Chapter 1 learning objectives [Type here] [Type here] 1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? - Anatomy is the study of structure - Greek for “to cut up” or “to cut open” - Physiology is the study of function 2. What is microscopic anatomy and what are its subdivisions? - Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures too small to be seen with the unaided eye - Subdivisions; Cytology (cells), and histology (tissues) 3. Define Gross anatomy and compare and contrast its subdivisions - Gross anatomy is the study of structures that can be seen with the unaided eye 4. Identify the major levels of organization in the human body(7) - Atoms, Molecules, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism 5. Describe the characteristics of life (7) (3R) - 1. Organization, 2. Metabolism, 3. Growth and Development, 4. Responsiveness, 5. Adaptation, 6. Regulation, 7. Reproduction. 6. What are the 11 organ systems of the body and their major organs? (RUN MRS LIDEC) - Respiratory, Urinary, Nervous, Muscular, Reproduction, Skeletal, Lymphatic, Integumentary, Digestive, Endocrine, Cardiovascular 7. Explain the Anatomic position and its significance - Standing upright, Feet parallel and on the floor, head level and looking forward, arms at side of body, palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body. 8. common anatomic planes - Coronal (Frontal) plane: Divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts - Transverse (horizontal) plane: Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts - Midsagittal (median) plane: Divides the body into equal left and right halves - Sagittal plane: Divides the body into unequal left and right halves - Oblique plane: Passes through at an angle. Chapter 1 learning objectives [Type here] [Type here] 9. What is the difference between a section and a plane? - Section: Cut or slice through a structure - Plane: Imaginary flat surface passing through the body or an organ. 10. What are proper terms to describe directions in the body - Anterior: In front of - Posterior: In back of - Superior: closer to the head - Inferior: closer to the feet - Medial: toward the midline - Lateral: away from the midline - Proximal: closer to the trunk of the body - Distal: further from the trunk - Dorsal: Back side - Ventral: front side 11. Define the terms that describe major regions of the body - Axial: Head, neck and trunk (the vertical axis of the body) - Appendicular: upper and lower limbs 12. What are the terms that identify the body cavities and their subdivisions? - Posterior aspect: o Cranial cavity: formed by skull bones o Vertebral canal: formed by vertebral column bones - Ventral cavities: o Thoracic: the superior cavity o Abdominopelvic: the inferior cavity (physically separated by the diaphragm) 13. What are ventral cavities lined by and what two layers come from it - Lined by Serous membrane o Parietal layer: lines the internal surface of the body wall o Visceral Layer: Covers the external surface of specific organs 14. What is serous fluid for and what produces it - Both layers (parietal and visceral) produce a small amount of serous fluid to protect against friction between moving organsChapter 1 learning objectives [Type here] [Type here] 15. Where is the heart located, and what are its two continuous layers? - Located In a middle compartment called the mediastinum o Visceral pericardium: on surface of heart o Parietal pericardium: outermost layer; forms sac around heart 16. What is between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium? - Pericardial Cavity 17. What are the lungs lined by and how many layers is it? - Two layered serous membrane called the pleura 18. What are the Pleura Layers and what is the space between them called? - Visceral Pleura: on the surface of the lungs - Parietal Pleura: Outermost layer, lines the internal thoracic wall o Pleural cavity (Space between them) 19. What are the two continuous cavities with no physical separation? - Abdominal cavity (Superior) - Pelvic Cavity (Inferior) 20. What are the membranes of the abdominopelvic cavities? - The serous membrane= Peritoneum - Parietal peritoneum: Lines the internal walls of abdominopelvic cavity, not directly in contact with the organs. - Visceral Peritoneum: Covers surface of most digestive organs - Between the layers is a space called the Peritoneal cavityChapter 1 learning objectives [Type here] [Type here]
Right hypochondriac region
Left hypochondriac region
Right Lumbar Region
Left lumbar region
Right iliac region
Left iliac region
What are the 11 organ systems of the body and their major organs?
What is microscopic anatomy and what are its subdivisions?
What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
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21. What are the nine regions and four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity Nine Abdominopelvic regions: Epi: On top of Hypochondriac: Under cartilage Iliac: Hip Region Hypo:Below 4 quadrants:
Right Upper quadrant (RUQ)
Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
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