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Penn State - RUS 229 - Class Notes - Week 2

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Penn State - RUS 229 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image 1/17  Prenatal Development  ● 40 weeks from beginning of last menstrual period 
● 38 weeks from conception 
● Divided into period of zygote, embryo, fetus 
○ Zygote - first 2 weeks; rapid cell division (your body knows you're pregnant, but  you would not know); this is where most miscarriages happen, but mom doesn’t 
even know she was pregnant 
○ Embryo - 2-8 weeks until birth, growth, foundations for all body structure 
○ Fetus - 8 weeks until birth, growth and finishing; from 1 ounce to 7 pounds 
● Another way to divide prenatal development:  ○ 1st Trimester: starts with first day of last menstrual period, ends with last day of  13th week  ○ 2nd Trimester: 14 weeks through 27 weeks 
○ 3rd Trimester: 28 weeks until the end of pregnancy; also called the “Age of 
Viability”   
Sources of Nutrition and Protection 
● Amniotic Sac 
● Placenta 
● Umbilical Cord 
● Vernix Caseosa 
 
Amniotic sac 
● Thin membrane 
● Cushions developing fetus 
● Provides support for weak muscles and soft bones 
Placenta  ● Made from tissues from mother and embryo 
● “Filtration and transfer” 
● Receives nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and hormones from mother’s blood, and pass out 
waste  ● It forms a barrier (called the “placental barrier”) which filters out some substances that  could harm the fetus  Umbilical Cord  ● Tube that connects fetus to placenta 
● Provides fetus with nutrients, oxygen, and expels waste 
● Measures about 50cm (20in) long about 2cm (.75in) diameter 
background image Vernix Caseosa  ● Waxy or cheesy white substance that covers the skin 
● Helps protect skin while in amniotic fluid 
● Helps maintain body temperature 
 
Teratogens  
● Environmental agents or conditions that can cause deviations in normal prenatal  development  ○ Viruses 
○ Drugs  
○ Chemicals (household and environment) 
○ Stressors 
○ Malnutrition 
● Principles related to the effects of teratogens  ○ Dose (how much)  ■ Threshold effect: low levels most likely don’t matter 
■ Interaction effect: only matter when mixed  
○ Time of exposure (age of fetus)  ■ Sensitive periods: times when teratogens are most disruptive to  development  ■ 3-12 weeks gestation = most vulnerable   ○ Genetic susceptibility (heredity)   1/19 
 
Environment  
● Chernobyl - APril 26, 1986: Huge defects for women exposed 
● Children with mothers who live less than a mile from fields treated with pesticides during 
pregnancy were about 60 times more likely to autism    
Exercise and Nutrition 
● Regular, moderate exercise seems to be fine; strenuous exercise associated with lower  birth weight   ● Malnutrition can have serious impact of prenatal central nervous system   
Maternal Stress 
● Moderate stress unlikely to have effect  
● High levels of stress may lead to increased aggression and lower cognitive abilities in 
children 

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Russian
Course: Infant and Child Development
Professor: Molly Countermine
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: prenatal development, perceptual, and devlopment
Name: Week 2 Class Notes
Description: Covers week 2 in Countermine.
Uploaded: 01/20/2017
4 Pages 37 Views 29 Unlocks
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