ANTH 1200 – JANUARY 17 Notecard verison: https://quizlet.com/_302vrw **Cultural anthropology – seeking to explain human behavior in all of its diversity What does it mean to be human? - Holism: Consider culture as a whole, rather than distinct parts -Cross-cultural comparison: Consider practices and beliefs in one culture as they apDon't forget about the age old question of What refers to the accidents of birth in Philosophy?
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pear in other cultures -Cultural relativism: Understanding a culture on its own terms, according to their worldview, ethics, & values. -There are four fields of Anthropology Biological anthropology Archaeology Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology -U of M offers: Applied and Medical anthropologies **Cultural Anthropology – Looking beyond the world of everyday experiences to discover meanings & patterns Why do human beings differ in their beliefs and behaviors? -Culture: system of meaning about the nature of experiences -Culture is: Shared by people Passed on by generations A process always changing Symbolic/unspoken Contested* - how we understand based on morals / who we are, what we have observed through our past Culture is everywhere. Different cultures have very different viewings on scenarios such as: Their attitudes towards death The way we practice food What we throw away & consider trash The paradox of food... Food supplies Food wasteHOMEWORK QUESTIONS: (Answered on next set of notes) 1. How do anthropologists study culture? 2. What challenges do anthropologists face when studying another culture? 3. What are benefits of anthropological studies?ANTH 1200 – JANUARY 19 Notecard version: https://quizlet.com/_30kqyp Reading: (Textbook Ch. 1.1 pgs 12-18): A Dispute in Donggo: Fieldwork & Ethnography Concepts: Participant-observation Subjectivity / perspective Ethnography (people/where) – (Donggo/Indonesia) Ethnographic present Salvage ethnography Ethnographic serendipity Building rapport Qualitative/quantitative data Review of Jan 17 lecture: Culture: system of meanings about nature of experiences -shared, passed down, always changing, symbolic, contested -death, food, trash 1. How do anthropologists study culture? -live with people that have a different culture than your own (participant observation) establish trust with these new people -interviews/survey These can skew data because people may not answer truthfully -ask questions / ask why Know what you need to ask and when -learn language Spoken, as well as unspoken (i.e. body language, their social pyramid) -background/literature research Read other anthropologist’s work, study language, traditions, proper greetings, etc. -logistics Getting a research permit, money/funding, health/vaccinations/collaborations/host, housing -visual method recording Photos, videos, drawings, maps 2. What did Monaghan and Just learn about the Duo Donggo? -misconception of the justice system -no written records of law/rules/etc. -marriage is “fixed” rather than one partner freely getting to choose another 3. How is anthropological research different from research conducted in a history, sociology, criminology, psychology, and journalism setting? - Anthropologists live and build trust with the people that they are studying- A historical research would be unsuccessful here because there is no written history or evidence of the justice system, instead it is passed and learned by generation 4. How does subjectivity impact the ethnographic process, including the study of and writing about culture? -One cannot make their past “transparent” -past experience and opinions must be put aside to open your mind of the new culture Ethnography is divided into two subjects: Method and Representation Method: what we do Representation: how we pass on information -Immersion of investigators into the lives of the people they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe. Participant-observation – can be embarrassing and awkward, emotional struggle, one must be receptive and give up previous privileges. Ethnocentrism – the tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the perspective of one’s own culture. “my way is the right/only way” How can the meanings that others find in experience be interpreted and described? Thick description: anthropologists constantly ask questions and the questions change over time as we find new meanings Cultural texts: the way of thinking about culture as a text of symbols (words, gestures, drawings, etc.) Small scale rendering of a concept: larger meaning is communicated through everyday practice The phone as a cultural text – IN-CLASS ACTIVITY HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT / QUESTIONS: Read Ch. 1.3 1. How does Fluehr-Lobban use her own beliefs, values, positions, and experiences to learn about the people she studies? 2. How does the experiences of field work change Fluehr-Lobban?