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UGA / Biology / BIOS 1107 / What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

What makes biological molecules necessary for every living thing?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology I
Professor: Norris armstrong
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 1107 Week 2 Notes
Description: This material will be covered on the first exam. These notes include lecture notes + detailed notes on all the videos we were required to watch.
Uploaded: 01/21/2017
16 Pages 314 Views 0 Unlocks
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What do carbohydrates do?




How is it possible for someone to transport large amounts of lipids in their bloodstream after a fat-heally meal?




What do Carbohydrates do?



Organic Macromolecules Video Sudup Biological Molecules -- the mdecules necessary for every I living thing on earth to survive • Essential source of energy • Energy storage •Instructions on • 4 Types" O Carbohydrates 3 Lipids 3 Proteins Nucleic Acids OSO William Prout (early 1800s) - studied urine: Don't forget about the age old question of math 1151
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was a physician + practiced research o Discovered our stomachs contain HCl acie Discovered chemical composition of pure urea (CO(NH) All food stuffs fall into 3 categories ro Sacchaninous (carachydrates) 3 Oleaginous (fats) (3 Albuminous (proteins) Глин е ЕРТИ Hyana appoyn Stou Study So Study Soup Carbohydrates- source of all energy made of sugars Omonosaccharides Glucose-comes from sun. Fructose Disaccharides (2 monosaccharides) - Sucrose (Glu + Fru) Polysaccharides not digestihlo D o Cellulose (multiple glucose molecules) • Amylose (starch) - Glucogen (where we stare our carb energie Lipids - does not dissolve in Hizo (mostly nonpder); • made of a glycerol + 3 fatty acids, • Triglyceride • Saturated fat- carbon atoms in a fatty acid are connected by single bonds, t connected to z Hudincorns. One carbon will have 3 hydrogen Unsaturated fat- some cacbon atoms are connected by double bonds & cannot have 2 hydrogens • Trans fat- Unsaturated fatty acids that instead of Kinking, they go straight across * super bad for you don't Omega-3 fats-fatty acids that are unsaturated in the 3 position * essentiall fatty acid-we have to eat • Phospholipid glycerolit z fatty acids + phosphate group i make up the cell membrane wall Dropcot polar head; hydrophilic nonpolar tail; huctrophobic SiSoup Steroids - backbone of 4 interconnected carbon rings SI • Cholesterol-bonds w/ phospholipidis • Lipid hormones, estradidi of testosterone Stud Proteins - made of 20 amino acids • Enzymes -regulate chemical processes • Antibodies- connect themselves to invaders • Protein Hormones- make you feel emotions • Amino Acids- carboxyl group + amino group + carbon + hydrogen + R group roroup Polypeptides chains of amino acids • Protein Synthesis only possible if you have all the amino acids necessary o we cannot make 9 amino acidso Methionine Histidine Valine Arginine - Isoleucine Phenylalanine Tryptophan Lysine Threonine Leucine ds Study Soup Carbohydrates Video Ancient Chinese thought organisms were made of 5 elements Wood 2 Earth 3 Fire @ Water © Metal Westerners thought we were made of a 1 Earth 3 Air 3 Water @ Fire - Spirit What we are really made of & 1 Carbohydrates © Lipids 3 Proteins @ Nucleic Acids. Water Carbohydrates hence, carbohydrates • Almost all come from plants • Basic unit - monosaccharides (CH20% • All carbohydrates are made of CHO, but in different amounts Ex: Hexose-ColHizo Pentose-C HOOG SSO 199999999999999999999 • Your body responds to molecules (same formula) of different shapes differently Exo С, НО • Glucose • Galactose Fructose making Polymers dehydration monosacchande +monosaccharide x disecchande t подоцѕiѕ Но Glucose & Fructose - sucrose (super) Glucose + Glucose Maltose (used in beer) Glucose + Galactose Lactose (milk) -Sverose - sucrase "lenzyme that breaks itolown)" - Maltose - Maltase" - lactose - Cactase a Stude digestible not digestible ) Study Soup V Starch & cellulose-polymers of glucose; have the same chemical formula but different shapes. This is whey 1 is digestible & the other one isn't. What do Carbohydrates do? hell Cells talk a to each . other R . & store energy to Building material in plants. (cellulose) Po serves as a molecular ID tag so immune system can get rid of things that don't belong. o Intervertebrae cises are mostly carbs. bic carbs are hydrophilic • Lubricant to help joints move smoothly • Respiratory tract produces mucous to helpinner tissues moist & capture junk you breathe in. ༢ ༡ ། ༥ ། ༡༡ Lipidis = hydrophobic Lipids Video o can be broken into 2 categories : 3 fatty acids 3 sterols Sour •Fatty acids can be broken into Z groups: 1 Triglycerides © Phospholipicis (amphipathic) * Amphipathic = both hydrophilic + hydrophobic Ihydrophilic, polar U hydrophobic, non polar * can create different spapes © Bilayer sheet $803 3 Liposome o r brlayer sheet in Study se od as there shape 2 Micelle oilo a sphere w/ one laye How is it possible for someone to transport large amounts of lipids in their bloodstream after a fat-heally meal? What is expected. Blavastream is mostly H2O; if oil goes into bloodstream, it should seperate out I would create a fat embolism Emulsifiers-help lipids dissolve in water based environments V SOUP What really happensē Lipids are passed into the blocostream d surrounded by phospholipids + other amphipathic molecules to form micelles. These micelles surround, protect & Seperate the lipids from the H2O in the | blocd. This helps them to dissolue. The phospholipids are acting as emulsifiers. IN Stude Lecture 1/18/17 hydrophilic & polar ubohydrates 4 SOU - People think of bread, wheat, tsugar * these are actually the minority - Common carbs – vegetables + beans - These types of carbs have different shapes - Anything from a plant has a TON of carbs What do carbohydrates do? SNOSO - Plants are made of carbs - cells use carbs as an ID tag for immune system - lubrication for joints - podding for vertebrae discs - mucous in respiratory tract protects fromdebri Carbohydrates - Subunit. monosaccharides - Generic foranlar (CH2O)n Hexose * will be drawn w/a < s or some wierd shape a ol's attached • Pentose - Can be modified Ex 2 NH2 can be added o Glucosamine is created duesn't really help your joints four body uses it as energy Fructose, Galactose Glucose=C6 Hz Oro Study Soup - Another modification is Chitin O, NH, & CHz is added V SOU Stud Sou Cits - fund on animal shells. What is the chemical formula for a trisaccheriale made from 3 glucose Monomers? C6H12O6 x 3 = ( 6 H 2 O) *subtract water 999999999 Triglycerides (fats tuils - Hydrophobic - nonpolar - Glycerol + 3 fatty acids Saturated + unsaturated full of hydrogen can have more huetragen, instead it's dable bonding / carbons & are bent.& have more space b/c of this therefore are liquid & fluid + Hydrogenation adding more Myatrogens - Pelyunsaturated (trans fats) , more than 1 bent place Sterols -cheiesterel avoid animal products to get redefi Phospholipids interact will w/ H2O - O e-polar, hudrophilic renonpolar, hygrophobic Can create & 1 Bilayer sheet 2 micelle sphere Study Soup | Nucleic Acids Video ud SOU 10 Nucleic Acids have a basic subunit on the nuclectide. • Nucleotide is composed of a Phosphate - Sugar Pentose) ☺ Nitrogenous Base Stypes - Adenine foundin DNA - Cytosine & - Thymine ) found in a - Uracel (replaces Thymine) - Guanine pentose Sugars D 2 Types of ORNA HO. 6 DNA missing oxygen H OH MX OH this is the on reason enzymes" (H) Regina para distinguish these * Integral membrane protein Functions @ the surface of the cell on cell membrane Proteins Video - Subunit Amino acids (20 types) - Amino acids are categorized into groups based on the properties of their Rgroups. • 3 groups 3 parts of Amino Acids 2 Polar Amino Group 3 Non-polar Carboxyl Group Charged lodda charge to molecule) R Group ASE - Properties of the group tells us about the protein - Amino acid sequence affects the properties of regions of a protein which in torn affects protein function. • Size & Spacing can suggest that a protein is doing OVOU most proteins el work as a team lleva to do a particular a - Proteins can fold into complex shapes eins . 4 levels of proten structure ular 2 Primary Protein Structure AKA Primary AA sequence. * order in which AA are found inside the protein © Secondary Protein Structure * fold up PARTS of the protein into a ~ Beta sheets of Alpha helix ween eta tipe ain & Tertiary Protein Structure a * fold up entire protein hy / Po Quarternani Protein Structure - . Vdetermined by Interaction bloo R-Graps multiple protein chains Study Soup Lecture 1/20/17 Study SOU -Why does oil seperate from water? The water molecules hang on tightly to each other b/c of hydrogen bonding, so they Kind off "kick out" oi StudySO - How does fat dissolve in water? it doesn't actually dissolve. lipids micelle In order to join amino acids together, you need to join these components O A carboxyl group ☺ An amino group * R groups are not involved in creating a polupeptible chain. They stick out on the side & interact with other molecules. LI Protein Structure Levels Primary: amino acid sequence | Secondaryo Amino aud sequence creates a shape 2 Alpha helix Beta sheet alle 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4! * R groups stick out of alpha helix Protein: Transmembrane Amino & Acid po , these amino acids are 30000 nonpdar ble they interact w/ nonpolar tails Belediye interact bilayer sheet these amino acids are polar b/c they Oranco coolekeo don't interact w/ tails. dy Sour Stud What does 3 prime & 5 prime refer to? The ends of the DNA molecuie. Their polarity is antiparallel. This means if it starts w/ a 3, the complimentary strand has to start with a 5'. Isotopes & labeling molecules Differences in isotopes can be detected by moleculer werehty radioactive decanje vibrational mode

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