PSY260 Exam 3 Study Guide
Popular in Personality Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rayshri Sukul on Friday April 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY260 at a university taught by Dr.Kaplan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 209 views.
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Date Created: 04/10/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 How the Parts of Personality Fit Together 1 Personality structure refers to the relatively enduring stable areas of personality a Personality structure speaks of the relatively enduring long term qualities of the personality structure b Personality dynamics on the other hand speaks of relatively rapid active processes and change within the personality system c ALL perspectives on personality structure share the common idea that relations among parts of personality are relatively static and unchanging d The point of a structural approach is that by considering a few key areas together rather than in isolation we can better describe predict and change personality 2 Criteria for a good structural divisions of personality a Appropriateness of size and set i lt 3 divisions would oversimplify personality ii gt 10 divisions begin to blend into individual parts of personality b Adequate empirical basis i Each area of personality should be a scientifically plausible division reasonably recognized as occurring in every healthy personality c Distinctiveness i It is necessary to be able to explain how one area differs from the other d Comprehensiveness i Divisions should comprehensively contain all the parts of personality 3 Hierarchical organization of Traits a The Big Two and Big Three i Hans Eysenck ii 2 Factor Model NeuroticismStability Extraversionlntroversion iii Eysenck suggested a new supertrait called Psychoticism which changed his Big Two model to a Big Three Model b The Big Five i Powerful advantage of the big 5 is that it employs a unique procedure for how to select items on a test called lexical hypothesis 1 Lexical hypothesis states that the most important personality concepts can be found in peoples everyday language ii Remember OCEAN for the 5 traits O openness C conscientiousness E extraversion A agreeableness N neuroticism iii Widespread use of the Big 5 approach has meant that results from many personality studies can be compared more easily 4 Big traits do they cross species a Extraversion neuroticism and agreeableness can be found in pigs dogs rhesus monkeys donkeys b Openness can be found in all kinds of monkeys c Conscientiousness occurs only in humans and chimpanzees 5 Structural models of awareness focus on the distinction between consciousness and unconsciousness a Freud b Consciousness to those things which are in our attentional spotlight and which we can describe inner eye c Preconsciousdeclarative memoryinfo retrievable from memory that can be readily brought to mind i Concepts in declarative memory that are below the activation threshold are not conscious but they may become conscious with the correct retrieval strategy d Unconscious mental processes that have no communication with conscious 6 No access consciousunconscious proper all mental activities that simply lack any communication channel to consciousness a Daniel Dennett b Demonstrated by MullerLyer illusion 2 lines 1 of which appears longer despite both lines being same length c Implicit or automatic unconscious type of no access unconscious that takes place automatically cognitive processes that operate independently of consciousness and yet distinctly direct a person s thoughts judgements and behaviors according to non conscious rules i False fame effect which occurs when people misinterpret their familiarity with a name as suggesting the name belongs to a famous person 7 Unnoticed unconscious consists of influences that go in our mind that we could potentially know about if we paid attention to them nut that we often don t notice or understand a Study in which he socially reinforced students for choosing either a landscape or a portrait paintinggt change peoples preference 8 Dynamic unconscious an unconscious in which mental contents are purposely banished from consciousness because the ideas contained are too threatening for the individual to face a Constructed through an action of defense mechanisms defense mechanisms ways consciousness has of defending itself from painful and dangerous thoughts 9 Functional models divide personality into different parts based on the tasks those parts carry out a Freud s id ego superego b Most continuously employed functional model is the trilogy of mind i Trilogy of mind the division of mind into areas of motivationconation affect emotion and cognition ii Faculty psychology mental capacity or quality iii Each functional area evolved to process different stimuli in different ways in different areas of the brain iv Quaterniry of mind added consciousness as 4th functional area 10The idea of the triune brain is that the brain underwent 3 evolutionary bursts of development a Reptilian brain i Helped reptiles defend territory on land secure food and reproduce all qualities associated with basic motivation b Paleomammalian brain i Occurred as mammals evolved from reptiles ii Supports the increased emotional and social complexities and requirements of mammalian life iii Located around the reptilian brain c Neomammalian brain i Developed among primates ii The neomammalian brain is divided into 2 hemispheres 11System set is a structural division that marks out 4 general areas of personality func ons a Energy latticemotives and emotions b Knowledge worksincludes intelligence mental abilities and models of self and world c Social actor social roles a person knows and chooses to perform d Executive consciousness involves awareness and self regulation e Distinction between consciousness and unconsciousness 12 Connective structural models provide a framework for examining how personality is connected to the outside world a Cognitiveaffective personality system CAPS splits personality into 5 pans i Encodings mental models people employ to understand the outside situations they face ii Expectancies and beliefs iii Affects include emotions and other feeling with which a person responds to the encodings and expectancies surrounding them iv Goals and values v Competencies and selfregulation 13 Life space consists of multiple external environments surrounding personality 14 Personality dynamics the way one part of personality influences another take place across various areas of personality Chapter 9 Dynamics of Action 1 microlevel dynamics casual connections that extend from one smaller specific part of personality to another dynamic traits represent tendencies toward certain classes of needs and goals 3 midlevel or mesolevel dynamics dynamics that cross several systems a casual attribution is an example of mesolevel dynamics casual attributions concern an individual s beliefs about what determines events in the world 4 Macrolevel personality dynamics concern mental events that cross or centrally effect the entire personality system 5 Dynamics and change a Dynamic change occurs through learning with experience with education and sometimes with counseling and psychotherapy Urges may express one or more bodily needs to eat drink sleep Need mental dynamic that guides personality so as to transform a lack of satisfaction into satisfaction needs are usually focused such that they have specific aims 8 Environmental Presses involves the incentives and disincentives of the surrounding situation which can elicit some motives and suppress others 9 Murray s Model a Control of personality moved from need to need b Regnant process is the one that exerts control over personality at a given point in time c Murray started with the idea that every person experienced a hierarchy of needs in the needs were more important or prepotent relative to others i A perpotent need is one that would take over the control of personalitybecome regnantmost quickly if it not satisfied at a certain level N gt193 10 Determinant needs are those basic needs which can motivate a person to do other seemingly less important things 11Subsidiary needs arise when a goal must be pursued to fulfill the determinant need 12 Needs and Need Conflicts a Personal strivings are tasks a person is trying to carry out over the short or medium term in course of meeting longerterm goals ie appearing attractive b Conflictual striving based on the direct conflict between one striving and another ie To appear more intelligent than I am c Ambivalent strivings involves an striving that has its own conflict intrinsic in it ie To be honest 13 Need fusion when a person s diverse needs are combined together to work toward a single aim 14 Mood congruency a Mood congruent cognition effect connection between moods and thoughts related to them i Match between the emotional quality of a person s mood and his or her ideas b Moodcongruent judgement refers more specifically to the tendency of judgement to shift congruently with mood 15 Raymond Cattell a Suggested that the use of a dynamic lattice to illustrate the relationship among motives and emotional relationships and attitudes they brought about b Used the term ergs energy in Greek to refer to basic motives c Believed that these ergs led to sentiments sentiments are emotional attachments to ideas or activities 16Julian Rotter a Developed motivational formulae to try to predict the likelihood someone would carry out an action i Expectancy of reward how likely a person s actions would be in securing the reward ii Reward value how rewarding the individual would find attaining the desired goal b If motives and urges lt50 gt experience Freud s regression backs away from behavioral action and reenters the motivational emotional and planning sphere where it may be continue to be elaborated unconsciously 17 Parapraxes mistaken behaviors that reveal hidden intentions slip of the tongue or Freudian slip 18 Verbal communications use the vocal cords mouth lips and tongue and are sometimes accompanied by various physical gestures of the face head and hands a Emblems precise gestures that have specific meanings in one s culture such as shaking the head up and down to mean yes b Illustrators involve movements of the hands or other body parts to supplement the meanings of speech i Illustrators take on their meaning from context c We can use locomotion to express our reactions to someone or some idea 19 Conscious and automatic forms of action a Automatized actions are those we perform over and over again until we need no longer pay attention to them ie tying your show laces 20 Manifest content refers to what the words or actions of a particular communication are directly about 21 Latent content refers to a different meaning that accompanies the first and that is equally conveyed by the words 22 Symbolic interactionism and social alignment a Symbolic interactionism sociological perspective in social behavior which concentrates on how people represent themselves and each other in society b Disclaimers are verbal devices people use to decrease the negative implications of something they are about to do c Accounts concern the excuses or justification one provides for one s behavior and provide a social lubricant so that problematic behavior can be put aside and interactions with another person can be continued d Altercastinginvolves the presenting another person in a somewhat different manner that he or she is accustomed to 23 Social cooperation and deception a Machiavellian personality a quality of the individual to be motivated and calculating so as to intentionally manipulate social situation for gain and power Chapter 10 Dynamics of Self Control 1 Many dynamics of selfcontrol begin with the part of personality variously called the conscious self conscious executive or ego 2 Selfcontrol is carried out for the sake of fulfilling the person s physical personal and social needs and aims a Selfcontrol is intimately related to the goals people set for themselves b Defining characteristic of selfcontrol us that it integrates a sense of oneself into plans for action 3 The ego is naturally egocentric The ego is naturally and normally narcissistic and selfcentered in that the world revolves around its own perspective 4 Beneffectance refers to the tendency to take credit fir the good things in one s life and to avoid responsibility for the bad 5 Confirmation bias in which people seek to confirm ideas they already hold often by ignoring contrary information 6 Feedback and feedback loop a Accurate info about the self can be regarded as feedback b Feedback loop involves a cycle that includes acting receiving information about the success or failure of the act and then acting again c Negative feedback loop in which the loop is called negative because it attempts to eliminate any discrepancy between a standard and an outcome d Comparator compares the feedback 7 Kelly s CircumspectionPreemptionControl CPC Cycle a CPC cycle circumspection enables the person to look at the elements of a decision in relation to his or her personality b Dilated constructs concepts that are applied to too many areas of one s life c Constricted constructs involved limiting concepts to very small areas of one s life tight constructs rigid and not easily changed loose constructs like a first draft and maybe readily revised in the future selfmonitoring is the process of collecting feedback about the self g rigging the feedback system through defensive pessimism 8 automatic control and dissociation a personal control involves the regulatory mechanisms of personality generally some of which involve conscious selfcontrol and other portions of which involve non conscious control more generally b dissociated when thoughts and action programs are separated from consciousness temporarily ie highway hypnosis 9 dissociation and the unconscious a Jean Janet believed that thoughts become conscious through their associations with prior thoughts b Neodissociationism preserves Janet s original conception but updates that cognitive barriers are dynamically erected by an individual in his or her perceptualmemory associations so to block certain thoughts Thee 10 Classic suggestion Effect when someone suggest that you do something or feel something and a part of you follows the suggestion but without the participation of the conscious self 11Hypnosis a Primary characteristic of a hypnotic state us the suppression of one s planning and selfdirection b Hypnotic state involves the enhanced availability of visual and emotional memories 12 Defense mechanisms protected the consciousness from psychic pain caused by ideas related to threatening sexual and aggressive desires Anna Freud a Suppression involves the conscious blocking out of awareness of unpleasant thoughts b Repression involves the motivated nonperception or forgetting of unpleasant material c Denial outright rejection of something clearly true i normal form of mental defense fir children between the ages of 36 d projection involves the confusion between one s own characteristics and the characteristics of others can be defined as denying a negative quality in oneself and yet falsely identifying in others e rationalization in which a person employs a plausible but false reason for explaining her or his behavior that covers up a real but more unpleasant or threatening reason f reaction formation in which someone acts opposite to their real inclinations in order to hide them ie is intentionally generous in order to mask feelings of stinginess g sublimationindividual represses an unacceptable desire but then finds a constructive social role that will that desire express itself i among the healthiest of defenses 13 How is selfcontrol or its absence expressed a Control versus impulsiveness b The study of children s delay of gratification found that when they distracted themselves they were able to delay their gratification best
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