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UO / Psychology / PSY 202 / uo psych sona

uo psych sona

uo psych sona

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Psychology
Course: Mind and Society >2
Professor: Measelle j
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Psychology, research, intelligence, developmental, Statistics, and Language
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 202 Exam #1 Study Guide
Description: Key questions, study tips Chapter 2, 8, 9
Uploaded: 01/20/2017
10 Pages 167 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


PSYCHOLOGY 202 EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE Key Questions What are the goals of psychological science? 1. Description: detail and catalogue mental processes 2. Understanding: Develop explanations and theories on how the mind works 3. Prediction: Use theories to predict behaviors and thougths 4. Application: Apply theories to influence behavior and thought Describe how the scientific method can be used to gain an understanding of some psychological issue. a. Formulate a theory b. Make a hypothesis c. Collect data d. Perform critical evaluation of the results e. Revise theory if necessary f. Communicate findings What makes for a good theory? 1. Falsifiable 2. Testable Define independent and dependent variables. Independent Variable: the variable that is manipulated (cause) Dependent Variable: Variable that is measured (effect) Explain how the scientific method is self-correcting. Theory is constantly improved, or rejected with every experiment. Replication of the study or a similar study can strengthen or weaken the theory Why does a correlation not imply causation? 1. Directionality Problem a. A correlates with B, but does B correlate with A 2. Third Variable Problem a. A correlates with B, but A does not cause B b. There could be an unknown third variable that affects the dependent What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics o Summarize basic pattern of data o Central Tendency (mean, median, mode) o Variability (Range, standard deviation) o Correlation o Determine whether effects actually exist in population of samples o Statistically significant results occur by chance less than 5% of the time o Meta-analysis (study already performed experiments)


What are the goals of psychological science?



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What is the difference between Internal Validity and External Validity? Internal Validity External validity o Successful at removing confounding variables o How well done is the study o Findings can be generalized to a greater population o Can be applied to other people and settings

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Why is random assignment important? 1. Everyone in the population is equally likely to participate 2. Avoids selection bias 3. Necessary to establish any causality 4. Preexisting differences between the groups are controlled What are Inferential Statistics used for? 1. Decides if differences between two or more groups is due to chance (statistically significant) 2. Do the results hold up in real life? What is the difference between analogical representations and symbolic representations? A. Analogical: Has some characteristics of actual objects a. Ex. Family tree represents actually family lineage B. Symbolic: Abstract, no relationship to physical qualities a. Ex. The word “violin” How are schemas useful?1. Schemas help us perceive, organize and process information 2. Common situations have consistent rules 3. People have specific roles in situational contexts What are the two theories of decision making, which is more accurate? Normative Decision Theories: ➢ How people should make decisions ➢ People always select the choice that yields the largest gain ➢ People are rational decision makers ➢ Expected Utility Theory: people choose the option with the most utility ➢ NOT TRUE Descriptive Decision Theories: ➢ Even when people understand probabilities, they still have the potential to make an irrational decision ➢ TRUE


What makes for a good theory?



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Why do we use Heuristics? 1. Occurs Unconsciously 2. Requires minimal cognitive resources 3. Helps us make quick decisions What is the paradox of choice? 1. People are more unsatisfied with their choice if there were many options 2. People experience conflict and indecision when presented too many choices How do people solve problems? 1. Creating subgoals 2. Changing representations and mental sets to find solution 3. Experiencing insight 4. Exercising conscious strategies like working backwards What is the Linguistic Relativity Theory? 1. if language determines thought, then you can think only through language 2. Those without language are incapable of thought (NOT TRUE) What are the 3 main types of aphasia? Broca’s Aphasia (Expressive aphasia): Interrupts ability to speak, comprehension unaffected Wernicke’s Aphasia (Receptive Aphasia): Trouble understanding the meaning of words Global Aphasia: Person cannot produce or comprehend languageIs there an inborn capacity for language? A. YES What are the five types of intelligence? 1. General intelligence 2. Fluid intelligence 3. Crystallized intelligence 4. Emotional Intelligence 5. Multiple Intelligences (creative, analytical, practical intelligence) Which influences intelligence: genes or environment? 1. Certainly there is a genetic component but environment controls how intelligence is expressed 2. Education and enriching environments leads to more synaptic connections What factors shape Infancy? 1. Conception 2. Prenatal development 3. Brain develops during early fetal development 4. Genetic and environment influence development 5. Infantile amnesia 6. Attachment to caregiver due to oxytocin What defines the preoperational stage? 1. Children being thinking about objects not in their immediate view 2. They begin developing conceptual models of how the world works 3. Perform intuitive reasoning What is Piaget’s Theory? A. Infants learn through sensorimotor exploration B. People move from illogical thinking to more logical understanding Explain the steps in Moral Development. Preconventional Level ➢ Earliest stage ➢ Self interst and event outcomes define morality Conventional level ➢ Middle stage ➢ Strict adherance to societal rules and approval of others is Postconventional level ➢ Highest stage ➢ Morality depends on abstract principles and value of life


Why does a correlation not imply causation?



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When does theory of mind develop? A. 15 months with the development of the frontal lobe How does Puberty affect the brain? 1. Hormone levels stimulate physical changes 2. Brain’s reward system leads to risk taking and impulsive behaviors 3. Development of adult identity and trying multiple roles What cognitive changes are associated with old age? 1. Memory declines 2. Decrease in speed of mental processing 3. Intelligence is the same 4. Social, physical, and mental activities help maintain cognitive abillities Study Tips 1. Read textbook taking notes of the most important points 2. Answering “Measuring up” and “Practice Test” questions 3. Make flashcards of important terms and quiz yourself often 4. Answer the key questions without notes 5. Elaborate on knowledge with lecture notes 6. Write your own test questions and repeatedly test yourself 7. Take breaks! 8. Intersperse topics into study session 9. Give yourself plenty of time to study and to get sleep 10. Attend office hours if you need more help! Elaborating 1. What is this concept/vocab word? 2. Why is it important to the broader topic? 3. How would it be used in a test or test answer? 4. Can I connect this to anything else I have learned?PSYCHOLOGY 202 EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE Key Questions What are the goals of psychological science? 1. Description: detail and catalogue mental processes 2. Understanding: Develop explanations and theories on how the mind works 3. Prediction: Use theories to predict behaviors and thougths 4. Application: Apply theories to influence behavior and thought Describe how the scientific method can be used to gain an understanding of some psychological issue. a. Formulate a theory b. Make a hypothesis c. Collect data d. Perform critical evaluation of the results e. Revise theory if necessary f. Communicate findings What makes for a good theory? 1. Falsifiable 2. Testable Define independent and dependent variables. Independent Variable: the variable that is manipulated (cause) Dependent Variable: Variable that is measured (effect) Explain how the scientific method is self-correcting. Theory is constantly improved, or rejected with every experiment. Replication of the study or a similar study can strengthen or weaken the theory Why does a correlation not imply causation? 1. Directionality Problem a. A correlates with B, but does B correlate with A 2. Third Variable Problem a. A correlates with B, but A does not cause B b. There could be an unknown third variable that affects the dependent What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics o Summarize basic pattern of data o Central Tendency (mean, median, mode) o Variability (Range, standard deviation) o Correlation o Determine whether effects actually exist in population of samples o Statistically significant results occur by chance less than 5% of the time o Meta-analysis (study already performed experiments)

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What is the difference between Internal Validity and External Validity? Internal Validity External validity o Successful at removing confounding variables o How well done is the study o Findings can be generalized to a greater population o Can be applied to other people and settings

We also discuss several other topics like head to toe assessment checklist

Why is random assignment important? 1. Everyone in the population is equally likely to participate 2. Avoids selection bias 3. Necessary to establish any causality 4. Preexisting differences between the groups are controlled What are Inferential Statistics used for? 1. Decides if differences between two or more groups is due to chance (statistically significant) 2. Do the results hold up in real life? What is the difference between analogical representations and symbolic representations? A. Analogical: Has some characteristics of actual objects a. Ex. Family tree represents actually family lineage B. Symbolic: Abstract, no relationship to physical qualities a. Ex. The word “violin” How are schemas useful?1. Schemas help us perceive, organize and process information 2. Common situations have consistent rules 3. People have specific roles in situational contexts What are the two theories of decision making, which is more accurate? Normative Decision Theories: ➢ How people should make decisions ➢ People always select the choice that yields the largest gain ➢ People are rational decision makers ➢ Expected Utility Theory: people choose the option with the most utility ➢ NOT TRUE Descriptive Decision Theories: ➢ Even when people understand probabilities, they still have the potential to make an irrational decision ➢ TRUE

Why do we use Heuristics? 1. Occurs Unconsciously 2. Requires minimal cognitive resources 3. Helps us make quick decisions What is the paradox of choice? 1. People are more unsatisfied with their choice if there were many options 2. People experience conflict and indecision when presented too many choices How do people solve problems? 1. Creating subgoals 2. Changing representations and mental sets to find solution 3. Experiencing insight 4. Exercising conscious strategies like working backwards What is the Linguistic Relativity Theory? 1. if language determines thought, then you can think only through language 2. Those without language are incapable of thought (NOT TRUE) What are the 3 main types of aphasia? Broca’s Aphasia (Expressive aphasia): Interrupts ability to speak, comprehension unaffected Wernicke’s Aphasia (Receptive Aphasia): Trouble understanding the meaning of words Global Aphasia: Person cannot produce or comprehend languageIs there an inborn capacity for language? A. YES What are the five types of intelligence? 1. General intelligence 2. Fluid intelligence 3. Crystallized intelligence 4. Emotional Intelligence 5. Multiple Intelligences (creative, analytical, practical intelligence) Which influences intelligence: genes or environment? 1. Certainly there is a genetic component but environment controls how intelligence is expressed 2. Education and enriching environments leads to more synaptic connections What factors shape Infancy? 1. Conception 2. Prenatal development 3. Brain develops during early fetal development 4. Genetic and environment influence development 5. Infantile amnesia 6. Attachment to caregiver due to oxytocin What defines the preoperational stage? 1. Children being thinking about objects not in their immediate view 2. They begin developing conceptual models of how the world works 3. Perform intuitive reasoning What is Piaget’s Theory? A. Infants learn through sensorimotor exploration B. People move from illogical thinking to more logical understanding Explain the steps in Moral Development. Preconventional Level ➢ Earliest stage ➢ Self interst and event outcomes define morality Conventional level ➢ Middle stage ➢ Strict adherance to societal rules and approval of others is Postconventional level ➢ Highest stage ➢ Morality depends on abstract principles and value of life

moral

When does theory of mind develop? A. 15 months with the development of the frontal lobe How does Puberty affect the brain? 1. Hormone levels stimulate physical changes 2. Brain’s reward system leads to risk taking and impulsive behaviors 3. Development of adult identity and trying multiple roles What cognitive changes are associated with old age? 1. Memory declines 2. Decrease in speed of mental processing 3. Intelligence is the same 4. Social, physical, and mental activities help maintain cognitive abillities Study Tips 1. Read textbook taking notes of the most important points 2. Answering “Measuring up” and “Practice Test” questions 3. Make flashcards of important terms and quiz yourself often 4. Answer the key questions without notes 5. Elaborate on knowledge with lecture notes 6. Write your own test questions and repeatedly test yourself 7. Take breaks! 8. Intersperse topics into study session 9. Give yourself plenty of time to study and to get sleep 10. Attend office hours if you need more help! Elaborating 1. What is this concept/vocab word? 2. Why is it important to the broader topic? 3. How would it be used in a test or test answer? 4. Can I connect this to anything else I have learned?
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