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UO / Poltica / Pol 306 / the two major kinds of social influence are

the two major kinds of social influence are

the two major kinds of social influence are

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Poltica
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Jordan pennefather
Term: Winter 2017
Tags: Gestalt, social, Psychology, and SocialPsychology
Cost: Free
Name: Social psychology week 1 lecture and reading notes
Description: This week's material covered an introduction to social psychology, how situations impact our choices, two major human goals (nee for accuracy and need for good self-esteem), and Gestalt psychology.
Uploaded: 01/17/2017
10 Pages 83 Views 9 Unlocks
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3 What happens when people's need to feel good aboutthemselves conflicts with their need to be accurate?




2 Why does it matter how people explain andinterpretevents- and their own and others' behavior?




1 What is social psychology?



SOC 306 Social Psych week 1 Not ebook: Social Psych Cre at ed: 1/16/2017 12:41 AM Updat e d: 1/16/2017 11:07PMLecture: Social Psychology Introduction social influence: the effect words, actions, or presence of others haveonourthoughts, If you want to learn more check out biochemistry uab
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feelings, attitudes or behaviors to understand soc influence, more important to understand howpeople perceive and interpret the social world than it is to understand thatworld objectively construct refers to the world as the individual interprets it social psy are interested in the origin of these construals naive realism construal that the way in which we perceive the world is the way it "reallyis" all people demonstrate this construal  intuitions/common sense are often faulty e.g. too many cooks spoil the broth, two heads better than onee.g. opposites attract, birds of a feather flock together the power of social influence difficult to convince people that behavior is influenced by social interactions fundamental attribution error the tendency to explain our own and other people's behaviors entirely interms of personality traits, thereby underestimating the power of social influence why we underestimate social influence When we underestimate the power of social influence, we gain a feeling offalse security We can feel like we could never engage in similar repugnant behaviorsshown by others this increases our personal vulnerability to possible destructiveAspects of a social situation that seem minor may in fact have powerful effects Personality differences do exist and are often of the great importanceHowever, the social situation may be so powerful that is has dramaticeffects on almost everyone the subjectivity of the social situation Human beings are sense making creatures, constantly interpreting thingshow they behave in a given sit is not determined by objective condition ofthe sit, rather by how they perceive (construe) it to be  behaviorists chose not to deal with cognition, thinking, feeling; theyconsidered these concepts vague behaviorism therefore has proved inadequate for complete understandingof the social world we need to look at the situation from the viewpoint of the people in it, tosee how they construe the world. where construals come from if it is true that subjective and not objective situations influence people, then we need to understand how people arrive at their subjectiveimpressions of the world what are people trying to accomplish when they interpret the social worldsocial behavior is goal- directed We do not wander aimlessly around soc world; we are motivatedtwo major human goals 1. need for accuracy  2. self-esteem  social behavior is an interaction between person and situationperson: features of characteristics that people carries situation: environment events or circumstances outside the personbehavior: overlap between situation and person Textbook reading for week 1; chapter 1 1.1 What is social psychology?Social psychology: the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts,feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presenceof otherpeople  social influence: a major part of social psych  broader than just attempts by one person to influence another   includes thought, feelings, and overt acts  many other forms than just deliberate attempts at persuasionBenedict Spinoza; 1663 Dutch philosopher  proposed that if we call in love with someone whom we formerlyhated, that love will be stronger than if the hatred had not precededdoes this always hold up?; what are the conditions under which itholds up empirical questions: questions with answers that can be derivedfrom experimentation or measurement rated tank personal opinionsocial psychologists want to know which of many possibleexplanations is most likely Answering questions first, make a hypothesis (an educated guess) then, design a well-controlled experiment sophisticated enough totease out the situations that would result in one or another outcomefolk wisdom are good, but do not always agree with one anotherand therefore should not be the primary evidence personality psychologists vs. social psychologist personality psychologists focus on individual differences in people'spersonalities personality psychology increases understanding of human behavior,but social psychologists believe that explaining behavior primarilythrough personality traits ignores a critical part of the story; thepowerful role played by social influence social psychologists; level of analysis is the individual in the contextof a social situation  goal is to identify properties of human nature that makealmosteveryone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture many findings of social psych have not been tested in other countries(mostly U. S.) sociology; level of analysis is the group, institution, or society at large1.2 Why does it matter how people explain andinterpretevents- and their own and others' behavior? Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to explain our ownandotherpeople's behavior entirely in terms of personality traits and to underestimatethepower of social influence and the immediate situation behaviors often caused by situation and not personality e.g. Lee Ross study (Liberman, Samuels, & Ross, 2004);  asked RA's to come up with a list of undergrads who werecompetitive and who were cooperative next, students asked to play a game half asked to play "Wall Street" game, other half asked to play"Community" game showed that students personality did not matter; students played tothe name of the game the importance of interpretation behaviorism: a school of psychology maintaining that to understandhuman behavior construal: interpretation (of an environment or event situation influences behavior, behavior also depends on construal Gestalt psychology: came about in 1930's by German psychologists Kurt Lewin, founding father of modern experimental social psychologyproposed as a theory of how people perceive the physical world; states weshould study the subjective way in which an object appears in people'sminds (the gestalt, or whole) rather than the way in which the objective,physical attributes of the object combine e.g. One way to see how people perceive an overall image of a paintingwould be to break it down inti its individual elements, such as the exactamounts of primary colors applied to the different parts of the canvas, brushstrokes used, and different geometric shapes they form. 1.3 What happens when people's need to feel good aboutthemselves conflicts with their need to be accurate?Social psychologists emphasize the importance of two central motives1. the need to feel good about ourselves and2. the need to be accurate Leon Festinger; when these two motives pull in opposite directions, wecan gain our most valuable insights into the working mindhumans prefer good self-esteem over being accurate; e.g. Oscar goes through embarrassing hazing to become fraternitymember; later Oscar finds out the fraternity brothers are assholes;Oscar asks himself, "why did I go through all of that to live withthese assholes?"; to avoid hurting his ego, he will try to justify hisreasons for undergoing hazing by distorting the view of the frat brothers social cognition: how people select, interpret, remember, and useinformation to make judgments and decisions often people make mistakes when trying to understand and predictthe world as we often don't have all the required knowledgeexpectations of the social world often interfere with perceiving it accuratelySOC 306 Social Psych week 1 Not ebook: Social Psych Cre at ed: 1/16/2017 12:41 AM Updat e d: 1/16/2017 11:07PMLecture: Social Psychology Introduction social influence: the effect words, actions, or presence of others haveonourthoughts, feelings, attitudes or behaviors to understand soc influence, more important to understand howpeople perceive and interpret the social world than it is to understand thatworld objectively construct refers to the world as the individual interprets it social psy are interested in the origin of these construals naive realism construal that the way in which we perceive the world is the way it "reallyis" all people demonstrate this construal  intuitions/common sense are often faulty e.g. too many cooks spoil the broth, two heads better than onee.g. opposites attract, birds of a feather flock together the power of social influence difficult to convince people that behavior is influenced by social interactions fundamental attribution error the tendency to explain our own and other people's behaviors entirely interms of personality traits, thereby underestimating the power of social influence why we underestimate social influence When we underestimate the power of social influence, we gain a feeling offalse security We can feel like we could never engage in similar repugnant behaviorsshown by others this increases our personal vulnerability to possible destructiveAspects of a social situation that seem minor may in fact have powerful effects Personality differences do exist and are often of the great importanceHowever, the social situation may be so powerful that is has dramaticeffects on almost everyone the subjectivity of the social situation Human beings are sense making creatures, constantly interpreting thingshow they behave in a given sit is not determined by objective condition ofthe sit, rather by how they perceive (construe) it to be  behaviorists chose not to deal with cognition, thinking, feeling; theyconsidered these concepts vague behaviorism therefore has proved inadequate for complete understandingof the social world we need to look at the situation from the viewpoint of the people in it, tosee how they construe the world. where construals come from if it is true that subjective and not objective situations influence people, then we need to understand how people arrive at their subjectiveimpressions of the world what are people trying to accomplish when they interpret the social worldsocial behavior is goal- directed We do not wander aimlessly around soc world; we are motivatedtwo major human goals 1. need for accuracy  2. self-esteem  social behavior is an interaction between person and situationperson: features of characteristics that people carries situation: environment events or circumstances outside the personbehavior: overlap between situation and person Textbook reading for week 1; chapter 1 1.1 What is social psychology?Social psychology: the scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts,feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presenceof otherpeople  social influence: a major part of social psych  broader than just attempts by one person to influence another   includes thought, feelings, and overt acts  many other forms than just deliberate attempts at persuasionBenedict Spinoza; 1663 Dutch philosopher  proposed that if we call in love with someone whom we formerlyhated, that love will be stronger than if the hatred had not precededdoes this always hold up?; what are the conditions under which itholds up empirical questions: questions with answers that can be derivedfrom experimentation or measurement rated tank personal opinionsocial psychologists want to know which of many possibleexplanations is most likely Answering questions first, make a hypothesis (an educated guess) then, design a well-controlled experiment sophisticated enough totease out the situations that would result in one or another outcomefolk wisdom are good, but do not always agree with one anotherand therefore should not be the primary evidence personality psychologists vs. social psychologist personality psychologists focus on individual differences in people'spersonalities personality psychology increases understanding of human behavior,but social psychologists believe that explaining behavior primarilythrough personality traits ignores a critical part of the story; thepowerful role played by social influence social psychologists; level of analysis is the individual in the contextof a social situation  goal is to identify properties of human nature that makealmosteveryone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture many findings of social psych have not been tested in other countries(mostly U. S.) sociology; level of analysis is the group, institution, or society at large1.2 Why does it matter how people explain andinterpretevents- and their own and others' behavior? Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to explain our ownandotherpeople's behavior entirely in terms of personality traits and to underestimatethepower of social influence and the immediate situation behaviors often caused by situation and not personality e.g. Lee Ross study (Liberman, Samuels, & Ross, 2004);  asked RA's to come up with a list of undergrads who werecompetitive and who were cooperative next, students asked to play a game half asked to play "Wall Street" game, other half asked to play"Community" game showed that students personality did not matter; students played tothe name of the game the importance of interpretation behaviorism: a school of psychology maintaining that to understandhuman behavior construal: interpretation (of an environment or event situation influences behavior, behavior also depends on construal Gestalt psychology: came about in 1930's by German psychologists Kurt Lewin, founding father of modern experimental social psychologyproposed as a theory of how people perceive the physical world; states weshould study the subjective way in which an object appears in people'sminds (the gestalt, or whole) rather than the way in which the objective,physical attributes of the object combine e.g. One way to see how people perceive an overall image of a paintingwould be to break it down inti its individual elements, such as the exactamounts of primary colors applied to the different parts of the canvas, brushstrokes used, and different geometric shapes they form. 1.3 What happens when people's need to feel good aboutthemselves conflicts with their need to be accurate?Social psychologists emphasize the importance of two central motives1. the need to feel good about ourselves and2. the need to be accurate Leon Festinger; when these two motives pull in opposite directions, wecan gain our most valuable insights into the working mindhumans prefer good self-esteem over being accurate; e.g. Oscar goes through embarrassing hazing to become fraternitymember; later Oscar finds out the fraternity brothers are assholes;Oscar asks himself, "why did I go through all of that to live withthese assholes?"; to avoid hurting his ego, he will try to justify hisreasons for undergoing hazing by distorting the view of the frat brothers social cognition: how people select, interpret, remember, and useinformation to make judgments and decisions often people make mistakes when trying to understand and predictthe world as we often don't have all the required knowledgeexpectations of the social world often interfere with perceiving it accurately

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