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UA / Philosophy / PY 358 / What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones?

What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones?

What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Philosophy
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Andrea glenn
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Abnormal psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Jan 17-Models of Abnormality
Description: These notes cover what we talked about in PY 358 on 1/17/17. It covers the different models of abnormality, types of neurotransmitters, hormones, functional MRI, and the theories of learning.
Uploaded: 01/21/2017
14 Pages 57 Views 1 Unlocks
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PY 358


What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones?



Abnormal Psychology

Jan 17-Models of Abnormality

Chapter 3, but skip sections on The Psychodynamic Model and The Humanistic Existential Model

Models of Abnormality 

Biological Factors

Psychological Factors

Social/Environmental  Factors

-Genes, hormones,  

neurotransmitters, brain  structure and functioning

-Behavioral and cognitive  processes

-Poverty, abuse, neglect,  discrimination, parenting

We also discuss several other topics like What is the map of freedom in the world?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hyperosmotic solution in biology?


How much is it genetic versus environmental?



Biological Influences 

Genes????Neurochemistry????Brain Activity????Behavior

Genetics 

2 Types:

Behavioral Genetics 

-(Nature vs. Nurture)

-To what extent are mental health disorders the result of genetic vs.  environmental factors?

Molecular Genetics 

-Which genes increase the risk for particular mental health disorders?

Behavioral Genetic Studies

-How much is it genetic versus environmental?

-How can we figure it out? If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of the second group is adolescent limited in criminology?

Twin Studies:

-Monozygotic (MZ=identical) 


Which genes increase the risk for particular mental health disorders?



-Dizygotic (DZ=fraternal) 

Identical Twins 

-Single egg fertilized by single sperm then splits into two

-Share all of their genes

Fraternal Twins 

-Separate eggs fertilized by separate sperm

-Share only about half of their genes

*Identical twins have 48% chance of developing the same disease;  fraternal twins only have a 17% chance

Neurotransmitters

Don't forget about the age old question of How do endotherms regulate their body temperature?

-Adrenaline- fight or flight neurotransmitter

-Noradrenaline- concentration neurotransmitter

-Dopamine- pleasure neurotransmitter If you want to learn more check out Who is defined as a criminal?

-Serotonin- mood neurotransmitter

-GABA- calming neurotransmitter

-Acetylcholine- learning neurotransmitter

-Glutamate- memory neurotransmitter

-Endorphins- Euphoria neurotransmitter

Hormones 

-Chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and bind to  receptors throughout the brain and body.

-Cortisol- released when stressed; generates emotions of fear, anxiety, and  withdrawal.

-Testosterone- associated with aggression, reward-seeking, risk-taking.

Functional MRI (fMRI) 

-Examines changes in the blood flow of an individual surrounding groups of  neurons.

-Can now examine brain activity in someone while they are doing something.

Psychological Influences Don't forget about the age old question of Is the world good or evil?

-The Behavioral Model: 3 Theories of Learning 

-Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

-Operant/instrumental conditioning (Skinner)

-Modeling (Bandura)

*Useful in understanding how disorders develop

*Useful in developing therapy (for example, uncondition someone  with a phobia or change reinforcements)

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) 

-Before conditioning:

-Food (UCS)

-Salivation (UCR)

-During conditioning:

-Bell + Food (UCS)

-Salivation (UCR)

-After conditioning:

-Bell (CS)

-Salivation (CR)

Operant Conditioning 

-The likelihood of a response is increased or decreased by virtues of  its consequences

-Reinforcement: Positive or negative

-Punishment: Positive or negative

Modeling 

-Bobo doll study- Bandura

The Cognitive Model 

-Cognition= thinking, remembering, anticipating

-Individuals may make assumptions and adopt attitudes that are disturbing  and inaccurate

-Illogical thinking processes

-Global assumptions: Failing an exam leads to thoughts like  

“I’m a total failure and will never amount to anything”.

-Automatic thoughts

-Someone didn’t return my call- she must hate me.

-Cognitive therapy- helps people to develop new, more functional ways of  thinking

-Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

-Helps individuals modify negative conditions

-Helps them create more functional beliefs and modify behaviors

Diathesis-Stress Model of Abnormality 

Diathesis

Biological factor (genes,  

disordered biochemistry, brain  anomalies)

Social factor (maladaptive  upbringing, chronic stress, etc)

Psychological factor  

(unconscious conflicts, poor  skills, maladaptive cognitions,  etc)

    +  

???? Disorder

Stress

Biological trigger (onset of  disease, exposure to toxins,  etc)

Social trigger (traumatic  event, major loss, etc)

Psychological trigger  

(perceived loss of control,  violation of a trust, etc)

PY 358

Abnormal Psychology

Jan 17-Models of Abnormality

Chapter 3, but skip sections on The Psychodynamic Model and The Humanistic Existential Model

Models of Abnormality 

Biological Factors

Psychological Factors

Social/Environmental  Factors

-Genes, hormones,  

neurotransmitters, brain  structure and functioning

-Behavioral and cognitive  processes

-Poverty, abuse, neglect,  discrimination, parenting

Biological Influences 

Genes????Neurochemistry????Brain Activity????Behavior

Genetics 

2 Types:

Behavioral Genetics 

-(Nature vs. Nurture)

-To what extent are mental health disorders the result of genetic vs.  environmental factors?

Molecular Genetics 

-Which genes increase the risk for particular mental health disorders?

Behavioral Genetic Studies

-How much is it genetic versus environmental?

-How can we figure it out?

Twin Studies:

-Monozygotic (MZ=identical) 

-Dizygotic (DZ=fraternal) 

Identical Twins 

-Single egg fertilized by single sperm then splits into two

-Share all of their genes

Fraternal Twins 

-Separate eggs fertilized by separate sperm

-Share only about half of their genes

*Identical twins have 48% chance of developing the same disease;  fraternal twins only have a 17% chance

Neurotransmitters

-Adrenaline- fight or flight neurotransmitter

-Noradrenaline- concentration neurotransmitter

-Dopamine- pleasure neurotransmitter

-Serotonin- mood neurotransmitter

-GABA- calming neurotransmitter

-Acetylcholine- learning neurotransmitter

-Glutamate- memory neurotransmitter

-Endorphins- Euphoria neurotransmitter

Hormones 

-Chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and bind to  receptors throughout the brain and body.

-Cortisol- released when stressed; generates emotions of fear, anxiety, and  withdrawal.

-Testosterone- associated with aggression, reward-seeking, risk-taking.

Functional MRI (fMRI) 

-Examines changes in the blood flow of an individual surrounding groups of  neurons.

-Can now examine brain activity in someone while they are doing something.

Psychological Influences 

-The Behavioral Model: 3 Theories of Learning 

-Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

-Operant/instrumental conditioning (Skinner)

-Modeling (Bandura)

*Useful in understanding how disorders develop

*Useful in developing therapy (for example, uncondition someone  with a phobia or change reinforcements)

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) 

-Before conditioning:

-Food (UCS)

-Salivation (UCR)

-During conditioning:

-Bell + Food (UCS)

-Salivation (UCR)

-After conditioning:

-Bell (CS)

-Salivation (CR)

Operant Conditioning 

-The likelihood of a response is increased or decreased by virtues of  its consequences

-Reinforcement: Positive or negative

-Punishment: Positive or negative

Modeling 

-Bobo doll study- Bandura

The Cognitive Model 

-Cognition= thinking, remembering, anticipating

-Individuals may make assumptions and adopt attitudes that are disturbing  and inaccurate

-Illogical thinking processes

-Global assumptions: Failing an exam leads to thoughts like  

“I’m a total failure and will never amount to anything”.

-Automatic thoughts

-Someone didn’t return my call- she must hate me.

-Cognitive therapy- helps people to develop new, more functional ways of  thinking

-Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

-Helps individuals modify negative conditions

-Helps them create more functional beliefs and modify behaviors

Diathesis-Stress Model of Abnormality 

Diathesis

Biological factor (genes,  

disordered biochemistry, brain  anomalies)

Social factor (maladaptive  upbringing, chronic stress, etc)

Psychological factor  

(unconscious conflicts, poor  skills, maladaptive cognitions,  etc)

    +  

???? Disorder

Stress

Biological trigger (onset of  disease, exposure to toxins,  etc)

Social trigger (traumatic  event, major loss, etc)

Psychological trigger  

(perceived loss of control,  violation of a trust, etc)

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