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UNL / Sociology / SOCI 101 / culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what i

culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what i

culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what i

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 Who has authority/influence?




o Why should we have a picnic?




∙ How can we share ideas about the past or future without language?



Sociology 101 Chapter 2.1-2.3 Textbook Notes ∙ 2.1 What is Culture? o Culture—the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and  material objects that are passed down from one generation to  the next  Material culture—jewelry, art, buildings, weapons,  machines, eating utensils, hairstyles  Nonmaterial culture—a groups ways of tDon't forget about the age old question of mul2010
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hinking and doing  (beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world,  language, gestures)  High culture—cultural patterns that distinguish society’s  elite ∙ Ex. Eating caviar  Popular culture—cultural patterns that are widespread  among a population ∙ Ex. Eating cheeseburgers ∙ Mass media o How popular culture has spread across US ∙ Influence of celebrities o Body images, clothing o People are more likely to buy or use a product  based on a celebrity endorsement  Subculture—cultural patterns that set apart some segment  of a society’s population ∙ People can participate in many subcultures at once  or change subcultures over the course of their lives  Counterculture—cultural patterns that oppose those widely accepted in society ∙ Hippie movement of 1960s o Rejected mainstream individualistic society for  communal living  Subcultures and counterculture can become mainstream ∙ Ex. Tattoos  Culture is changing/shapes how we think and feel ∙ Ex. Elvis’s hips vs. modern day sexual images in  movies o Values and beliefs vary between cultures and change over time  Define a society and communicate to others what a society is about  Values—culturally defined standards that underlie beliefs  and serve as guidelines for living∙ US values individualism (Self-sufficiency, patriotism,  etc) ∙ France’s value on enjoying life ∙ Ethno-centrism—judging a culture by our culture  Beliefs—ideas that we hold to be true o Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientations to Life  Take our speech, gestures, beliefs, and customs for granted ∙ They are “normal” we don’t notice them  Culture touches almost every aspect of who we are ∙ We were born complete innocent, without culture  Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and  evaluate what is going on around us  Culture shock—disorientation when your culture no longer  enabled you to make sense out of the world  ethnocentrism—a tendency to use our own group’s way of  doing things as a yardstick for judging others  ∙ William Sumner founded this idea ∙ Positive: creates in-group loyalties ∙ Negative: discrimination o There is nothing natural about material culture o There is nothing natural about nonmaterial culture o Culture penetrates deeply into our thinking, becoming a taken for-granted lens through which we see the world o Culture provides implicit instructions that tells us what we ought  to do/how we ought to think o Culture provides a “moral imperative”…the culture we internalize becomes the right way of doing things o Coming into contact with a radically different culture challenges  our basic assumptions about life o Culture itself is universal (with different variations) o All people are ethnocentric, which has both positive and negative consequences o Cultural Diversity around the world  Beliefs about what happen to people when they die ∙ GhostsChinese o Ghosts need money to pay for food, housing,  etc. o Ghosts now need more money than ever for  computers, iPads, TVs, etc  Ghost stores sell paper replicas of these  items  Prices in the ghost world keep increasingo Cultural Relativism  Try to understand a culture on its own terms  Looking at how elements of a culture fit together without  judging them as inferior or superior to our own way of life  Attempt to refocus our lens of perception so we can  appreciate other ways of life  Sick Societies ∙ Anthropologist Robert Edgerton o Said we should develop a scale for evaluating  cultures on their “quality of life”  ∙ 2.2 Components of Symbolic Culture o symbolic culture—nonmaterial culture, consists of symbols that  people use o symbol—something to which people attach meaning that they  use to communicate with one another  gestures, values, sanctions, etc. o in sociology, society and culture mean two different things  society ∙ a group of people who live in the same territory and  share a common culture   culture ∙ material/nonmaterial sides ∙ what we learn and carry in our heads ∙ values—culturally defined standards that serve as  guidelines for living ∙ beliefs—things we hold to be true ∙ all societies have values and beliefs  o differences in cultural values and beliefs between societies are  often small o variations in cultural values and beliefs of people that live within  societies o Gestures  Movements of the body to communicate with others  ∙ Shorthand ways to convey messages w/o words o Meanings can change completely between  cultures  Misunderstanding and offense ∙ Facilitate communication or misunderstanding o Ex. Indicating height of a person, plant, or  anima  Universal Gestures ∙ Some anthropologists say no gesture is universalo Not even nodding your head ∙ Ethologists claim facial expressions are universal o Even infants who are blind and deaf express  themselves in these same ways o Language  Symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of  ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought ∙ Sounds may change meaning in different language  ∙ Language allows culture to exist  Language allows human experience to be cumulative ∙ We pass ideas, knowledge, and attitudes onto next  generations ∙ Allows culture to develop by freeing people to move  beyond their immediate experiences  Allows our culture to be advanced ∙ How can we share ideas about the past or future  without language?  Language provides a social or shared past ∙ Without it, we would have few memories since we  assoc. experiences with words ∙ As we talk about the past, we develop shared  understanding/past  Language provides a social/shared future ∙ Enables us to agree on times, dates, and places (plan activities with one another)  Language allows shared perspectives ∙ Provides us with social/shared past and future ∙ Exchange ideas about events/sharing ideas and  perspectives ∙ Words are the embodiment of our experiences  Language allows shared, goal-directed behavior ∙ We can establish a purpose for getting together o Why should we have a picnic? Its my birthday,  it’s a nice day, etc.   Takes us beyond world of apes and allows culture to  develop  Basis of culture o Language and Perception  Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis ∙ 1930s  ∙ language has embedded within it ways of looking at  the world∙ challenges common sense ∙ our language determines our consciousness and  perception of objects and events o jam v jelly o dried fruits v nuts  Values, Norms, and Sanctions ∙ Values—ideas of what is desirable in life  ∙ Norms—those expectations (rules of behavior) that  develop out of a group’s values ∙ Sanctions—reactions people receive for following or  breaking norms o Positive sanction—approval for following norm  Hi 5, pat on the back, raise at work o Negative sanction---disapproval for breaking a  norm   Being fined in court, harsh words, frowns, getting fired ∙ Moral holidays—specified times when people are  allowed to break norms o Mardi Gras  Public drunkenness, nudity ∙ Moral holiday places—locations where norms are  expected to be broken o Red light districts o Party Cove at Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri o Folkways, Mores, and Taboos  Folkways—norms that are not strictly enforced ∙ Passing someone on the right side of the sidewalk  Mores—norms that are taken more seriously, are essential  to core values ∙ Violating includes stealing, rape, killing  Taboo—a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought  of its violation is greeted with revulsion ∙ Eating human flesh, incest ∙ 2.3 Many Cultural Worlds o Subcultures—groups of people who occupy some small corner of  life that develop a specialized way of communicating with each  other o Subculture—a world within the large world of dominant culture  Not limited to occupations o Countercultures—group’s values and norms place it at odds with  the dominant culture Bike gangs, Aryan extremistsSociology Chapter 2.4-2.7 Textbook Notes ∙ 2.4 Values in U.S. Society o pluralistic society—made up of many different groups o core values—values that are shared by most of the groups   Achievement and success  Individualism   Hard work  Efficiency and practicality   Science and technology   Material comfort   Freedom   Democracy  Equality  Group superiority  Education  Religiosity   Romantic love  o Value Cluster—values that cluster together to form a larger whole  Education, hard work, material comfort, individualism  o Value Contradictions—superiority v. democracy  It is precisely at the point of value contradiction that one  can see a major force for social change in a society  o An Emerging Value Cluster  Leisure ∙ Computer games, boats, spas  Self fulfillment ∙ Becoming all you can be  ∙ Self help books  Physical fitness  Youthfulness ∙ Aging baby boomers   Concern for the environment  Values don’t just happen ∙ Related to conditions of society o Culture wars—the clash in values between traditionalists and  those advocating change  o Ideal culture—values, norms, and goals that a group considers  ideal, worth aiming for   Success o Real culture—norms and values people actually follow  ∙ 2.5 Cultural Universals o cultural universals—values, norms, or other cultural traits that  are found everywhere George Murdock (1945) ∙ Many traditions are present in all cultures o Specific customs differ from between groups  o No society permits generalized incest o A sociobiologist would agree that biology, not culture, is the key  to human behavior  ∙ 2.6 Sociobiology and Human Behavior o sociobiology (neo-Darwinism, evolutionary psychology)—biology  is the key to human behavior  o Edward Wilson (1975)  Said human behavior is the same as that of animals  Biology and its evolution affect our behavior ∙ Likelihood to be alcoholic o Most sociologists say genes are modified by social experiences  We are not prisoners to our genes ∙ 2.7 Technology in the Global Village o The New Technology  Technology—tools, skills or procedures necessary to make  tools  New technology—emerging techn. That has a significant  impact on social life  Technology sets framework for nonmaterial culture ∙ Influences how people think/relate to each other o Cultural Lag/Change  Cultural lag—not all parts of a culture change at the same  pace ∙ William Ogburn  ∙ Material usually changes first, non-material culture  lags behind o Ex. 9 month school year o Technology and Cultural Leveling  Cultural diffusion—groups are most open to changes in  their technology or material culture, when a culture is  exposed to another culture ∙ Global markets o Everyone is connected, travel has become  easier o Electronic communication  Cultural leveling—cultures become more and more similar  to each other ∙ Globalization of capitalism o Technology and Western culture  Dress, music, customs, tools, etc.  Travel and global communication have allowed cultures to  comingle easily and adopt aspects of other cultures. This is an example of cultural leveling.  ∙ Summary/Review o Culture—language, beliefs, values, norms, that are passed from  one generation to the next  Material and nonmaterial (symbolic)  Ideal and real o Ethnocentric—use your own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of others o Cultural relativism—try to understand other cultures on those  cultures own terms o Nonmaterial culture  Symbols  Gestures  Language  Values  Norms  Sanctions, folkways, mores o Language—allows human experience to be goal-directed,  cooperative, cumulative o Sapir-Whorf hypothesis—language shapes our thoughts and  perceptions o Values—standards by which we define what is  desirable/undesirable o Norms---expectations/rules about behavior  Positive sanctions—show approval  Negative—show disapproval o Folkways—norms that aren’t strictly enforced o Mores—norms that a group demands conformity with o Subculture—group whose values/behaviors distinguish its  members from the general culture o Counterculture—values that stand in opposition to those of  dominant culture o Core values—values that dominate a large group o Value contradictions—indicate areas of tension, likely points of  social change o Cultural universal—value, norm, or other cultural trait that is  found in all cultures o Genes influence human behavior but diversity of human behavior indicates that culture overrides genetic influence oSociology Chapter 1.4-1.8 Textbook Notes ∙ 1.4 Values in Sociological Research o Weber said sociologists should be value free—personal beliefs  shouldn’t affect research  Objectivity rather than neutrality  Stress the need of replication o Some sociologists say the purpose of their studies is to advance  understanding of social life  Others think sociologists have moral responsibility to  investigate social arrangements that harm people ∙ 1.5 Verstehen and Social Facts o Verstehen—“to understand” “to grasp by insight”  The best interpreter of human behavior is someone who  has been there  Subjective meanings—how people interpret their situation  in life, how they view what they are doing/what is  happening to them ∙ Ex. Homeless men being quiet when talked to  revealed personal despair o Durkheim and Social Facts  Social facts—a groups recurring patterns of behavior  ∙ June is for weddings, suicides are higher in the  elderly, more births on Tuesdays than any other day  of the week  We must use social facts to interpret social facts o Social Facts and Verstehen   Why babies are born on Tuesdays ∙ 1.6 Sociology in North America o first took root in University of Kansans and Chicago  spread rapidly o University of Chicago initially dominated o Sexism  Women expected to do 4 C’s  Marion Talbot ∙ Associate editor of American Journal of Sociology ∙ Grace Abbot o Chief of the US gov Children’s Bureau ∙ Frances Perkins o First woman in the cabinet  Most female sociologists viewed the study as a path to  social reform ∙ Focused on ways to improve society Harriet Martineau ∙ Had to hide her writing beneath sewing when visitors arrived o Various studies on women’s  suffrage/education, sex and slavery, white  women and men in the south  o Racism and W.E.B Dubois  W.E.B ∙ First African American to earn doctorate from  Harvard ∙ The Souls of Black Folk o Analyzed social and economic changes for  African Americans following the Civil War ∙ His hope: “sometime, somewhere, men will judge  men by their souls and not by their skins” o Jane Addams  Recipient of Nobel Peace Prize ∙ Worked on behalf of poor immigrants  Co-founded Hull House ∙ Open to people who needed refuge o Immigrants, sick, aged, poor  Strove to bridge gap between powerful and powerless  Campaigned for laws against child labor o Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills  Robert Park and Ernest Burgess ∙ Studied crime, drug addiction, and juvenile  delinquency, prostitution ∙ Offered suggestions on how to help ∙ Shifted from social reform to social theory  Talcott Parsons ∙ Developed abstract models of society that influenced a generation of sociologists  C. Wright Mills ∙ Urged sociologists to get back to social reform ∙ Power elite o Continuing Tension  Analyzing society vs. working for reform  Basic sociology ∙ No goal rather than gaining knowledge  Applied Sociology ∙ Using sociology to solve problems o Founding of NAACPo Counseling children, disease spreading study ∙ Leslie Green o Marketing Research in PA  Helps develop strategies to get doctors  to prescribe different kinds of drugs ∙ Stanley Capela o Evaluates how children’s programs (housing,  AIDS, preschool education) actually work vs.  how they are supposed to work  ∙ Laurie Banks o Analyzes stats for NYC health dept.  o Noticed that a Polish neighborhood had high  rate of stomach cancer  CDC traced cause to eating large  amounts of sausage o Lack of prenatal care/problems at birth are  linked to low reading skills and behavior  problems in school ∙ Daniel Knapp o Urban Ore  Did research on how to recycle urban  waste/changed waste disposal laws ∙ Clara Rodriguez o Consultant for Dora the Explorer o  Public Sociology ∙ Harnessing the sociological perspective for the  benefit of the public ∙ Devah Pager o Studied how prison record/race affected hiring  for jobs o White men with record more likely to be hired  than African American men with no record!  Social Reform is Risky ∙ Sociologists can try to change “social norms” and  face backlash for that   Sociology took root in America in 1890s  Female sociologists were ignored because their research  focused on social reform ∙ 1.7 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology o theory—generalized statement about how some parts of the  world fit together/work symbolic interactionism, functional analysis, conflict theory ∙ Symbolic Interactionism o Symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world  and communicate with one another  George Herbert Meade (1863-1931)  Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) o Symbols in Everyday Life  Symbols define our relationships ∙ No aunts/uncles/brothers/sisters ∙ Tell us how we are related to others/how we should  act toward them  Relationships and society depend on symbols ∙ Couldn’t coordinate actions with others or make  future plans  Symbolic interactionists analyze how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others  Marriage and Divorce ∙ 100 years ago and less divorce was IMMORAL— marriage was a lifelong commitment  ∙ 1930s people began placing more emphasis on  personality of their potential mates than duty and  obligation ∙ divorce changed from meaning failure to freedom o stigma was removed ∙ parenthood o used to have little responsibility for their  children beyond food, shelter, and moral  guidance  only needed to do this for short time o now parents often support their children until  they are in their 20s or 30s  ∙ meaning of love o love as the main reason for marriage weakens  marriage  love doesn’t give you a constant high  symbolic interactionists look at how changing symbols put  pressure in new areas o Functional Analysis  Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that  work together ∙ Made of many parts, like a body, each with its own  function Robert Merton ∙ Dismissed comparison of society to a living organism ∙ Functions help keep a group in balance o Manifest function—intended to help some part  of the system o Latent functions—unintended consequences  that help a system adjust ∙ Dysfunctions are harmful consequences of peoples  actions o Latent dysfunctions—unintended  consequences o  Applying Functional Analysis ∙ Divorce was low before because family was  “Economic unit” o Each part had a lot to do to make the family  function  Ex. On a farm ∙ Husbands and wives have their own paychecks, less  ties to each other o Conflict Theory  Society is composed of groups that compete with one  another for resources  Karl Marx ∙ Founder of conflict theory o Key to human history is class conflict  ∙ Witnessed Industrial Revolution o Workers were at mercy of employer  Who has authority/influence? How far does this dominance  go?  Lewis Coser ∙ Conflict is most likely to develop between those who  are in close relationships  Feminists  ∙ Conflict between men and women  ∙ Not united by conflict perspective  Applying Conflict Theory ∙ Divorce rates and feminism o Levels of Analysis: Macro vs. Micro  Macro level—large scale patterns of society  Micro level/social interaction—what people do when they  are in one another’s presence Nonverbal interaction—gestures, use of space, etc ∙ 1.8 Trends o Research v. Reform  Divide into three time periods ∙ First phase o Primary purpose of research was to improve  society ∙ Second phase o Develop abstract knowledge ∙ Third phase o Sociologists try to apply research findings  There were always blurred lines between phases o Globalization  Breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade, and travel ∙ Destined to broaden our horizons ∙ Directs us to greater consideration of global issues ∙ ID universal principles  Shrinking the globe ∙ Global village ∙ My welfare is increasingly tied to that of others in  other nations  Capitalism is becoming the world’s dominant economic  system  New world order ∙ Summary and Review o Sociological perspective—stresses that people’s social  experiences underlie their behavior  C Wright Mills said this was the intersection of biography  and history o Science—application of systematic methods to obtain  knowledge/knowledge obtained by these methods o Natural sciences—seek to explain and predict events in the  natural environment o Social sciences—seek to understand he social world objectively  by means of controlled and repeated observations o Sociology—scientific study of society and human behavior o Sociology emerged in mid 1800s in western Europe  Indust. Revol.  ∙ Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Martineau,  Du Boiso Emile Durkheim emphasized importance of uncovering social  facts—patterns of society that influence how people behave o First dep. of sociology founded in late 1800s in America (Chicago, Catholic, Atlanta)  Contributions of women and colored people largely ignored o Basic sociology—purpose to make discoveries o Public—to benefit the public o Applied—to solve problems o Symbolic interactionists—examine how people use symbols to  develop/share their ideas of the world  Micro level o Functionalists—social system is made of many parts  Macro-level o Conflict theorists—society is composed of competing groups who struggle for resources  Macro-level o Subjective meanings—what people give to their own behavior o Proletariat—Marx’s term for exploited class o Society—people who share a culture and territory o Positivism—application of the scientific approach to social world o Sociological perspective—understanding human behavior by  placing it within its broader social contexts Social integration-- the degree to which members of a group or a society feel  united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social  cohesionSociology Chapter 1.1-1.3 Notes ∙ Homeless shelter ∙ Sociology—scientific study of society o How we affect society o How society affects us ∙ Social structures o Judgements, critiques, and approval are rooted in this ∙ Social sciences o Explain social world and human relations o Employs scientific methods  Personal experience and popular beliefs are rid of  Use data collecting protocols ∙ Researchers are never entirely value free though o So sociology identifies these possible risks ∙ Identify patterns o Analyze, explain, collect data o Ex. Civil Rights movement ∙ Social location—the corners in life that people occupy because of their  place in a society  o Ex. Growing up being referred to as male or female  How has that shaped you? ∙ C. Wright Mills o Sociological imagination links history and biography ∙ Society is changing o America is like a global village  Import goods o Communication has sped up  War of 1812, some battles were fought weeks after a treaty was signed ∙ What is Sociology? o Human behavior can’t be observed in a single person, rather a  society  Examine social forces ∙ Religion ∙ Education ∙ Government ∙ Race/class/gender o Society can influence human behavior  Ozzy Osborne’s song about suicide ∙ Did it cause suicide? Not according to sociologists. ∙ People who aren’t part of a solid structure (marriage,  religion) were higher risks to commit suicide o Social forces are strong Movies reflect that (Bridesmaids) ∙ Poor vs. rich ∙ Conflict between classes  “personal taste” is often a product of social forces  desire to own designer bags ∙ shows status ∙ Sociology and Other Sciences o Original explanations of the world were mixed with magic and  superstition o Science—systematic methods for studying the social and natural  worlds  ∙ Understanding Society o Society—group of people who live in the same area and share  the same culture  When we make generalizations about groups of people, we  are making generalizations about their societies (British,  Americans, Australians) ∙ Not everyone is homologous to these generalizations o Every society is different from another o Societies do not remain the same  They grow, develop, and change over time ∙ Ex. America is 1790 vs now ∙ Variables for this include o Immigration o Emigration o Technology o Industrialization o Urbanization ∙ Natural Sciences o Intellectual and academic disciplines that are designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment  Biology, geology, chemistry, physics ∙ Social Sciences o Examine human relationships  Attempt to objectively understand the social world   Anthropology, economics, political science, psych,  sociology o Anthropology  Traditionally focuses on tribal peoples ∙ Understand culture—a people’s total way of life ∙ Artifacts, structure ∙ Ideas and values ∙ Forms of communicationo Economics  Concentrates on a single social institution  Production and distribution of material goods and services  of a society o Political Science  Focuses on politics and government  Examine how gov are formed, operate, and how they relate to other institutions of society o Psychology  Processes that occur within individuals  ∙ Clinical, or in schools o Sociology  Overlaps other social sciences  Study culture, do research on group structure and belief,  and communication  Focus on industrialized and post industrialized societies  Do not concentrate on single institution   Down to Earth Sociology ∙ Elephant analogy o We must look at the whole thing to see how it  works and relates to its environment  ∙ Goals of Science o Explain why something happened o Make generalizations   Go beyond individual and apply to broader group/situation ∙ Look for patterns  o Predict  o Use systematic research  Move beyond common sense ∙ Everyone may be misguided ∙ Risk of being a sociologist o Sometimes face pressures to keep findings secret  They are interested in what is REALLY going on o May investigate private things that make people uncomfortable ∙ Origins of Sociology o Many people answered “unanswerable” questions with  superstition, myth, or the placement of the stars o August Comte (1798-1857)  Founding father of sociology  Advocated similarities between sociology and biology  Said we must use scientific methods to study society ∙ Hoped that we could discover and fix our problems o Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) Industrial Revolution ∙ Known for theories about capitalism/socialism o Said society is divided into capitalists and  exploited workers o Stressed class conflict as basis of all social  problems ∙ Believed workers would eventually unite to revolt o Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)  Established sociology as formal academic discipline  Concerned with showing how social forces influence  behavior ∙ Suicide rates in those without a stronger faith base or happy marriage o Social factors influence suicide rate o Max Weber (1864-1920)  Connected development of capitalism to Protestant work  ethic ∙ Thought financial prosperity was a sign of God’s  favor o W.E.B DuBois  Studied racism  Founded NAACP o Jane Adams  Studied relations between poor and rich  NAACP o Harriet Martineau  First female sociologist  Wrote on US customs (slavery, poverty, prisons) ∙ Structure of Society o Macro part of society  Culture and landscape  ∙ Laws prohibiting interracial marriages ∙ C. Wright Mills o The sociological imagination  Awareness of relationship between  individual and society (macro and micro) ∙ Women’s suffrage  Sociology contributes to public psychology ∙ 1.3 Tradition vs. Science o tradition—assumptions explained by superstition without tests o science—requires theories that can be tested by research o 3 main events  social upheaval of Industrial Revolution∙ children worked in miserable conditions ∙ families barely survived   social upheaval of political revolution ∙ American and French revolutions o Ruined social orders o Tradition had ruled before  Because its always been done that way  Not anymore! o New ideas arose  Each person possesses inalienable rights ∙ Imperialism o Empire building o New colonies were exposed to radically  different ways of life o Why do cultures differ? ∙ August Comte (1798-1857) o Positivism—applying scientific method to social world o What holds society together? Why do we have social order? o Sociology—the study of society  Purpose was to discover social principles and apply them to social reform ∙ Sociologists would reform society, making it a better  place to live  Drawing conclusions from informal observations o Founder of sociology ∙ Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) o Second founder of sociology o Sociologists shouldn’t guide social reform  Interferes with natural process ∙ The survival of the fittest o Societies evolve as the fittest people adapt to  their environment o Social Darwinism  The superior will survive and continue while inferior will die out  ∙ Karl Marx (1818-1883) o Class conflict  Society is made of two social classes that are natural  enemies ∙ Rich (producers) and poor (consumers)  Workers will usually unite and revolt  ∙ Enter in a class-free society ∙ Not communismo Later application of his ideas by another group  Didn’t think of himself as a sociologist  Conflict theory o Wall Street Journal named him one of the three greatest modern  thinkers ∙ Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) o Wanted to get sociology recognized as a separate academic  discipline o Wanted to show how social forces affect people’s behavior  Research in suicides ∙ males more likely than females to kill themselves ∙ Protestants more likely than Jews or Catholics ∙ Unmarried more likely than the married o Social factors underlie suicide o Social integration  The degree which people are tied to their social groups ∙ Those with weaker ties are more likely to commit  suicide o Less social integration o Human behavior cannot be understood only in terms of  individual, we must always examine the social forces that affect  people’s lives o Suicide statistics  ∙ Max Weber (1864-1920) o One of the most influential sociologists of all time o Religion is the central force in social change o Protestant beliefs about frugality was the birth of capitalism  Protestant ethic ∙ Spirit of capitalism o Subjective meaningSociology Chapter 1.1-1.3 Notes ∙ Homeless shelter ∙ Sociology—scientific study of society o How we affect society o How society affects us ∙ Social structures o Judgements, critiques, and approval are rooted in this ∙ Social sciences o Explain social world and human relations o Employs scientific methods  Personal experience and popular beliefs are rid of  Use data collecting protocols ∙ Researchers are never entirely value free though o So sociology identifies these possible risks ∙ Identify patterns o Analyze, explain, collect data o Ex. Civil Rights movement ∙ Social location—the corners in life that people occupy because of their  place in a society  o Ex. Growing up being referred to as male or female  How has that shaped you? ∙ C. Wright Mills o Sociological imagination links history and biography ∙ Society is changing o America is like a global village  Import goods o Communication has sped up  War of 1812, some battles were fought weeks after a treaty was signed ∙ What is Sociology? o Human behavior can’t be observed in a single person, rather a  society  Examine social forces ∙ Religion ∙ Education ∙ Government ∙ Race/class/gender o Society can influence human behavior  Ozzy Osborne’s song about suicide ∙ Did it cause suicide? Not according to sociologists. ∙ People who aren’t part of a solid structure (marriage,  religion) were higher risks to commit suicide o Social forces are strong Movies reflect that (Bridesmaids) ∙ Poor vs. rich ∙ Conflict between classes  “personal taste” is often a product of social forces  desire to own designer bags ∙ shows status ∙ Sociology and Other Sciences o Original explanations of the world were mixed with magic and  superstition o Science—systematic methods for studying the social and natural  worlds  ∙ Understanding Society o Society—group of people who live in the same area and share  the same culture  When we make generalizations about groups of people, we  are making generalizations about their societies (British,  Americans, Australians) ∙ Not everyone is homologous to these generalizations o Every society is different from another o Societies do not remain the same  They grow, develop, and change over time ∙ Ex. America is 1790 vs now ∙ Variables for this include o Immigration o Emigration o Technology o Industrialization o Urbanization ∙ Natural Sciences o Intellectual and academic disciplines that are designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment  Biology, geology, chemistry, physics ∙ Social Sciences o Examine human relationships  Attempt to objectively understand the social world   Anthropology, economics, political science, psych,  sociology o Anthropology  Traditionally focuses on tribal peoples ∙ Understand culture—a people’s total way of life ∙ Artifacts, structure ∙ Ideas and values ∙ Forms of communicationo Economics  Concentrates on a single social institution  Production and distribution of material goods and services  of a society o Political Science  Focuses on politics and government  Examine how gov are formed, operate, and how they relate to other institutions of society o Psychology  Processes that occur within individuals  ∙ Clinical, or in schools o Sociology  Overlaps other social sciences  Study culture, do research on group structure and belief,  and communication  Focus on industrialized and post industrialized societies  Do not concentrate on single institution   Down to Earth Sociology ∙ Elephant analogy o We must look at the whole thing to see how it  works and relates to its environment  ∙ Goals of Science o Explain why something happened o Make generalizations   Go beyond individual and apply to broader group/situation ∙ Look for patterns  o Predict  o Use systematic research  Move beyond common sense ∙ Everyone may be misguided ∙ Risk of being a sociologist o Sometimes face pressures to keep findings secret  They are interested in what is REALLY going on o May investigate private things that make people uncomfortable ∙ Origins of Sociology o Many people answered “unanswerable” questions with  superstition, myth, or the placement of the stars o August Comte (1798-1857)  Founding father of sociology  Advocated similarities between sociology and biology  Said we must use scientific methods to study society ∙ Hoped that we could discover and fix our problems o Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) Industrial Revolution ∙ Known for theories about capitalism/socialism o Said society is divided into capitalists and  exploited workers o Stressed class conflict as basis of all social  problems ∙ Believed workers would eventually unite to revolt o Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)  Established sociology as formal academic discipline  Concerned with showing how social forces influence  behavior ∙ Suicide rates in those without a stronger faith base or happy marriage o Social factors influence suicide rate o Max Weber (1864-1920)  Connected development of capitalism to Protestant work  ethic ∙ Thought financial prosperity was a sign of God’s  favor o W.E.B DuBois  Studied racism  Founded NAACP o Jane Adams  Studied relations between poor and rich  NAACP o Harriet Martineau  First female sociologist  Wrote on US customs (slavery, poverty, prisons) ∙ Structure of Society o Macro part of society  Culture and landscape  ∙ Laws prohibiting interracial marriages ∙ C. Wright Mills o The sociological imagination  Awareness of relationship between  individual and society (macro and micro) ∙ Women’s suffrage  Sociology contributes to public psychology ∙ 1.3 Tradition vs. Science o tradition—assumptions explained by superstition without tests o science—requires theories that can be tested by research o 3 main events  social upheaval of Industrial Revolution∙ children worked in miserable conditions ∙ families barely survived   social upheaval of political revolution ∙ American and French revolutions o Ruined social orders o Tradition had ruled before  Because its always been done that way  Not anymore! o New ideas arose  Each person possesses inalienable rights ∙ Imperialism o Empire building o New colonies were exposed to radically  different ways of life o Why do cultures differ? ∙ August Comte (1798-1857) o Positivism—applying scientific method to social world o What holds society together? Why do we have social order? o Sociology—the study of society  Purpose was to discover social principles and apply them to social reform ∙ Sociologists would reform society, making it a better  place to live  Drawing conclusions from informal observations o Founder of sociology ∙ Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) o Second founder of sociology o Sociologists shouldn’t guide social reform  Interferes with natural process ∙ The survival of the fittest o Societies evolve as the fittest people adapt to  their environment o Social Darwinism  The superior will survive and continue while inferior will die out  ∙ Karl Marx (1818-1883) o Class conflict  Society is made of two social classes that are natural  enemies ∙ Rich (producers) and poor (consumers)  Workers will usually unite and revolt  ∙ Enter in a class-free society ∙ Not communismo Later application of his ideas by another group  Didn’t think of himself as a sociologist  Conflict theory o Wall Street Journal named him one of the three greatest modern  thinkers ∙ Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) o Wanted to get sociology recognized as a separate academic  discipline o Wanted to show how social forces affect people’s behavior  Research in suicides ∙ males more likely than females to kill themselves ∙ Protestants more likely than Jews or Catholics ∙ Unmarried more likely than the married o Social factors underlie suicide o Social integration  The degree which people are tied to their social groups ∙ Those with weaker ties are more likely to commit  suicide o Less social integration o Human behavior cannot be understood only in terms of  individual, we must always examine the social forces that affect  people’s lives o Suicide statistics  ∙ Max Weber (1864-1920) o One of the most influential sociologists of all time o Religion is the central force in social change o Protestant beliefs about frugality was the birth of capitalism  Protestant ethic ∙ Spirit of capitalism o Subjective meaning

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