MUSIC 202 Notes Week 1
J. S. Bach
Monday, January 9, 2017
∙ Died in 1750
∙ Bach revival in 1900s?
∙ Came from a very musical family
∙ Excellent training: J. Pachelbel
∙ Spends a lot of time in Thuringia Germany
o First job in Arnstadt (court organist)
o Job in Muhlhausen (court organist)
o Most important city ever worked in Weimar (also court organist) o Job in Cothen (official position, master of the chapel for prince) (actually asked to write stuff for the orchestra)
∙ Much of his orchestral music comes from this period
o Final job at Leipzig Contour of main Lutheran church
∙ Cantata- large choral work (sometimes with orchestra, always with some type of accompaniment ex. Quartet) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of climate change in geography?
∙ Wrote a 30 min choral piece for every Sunday, every week of the year
∙ St. Thomas church, oversee choir and music in 3 churches on Sunday, sons helped out
∙ Signed SDG on end of music, not all but very frequently (to God alone the Glory)
o Keyboard music
o Orchestral music
o Cantatas/choral music
∙ Brandenburg concertos
o Wants out of job in Cothen (curtain)
o Concerto Grosso: big; contrasting 2 groups, play off small group of soloists/trade
o Ripieno- full orchestra
∙ Plays ritornello, melody that returns over and over again o Concertino- group of soloists
∙ Didn't travel much, local figure
∙ Dietrich Buxtehude- walked from 2 cities
∙ Faster Harmonic Rhythm, motor rhythm (chords change but music drives forward), imitative counterpoint
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1641)
Friday, January 13, 2017
Simplicity: simple motifs, repetition, simple harmonies (tonic and dominant, I&V), slow harmonic rhythm (not surface rhythm, how fast harmonies change) ∙ Wrote over 500 different concertos, they all sound very similar We also discuss several other topics like What does a double bond mean?
Spent most of time in Venice in a girls school called Ospedale della Pieta (nickname Il prete rosso: The Red Priest because of his raid hair and he was a priest) ∙ He was a violinist
4 Seasons is the most popular piece that most people know today (Spring listening to today)
Friday, January 13, 2017
George Frideric Handel
∙ Travels a lot and absorbs a lot of the Italian style (Opera)
o In the end speaks 5 languages (Italian, French, Spanish, German, English)
∙ Gets job with Georg, Elector of Hanover (Aristocrat)
o Says he can go to London and says only if he comes back in "a reasonable time"
o Doesn't come back, makes roots there
o 1714 Queen dies- when dies, make formula for who next king will be o Georg, Elector of Hanover is now the King
∙ Thinks he can speak German with Handle in London
Goes ahead and gives him a raise, no reconciliation
o Water Music (3 suites- instrumental music)
∙ Reveals his style, switch between German, Italian, and French styles well
Lots of brass and woodwind, repeat things in the Italian style
Harmonically static, lots of repetition, sticking with two chords
A la horn pipe- "I can do the Italian style (brass), I can do the German style (just strings) and sounds like Bach, then back to Italian" We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of cognitive?
∙ English audiences liked hearing operas in a language they didn't understand
∙ Outrageously successful in Italian opera in England (20 yrs) Competition rises up causing both businesses to fail
∙ Heard about an Oratorio: like opera, dramatic musical narrative, but not staged. You can do it anywhere.Don't forget about the age old question of Which genes increase the risk for particular mental health disorders?
Could still write recitative and arias, could still write choruses, much cheaper to produce (he has to pay for We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of osmolality in biology?
If you want to learn more check out What is the map of freedom in the world?
everything out of pocket)
In ENGLISH- people could understand
Tremendous success (not at first)
∙ Biblical stories or classics (Hercules)
Israel in Egypt
∙ Leaping Vocal lines for frogs
∙ Violins are the flies
∙ Short moving to fast staccato notes moving quickly up and down the range of notes
∙ Thick darkness- slow and low with a minor key
∙ MESSIAH (1741, premiered 1742)
∙ French overture- French style
Was a way to introduce Louis 14th onto stage, signifies royalty
Introduces the Savior, King of Kings
Start with tenor recitative- uses flashback and uses end of the story at the beginning "It's okay, Christ has come"
∙ Then we go back and see how it happens
First Aria- every valley shall be exalted
∙ Messiah- 1741 doesn't tell a story which isn't like most oratorio (plot and dramatic conflict)
Divided into 3 parts, but no characters
Subject material was unusual
Has to put all of the visual elements and drama into the music
"crooked places straight, valleys exalted, rough places plain"
Text underlay often on least important words