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UGA / Biology / BIOL 1107 / What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology I
Professor: Norris armstrong
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 1107 Week 2 Notes
Description: This material will be covered on the first exam. These notes include lecture notes + detailed notes on all the videos we were required to watch.
Uploaded: 01/21/2017
16 Pages 408 Views 0 Unlocks
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li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-1}ul.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jxvj4u5pxf8g-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jxvj4u5pxf8g-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jxvj4u5pxf8g-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-0 0}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jxvj4u5pxf8g-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-2}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-8}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-5 0}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-5 0}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-6}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7 0}.lst-kix_wpg5xuexzyas-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_48vmb4wecdqs-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_48vmb4wecdqs-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wpg5xuexzyas-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_48vmb4wecdqs-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-6}.lst-kix_wpg5xuexzyas-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7 0}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ccewhvjcyvi1-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-7 0}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wpg5xuexzyas-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-1}.lst-kix_ydo13exkm5yz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-2}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8 0}.lst-kix_ydo13exkm5yz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ydo13exkm5yz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wpg5xuexzyas-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8}.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-7}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8 0}.lst-kix_ydo13exkm5yz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_48vmb4wecdqs-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-1}.lst-kix_brcyyrae9xdl-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_njq502mvekej-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-0}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-4}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-3 0}ol.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5 0}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_p2tllidmgop-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d315crtm3b95-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-3 0}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wtxn091o5qfs-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-8}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ui7hj6z1bhlb-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u5kmmpt0d4ei-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_p1i2ci3vfriz-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_fsso5eyzrelx-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_xww2rrck87c2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-2}.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-3}ol.lst-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_sfjk3suz4h2f-4 0}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_g7e1cjalaet1-7,lower-latin) ". 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Organic Macromolecules VideoIf you want to learn more check out monarch notes and study guides

Biological Molecules - the molecules necessary for every I living thing on earth to survive

  • Essential source of energy
  • Energy storage
  • Instructions
  • 4 Types:
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of logarithm?

William Prout (early 1800s) - studied urine: was a physician and practiced research

  • Discovered our stomachs contain HCl acid
  • Discovered chemical composition of pure urea )
  • All food stuffs fall into 3 categories
  • Sacchaninous (carbohydrates)
  • Oleaginous (fats)
  • Albuminous (proteins)
  • Need these 3 things in order to have life

We also discuss several other topics like Provide some examples of material culture.

Carbohydrates - source of all energy

  • made of sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • Glucose - comes from the sun
  • Fructose
  • Disaccharides (2 monosaccharides)
  • Sucrose (Glu + Fru)
  • Polysaccharides
  • not digestible
  • Cellulose (multiple glucose molecules)
  • Amylose (starch)
  • Glucogen (where we stare our carb energy)

We also discuss several other topics like What do you call organic molecule containing high energy phosphate bonds?

Lipids - does not dissolve in  (mostly nonpolar);

  • made of a glycerol + 3 fatty acids,
  • Triglyceride
  • Saturated fat- carbon atoms in a fatty acid are connected by single bonds, and connected to 2 hydrogens. One carbon will have 3 hydrogen
  • Unsaturated fat - some carbon atoms are connected by double bonds & cannot have 2 hydrogens
  • Trans fat - unsaturated fatty acids that instead of Kinking, they go straight across * super bad for you; don't eat
  • Omega-3 fats - fatty acids that are unsaturated in the 3 position
  • essential fatty acid - we have to eat
  • Phospholipid - glycerol, + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group; make up the cell membrane wall

Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to the accidents of birth in Philosophy?

If you want to learn more check out How to find the limit of a polynomial?

Steroids - backbone of 4 interconnected carbon rings

  • Cholesterol - bonds w/ phospholipids
  • Lipid hormones - estradiol and testosterone

Proteins - made of 20 amino acids

  • Enzymes - regulate chemical processes
  • Antibodies - connect themselves to invaders
  • Protein Hormones - make you feel emotions
  • Amino Acids - carboxyl group + amino group + carbon + hydrogen + R group

  • Polypeptides - chains of amino acids
  • Protein Synthesis - only possible if you have all the amino acids necessary
  • we cannot make 9 amino acids:
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Valine
  • Arginine
  • Isoleucine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Tryptophan
  • Lysine
  • Threonine
  • Leucine

Carbohydrates Video

Ancient Chinese thought organisms were made of 5 elements:

  1. Wood
  2. Earth
  3. Fire
  4. Water
  5. Metal

Westerners thought we were made of:  

  1. Earth
  2. Air
  3. Water
  4. Fire
  5. Spirit

What we are really made of:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids
  3. Proteins
  4. Nucleic Acids
  5. Water

Carbohydrates

  • Almost all come from plants
  • Basic unit - monosaccharides ()
  • All carbohydrates are made of CHO, but in different amounts
  • Ex:         Hexose -

Pentose -

  • Your body responds to molecules (same formula) of different shapes differently
  • Ex:         
  • Glucose
  • Galactose
  • Fructose

  • Making Polymers

                                       dehydration

Monosaccharide + monosaccharide  disaccharide +

                                                hydrolysis

        Glucose + Fructose  sucrose (super)

Glucose + Glucose  Maltose (used in beer)

Glucose + Galactose  Lactose (milk)

- Sverose - sucrase "(enzyme that breaks it down)"

- Maltose - Maltase  "(enzyme that breaks it down)"

- lactose - Lactase "(enzyme that breaks it down)"

Starch(digestible) & cellulose(not digestible) - polymers of glucose; have the same chemical formula but different shapes. This is why 1 is digestible & the other one isn't.

What do Carbohydrates do?

  • store energy
  • Building material in plants. (cellulose)
  • serves as a molecular ID tag so the immune system can get rid of things that don't belong.

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