizes  ⮚ Leads to clear predictions ⮚ Often stimulates research ⮚ May be replicated ∙ Hypothesis o Testable prediction, often implied by a theory ∙ Operational definitiono Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research  study ∙ Replication o Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in  different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and  circumstances ∙ Testing a hypothesis and refining theories o Description o Correlation o Experiments Research Strategies: Description ∙ Descriptive research is a systematic, objective observation of people ∙ The goal is to provide a clear, accurate picture of people’s behaviors, thoughts, and attributes ∙ Case studies o Examines one individual in depth o Provides fruitful ideas o Cannot be used to generalize ∙ Naturalistic observations o Records behavior in natural environment o Describes but does not explain behavior o Can be revealing ∙ Surveys and interviews  o Examines many cases in less depth ⮚ Wording effect: the results you get from a survey can be changed by your word  selection ▪ “…making it legal for doctors to give terminally ill patients the means to  end their lives”  ▪ “…making it legal for doctors to assist terminally ill patients in  committing suicide” ⮚ Random sampling o Utilizes random sampling of population for best results Research Strategies: Correlation ∙ General definition: an observation that two traits or attributes are related to each other (thus,  they are “co”-related) ∙ Scientific definition: a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can  predict a change in one from observing a change in the other ∙ Correlation coefficient o Provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one  predicts the other ∙ Positive correlation (between 0 and +1.00) o Indicates a direct relationship ???? two things increase together or decrease together⮚ Example: people who smile more intensely as children (measured by amount of  crow’s feet) are more likely to remain married through middle age ∙ Negative correlation (between 0 and -1.00) o Indicates an inverse relationship ???? as one thing increases, the other decreases  ⮚ Example: people who sleep less than 8 hours a night (on a scale from 0 to 8  hours) on average are more likely to have calcium deposits in their arteries Regression Toward the Mean ∙ Illusory correlation  o Refers to the perception of a relationship between two variables when only a minor or  no relationship actually exists o May be fed by regression toward the mean ∙ Regression toward the mean  o Refers to the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back (regress)  toward the average Correlation and Causation ∙ No matter how strong the relationship, correlation does not prove causation ∙ Correlation indicated the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but does not prove it Research Strategies: Experimentation ∙ With experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in  several ways o Manipulation the factors of interest to determine their effects o Holding constant (“controlling”) other factors ⮚ Experimental group and control group ∙ Double-blind procedure: eliminating bias o Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving  the treatment o Treatment’s actual effects can be separated from potential placebo effect ∙ Placebo effect o Effect involves results caused by expectations alone ∙ Variables o Independent variable: factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being  studied o Confounding variable: factor other than the independent variable that might produce  effect o Dependent variable: factor that is measured; the variable that may change when the  independent variable is manipulated Experimental Design example ∙ During a laboratory game, those given a nasal squirt of oxytocin rather than a placebo were  more likely to trust strangerso Experimental group: nose squirt o Control group: placebo o Independent variable: whether or not they got oxytocin o Dependent variable: whether or not they were trusting  Protecting Research Participants: Studying and Protecting Animals ∙ Professional associations and funding agency guidelines o Universities: IRB ethics committees; laboratory regulation and inspection o American Psychological Association (APA): Guidelines for humane treatment and  minimization of infection, illness, and pain Protecting Research Participants: Studying and Protecting Humans ∙ Ethics codes of APA and university ethics committee o Obtain potential participants’ informed consent before the experiment o Protect them from harm and discomfort o Keep information about individual participants confidential o Fully debrief people (explain the research afterward) Research Strategies: Psychology’s Research Ethics ∙ Values in research o Affect what is studied, how it is studied, and how results are interpreted o Can color “facts” o Can be influenced by popular application of psychology Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Describing Data ∙ Accurate statistical understanding is important o Causal estimates often misread reality and misinform o Big, round, undocumented numbers warrant caution o Teaching statistical reasoning is needed o Presentation of statistical information needs more transparency ∙ Measures of central tendency include a single score that represents a set of scores o Mode: most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution o Mean: arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then  dividing by the number of scores; can be distorted by few atypical scores o Median: middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it ∙ Measures of variation reveal similarity or diversity in scores o Range: difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution o Standard deviation: computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean  score o Normal curve (normal distribution: symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the  distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life: Significant Differences∙ When is an observed difference reliable? o Representative samples are better than biased samples o Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable o More cases are better than fewer ∙ Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are unreliable ∙ When is an observed difference significant? o When sample averages are reliable and difference between them is relatively large, the  difference has statistical significance o Observed difference is probably not due to chance variation between the samples o In psychological research, proof beyond a reasonable doubt means that the odds of its  occurrence by chance are less than 5 percent

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