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USC / OTHER / PSYC 165 / Why do animals salivate when food is in their mouths?

Why do animals salivate when food is in their mouths?

Why do animals salivate when food is in their mouths?


School: University of Southern California
Department: OTHER
Course: Drugs, Behavior, and Society
Professor: John monterosso
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 25
Name: Class 4 Notes
Description: Week 2: Day 2
Uploaded: 01/18/2017
3 Pages 5 Views 7 Unlocks

Class 4: (continue from last class…) 

Why do animals salivate when food is in their mouths?

Across tasks, behavioral response to the same dose changes with repeated exposure -if we keep giving the drug, the animal will adapt and be less affected by it

Homeostasis: ​the tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of balance or equilibrium within its internal environment, even when faced with external changes -if you drink whiskey environment, you will get better at getting rid of it

Pharmacokinetic tolerance: the improvement of elimination of the substance; the process of the drug moving through your body and eventually being eliminated ● e.g) control body fat, gender, age, etc. are all same and differ whether or not drink, find higher concentration of alcohol in blood of ppl who have history of drinking (they have gotten better at getting rid of it)

What does tolerance do to a dose response curve?

● in order to get high you need more of the dose (so the graph would shift to the right)*** exam

What is conditioned stimulus?

We also discuss several other topics like fiu definition

Pharmacodynamic tolerance: 

● Pharmacodynamic principles: Homeostasis=balance//the drug causes imbalance but the body can restore the balance through adaptation ● Includes all the ways the body gets better at this. For psychoactive drugs, neurotransmitter structure and function is central

● Specific to particular bodily responses (collection of responses) ● Functional disturbances increase tolerance response

○ 1) Analgesia: inability to feel pain

○ 2) Pupillary constriction

**it is better to think of tolerance developing to the effects of a drug rather than to the drug

What does tolerance do to the therapeutic index? 

Blue curve: % experience high

Red curve: % overdose

Nothing, proportionally if you get more you get more tolerance

Drugs with similar effects can share tolerance

● Often observed between members of same drug class

What does tolerance do to a dose response curve?

○ E.g. all opiates display cross-tolerance

○ E.g. alcohol may exhibit cross-tolerance w/other substances with similar pharmacological actions, such as the benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium, Xanax)

● Overdose Anecdotes

○ E.g. someone who's a heroin addict and knows a lot about heroin and their tolerance, go to a city they’re not familiar with, and overdoses. why?// ■ (refer below)

■ US=drug in body

■ UR= bodies compensatory responses to drug (adaption response your body has)

■ CS= paraphernalia, etc. (equipment)

■ CR- compensatory response If you want to learn more check out linguistics 100

○ Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning

■ Pavlove used an apparatus to measure the amount of saliva produced when a dog ate.

■ The flow of saliva occurred naturally whenever food was placed in the dog’s mouth, as salivation is an involuntary, reflex response ■ Why do animals salivate when food is in their mouths?: getting ready to eat

● stimulus= ​any event that elicits a response from an


● response= ​reaction by an organism to a stimulus. In

Pavlov’s experiment, the stimulus of food initially produced

the response of salivation

● Eventually the sight or sound of the tech became the


■ 1. Unconditioned Stimulus: ​naturally occuring, automatic

response (you don’t need to do anything, just stimulizes) We also discuss several other topics like if a 35 percent increase in price of golf balls led to an 42 percent decrease in quantity demanded, then the demand for golf balls is

● In Pavlov experiment= food (meat)

■ 2. Unconditioned Response= ​response automatic when UCS is presented

● In pavlov experiment= salivation

■ 3. Conditioned Stimulus= ​stimulus that is neutral at the start of the conditioning process Don't forget about the age old question of introduction to sociology lecture notes

● Association refers to pairing of 1 stimulus with another

● Pavlove experiment: bell and other stimuli were initially

neutral, but become associated with meat powder

■ 4. Conditioned Response: learned response produced by CS

● Occurs after CS, triggered by CS alone

● Pavlov experiment: dog responds to sound of bell

Experiment data on context effect on overdose 

-put animals in 2 groups (inject w/Saline + inject w/morphine, heroin) -takes rats from saline (give them large dose of morphine, almost all die) -takes rats from morphine cage (give them same dose, almost all survive)

-what happens when morphine cage rats are given more? They all die b/c conditioned response doesn’t happen

Sensitization: you have more of the response If you want to learn more check out thre 2702 study guide

● Some effects, with some drugs actually increase over time We also discuss several other topics like econ3303 class notes

● Sensitization is important to theories of addiction

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