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BYU / Social Science / Soc 202 / When does j. s. bach die?

When does j. s. bach die?

When does j. s. bach die?


MUSIC 202 Notes Week 1

When does j. s. bach die?

J. S. Bach

Monday, January 9, 2017

11:03 AM

∙ Died in 1750

∙ Bach revival in 1900s?

∙ Came from a very musical family

∙ Excellent training: J. Pachelbel

∙ Spends a lot of time in Thuringia Germany

o First job in Arnstadt (court organist)

o Job in Muhlhausen (court organist)

o Most important city ever worked in Weimar (also court organist) o Job in Cothen (official position, master of the chapel for prince)  (actually asked to write stuff for the orchestra)

Where does j. s. bach spend a lot of time?

∙ Much of his orchestral music comes from this period

o Final job at Leipzig Contour of main Lutheran church

∙ Cantata- large choral work (sometimes with orchestra, always  with some type of accompaniment ex. Quartet)

∙ Wrote a 30 min choral piece for every Sunday, every week of the year

∙ St. Thomas church, oversee choir and music in 3 churches on  Sunday, sons helped out

∙ Signed SDG on end of music, not all but very frequently (to God  alone the Glory) We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of global climate in geography?

o Keyboard music

o Orchestral music

o Cantatas/choral music

∙ Brandenburg concertos

What is j. s. bach's first job?

If you want to learn more check out What is an example of a positive correlation?

o Wants out of job in Cothen (curtain)  

o Concerto Grosso: big; contrasting 2 groups, play off small group of  soloists/trade

o Ripieno- full orchestra

∙ Plays ritornello, melody that returns over and over again o Concertino- group of soloists

∙ Didn't travel much, local figure

∙ Dietrich Buxtehude- walked from 2 cities

∙ Faster Harmonic Rhythm, motor rhythm (chords change but music drives  forward), imitative counterpoint

Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1641)

Friday, January 13, 2017

9:09 AM

Simplicity: simple motifs, repetition, simple harmonies (tonic and dominant, I&V),  slow harmonic rhythm (not surface rhythm, how fast harmonies change) ∙ Wrote over 500 different concertos, they all sound very similar

Spent most of time in Venice in a girls school called Ospedale della Pieta (nickname  Il prete rosso: The Red Priest because of his raid hair and he was a priest) ∙ He was a violinist We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of cognitive?

4 Seasons is the most popular piece that most people know today (Spring listening to today)

Handel (1685-1759)

Friday, January 13, 2017

9:08 AM

George Frideric Handel

∙ Travels a lot and absorbs a lot of the Italian style (Opera)

o In the end speaks 5 languages (Italian, French, Spanish, German,  English)

∙ Gets job with Georg, Elector of Hanover (Aristocrat)

o Says he can go to London and says only if he comes back in "a  reasonable time"

o Doesn't come back, makes roots there

o 1714 Queen dies- when dies, make formula for who next king will be o Georg, Elector of Hanover is now the King

∙ Thinks he can speak German with Handle in London

 Goes ahead and gives him a raise, no reconciliation  

o Water Music (3 suites- instrumental music)

∙ Reveals his style, switch between German, Italian, and French  styles well We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones?

 Lots of brass and woodwind, repeat things in the Italian  style

 Harmonically static, lots of repetition, sticking with two  chords

 A la horn pipe- "I can do the Italian style (brass), I can do  the German style (just strings) and sounds like Bach, then back  to Italian"

∙ English audiences liked hearing operas in a language they didn't understand

∙ Outrageously successful in Italian opera in England (20 yrs)  Competition rises up causing both businesses to fail

∙ Heard about an Oratorio: like opera, dramatic musical narrative,  but not staged. You can do it anywhere.

 Could still write recitative and arias, could still write  choruses, much cheaper to produce (he has to pay for  

everything out of pocket)

 In ENGLISH- people could understand

 Tremendous success (not at first)

∙ Biblical stories or classics (Hercules)

 Israel in Egypt We also discuss several other topics like How can power be looked at?

∙ Leaping Vocal lines for frogs

∙ Violins are the flies

∙ Short moving to fast staccato notes moving quickly  up and down the range of notes

∙ Thick darkness- slow and low with a minor key

∙ MESSIAH (1741, premiered 1742)

∙ French overture- French style

 Was a way to introduce Louis 14th onto stage, signifies  royalty

 Introduces the Savior, King of Kings

 Start with tenor recitative- uses flashback and uses end  of the story at the beginning "It's okay, Christ has come"

∙ Then we go back and see how it happens

 First Aria- every valley shall be exalted  

∙ Messiah- 1741 doesn't tell a story which isn't like most oratorio  (plot and dramatic conflict)

 Divided into 3 parts, but no characters

 Subject material was unusual If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of osmolality in biology?

 Has to put all of the visual elements and drama into the  music

 "crooked places straight, valleys exalted, rough places  plain"

 Text underlay often on least important words

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