Anthropology 201: Exam 2 Review Guide These questions are to help you review for the second exam, which will consist of 25 questions. This is only a rough guide meant to point you toIf you want to learn more check out suu conjugation
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wards the most significant aspects of this course module—this is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the course materials covered by this exam. Questions on material outlined here may show up on the exam so please review your lecture notes and readings. What is alterity? According to Fredrik Barth, what role does alterity play in the creation of cultural differences? Why is “Orientalism” an example of alterity? Producing or imagining people who are others, who are different from yourself, who do things differently, who have different values, look different, etc. The basic argument is that in order to naturalize a set of beliefs, a position in society or a cultural aspect, its necessary to construct or produce an other. What is “race” and why can we say that is it culturally constructed (what evidence demonstrates that it is not a biological reality)? On the flip side, what is biological determinism? What is the “one drop rule”? To whom was it applied? Race is a social construct, we can say that it’s a cultural construct because genetics has it for people’s skin tones to be different so they can better adapt to the environment around them. Think of the cenus from the US in the 19th century. The One drop rule is that if you have one drop of black blood, you are considered to be black. Biological determinism refers to the idea that all human behavior is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes. This theory stands in contrast to the notion that human behavior is determined by culture or other social forces. According to Starn, what do Tiger Woods and the media’s treatment of him tell us about contemporary American ideas about race, sex and the body? Why is golf a good sport for thinking about race in America? What is the history of African Americans’ participation in the sport? How did the image of Tiger Woods contest dominant ideologies of race and athleticism in the US? How was Woods’ media image also shaped by dominant racial ideologies? What is “gender” and how is it different from “sex”? Why is cross-cultural research important for studying the cultural construction of gender? Why is the “body” important for thinking about power and gender differences? What does it mean for something to be embodied? Sex is referred to as the biological traits of the genitals on a human. Gender is a cultural construction in which to describe sex. It’s important to cross cultural research for this construction because the US is the only country to think that there are two types of genders. It is a western idea to cross and use sex and gender interchangeably. Where as in a country like India in the south, they have the Hijas where they are a third gender. The body is important because it seen and thought of the male having more power over the female. The female has always been represented as something fragile and feminine. For something to be embodied it means to reflect but also transform social reality. What is “class”? What things define an individual’s “class”? How are class distinctions represented through taste? What are Bourdieu’s four capitals and how is each defined? What are the three types of cultural capital? What does Bourgois argue about the cultural capital of crack dealers in East Harlem? Class is a group of people with similar power, prestige and wealth. Some of the things that define and individual’s class is how much economical resources they have, how much of a social standing they have, how much political influence they have. Things that are sought after in a social formation what we like and what we don’t like/ Bourdieus four capitals are Social, Economic, Cultural and Symbolic. Having economic resources is the most important. Cultural is how much knowledge we have access to Symbolic is Resources that are available to a person based on things like honor, prestige, recognition. Social was how the individual got along with others in a social gathering.