PSYCH 1101 - PROFESSOR ROGOL - STUDY GUIDE - EXAM 1 I will include only info that will answer the questions Professor Rogol asked on her study guide, which is available on iCollege. I highly recommend utilizing that material, as well as my answers. I’m kiIf you want to learn more check out blackboard wpi
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If you want to learn more check out psy 201 exam 1
Don't forget about the age old question of 1319015883
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nd of a dummy. This is as much for me as it is for you, tbh. So, make sure that you study any way that you can in preparation for this first exam. Chapter 1: - Psychology - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes - it’s more than just the study of mental illness * using a scientific approach allows to clearly see what factors are actually at work in influencing human thought & behavior - Levels of analysis - influences span from lower biological levels to higher social levels * not everything is definitive, it comes in levels - people are not simple enough to have everything narrowed down to one explanation * Psychology is multiply determined // using single-variable explanations, common sense, and intent often lead to errors - Critical Thinking * don’t accept findings at face value * use logic and reason to look at information presented to you objectively - Wilhelm Wundt - father of psychology * established first psychology lab in Germany (1879) - made psychology a formal academic discipline * Introspection - Wundt’s main method of research // looking inward to examine one’s own conscious experience and then reporting that experience // had people simply describe what goes through their mind when certain things happen - Structuralism * Edward Kitchener - psychologist who brought psychology to the U.S. - used (or founded?) structuralism * trying to make introspection less subjective * the first formal school of thought in psych * aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience // Consciousness can be broken down to its basic elements - pure sensations - and the pure sensations are combined to make up perceptions// gave the words to use to make introspection more standard. - Functionalism * concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment * there is never a point in time that you are not thinking, experiencing — consciousness is a stream * studied behavior as well as mental processes * made the study of psych more flexible - how are people’s thoughts affecting them, not what are those thoughts * how does our consciousness serve us in adapting to our environment? * what is the function of consciousness? - Early Women Researchers * Mary Whiton Calkins // earned Ph.D. from Harvard, but was denied the title because Harvard was an all male school // pioneered early memory research * Margaret Floy Washburn - first official Ph.D. awarded to a woman - Modern Schools of Thought * Psychoanalysis // Freud’s theory - the unconscious aspects of the individual, rather than conscious - the things that we are not aware of, beneath the surface - we don’t really know why we do what we do - focused a lot on childhood experiences - things that cause us to interpret the world in a certain way - impulses, wishes, and desires are the root of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and cannot be controlled by the individual - “animal instincts” * Behaviorism // focuses on observable and measurable behavior emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinate behavior - behavior is a direct result of your environment // John Watson - observable behavior, not inner consciousness - humans are a product of their learning experiences - environmental stimuli, and responses // B.F. Skinner * Humanistic Perspective // “warm and fuzzy” psychology // emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence // every behavior you engage in is consciously chosen by you // you are not controlled by your past, your environment, etc. - you decide what you do // emphasizes positivity, self actualization, encouragement from others * Cognitive Psychology// concerned with mental functions behind learning, thinking, and remembering - importance of mental processes in influencing behavior - the brain interprets info, rather than just responding to it * Cognitive Behaviorism // how interpret our environment - our expectations - past experiences - and how it all influences our behavior // big in treating mental illness * Information processing approach // equates brain to a computer - intakes info as code, processes, stores, and retrieves * Cognitive neuroscience // biological // how the biology of the brain influences behavior // chemicals and actual structure of the brain * Evolutionary Psychology // natural selection to study evolution of behavior and mind // what types of behaviors make a person less/more likely to survive // what will get passed on? // all about survival // behavior genetics - interaction of genes with the environment * Cross-Cultural and Gender Psychology // how culture impacts the way we think and make decisions - how we function socially - what is the role of culture in psychology? // how does behavior and thinking vary across situations, cultures, and between genders? * Positive Psychology // newer area - branched out of humanistic // focuses on satisfaction - human flourishing - focus on what leads to a meaningful life // what factors contribute to happiness or overall wellbeing - Subfields of Psychology * Neoroscience/Biopsychology - study of biological mechanisms underlying behavior and mental processes * Cognitive Psychology - specializes in the study of mental processes, often from an info processing model * Experimental Psychology - basic process such as learning, sensory systems, perception, and motivational states * Developmental Psychology - studies physical, psychological, and social changes across the lifespan * Personality Psychology - the study of human personality and enduring characteristics - influences of genes, circumstances, and cultural context * Social Psychology - study of thoughts, feelings, and behavior involving others and the social world * Cultural Psychology - study of influence of societal rules that dictate behavior * Clinical Psychology - the study and treatment of mental disorders * Counseling Psychology - work with people facing difficult circumstances rather than mental disorders* School Psychology - work in educational settings - focus on learning problems, disabilities, age-appropriate curriculum, assessment, and achievement * Industrial-Organizational Psychology - examines behavior in the workplace - Common Errors in Thinking * Confirmation Bias - seeking evidence to support our own beliefs, and denying/ dismissing evidence that contradicts us * Belief Perseverance - holding onto believes even in the face of evidence that contradicts them * Hindsight Bias - a tendency to believe that, after hearing the outcome of a situation, that we knew it all along * Intuition - an automatic “gut” feeling that does not involve conscious reasoning * Overconfidence - our tendency to overestimate our own knowledge and abilities * Perceiving Order in Random Events - caused by our inclination to want to make sense of things - pretty self explanatory - Scientific Theory * a blanket (general) explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world - Hypothesis * a specific testable prediction - an educated guess/assumption - Steps in the Scientific Process * 1. Identify a question of interest * 2. Gather info and form a hypothesis * 3. Conduct research to test the hypothesis * 4. Analyze the data, draw tentative conclusions, and report findings * 5. Build a body of knowledge // develop a more specific, or different, hypothesis based on tentative conclusions, attempt to build a theory (an explanation of how and why certain events are related to one another) - Variable * any factor that can vary (change, be altered) - Operational Definition * defining something based on how it operates, prior to experimenting - Case Study * a research method - an individual, or a small group of persons, are studied in great detail and depth, normally over a lengthy period of time * Advantages - allows in-depth study of rare circumstances - potential to challenge the validity of widely held belief/theory - potential to bring about new ideas for further, and greater, study * Disadvantages - cannot determine cause-effect - susceptible to observer bias - results may be too specific, not generalized, and may be susceptible to the forming of misleading conclusions- Naturalistic Observation * a research method - researchers observe behavior in a natural environment, and record it, without any attempt to control or influence it * Ex: If you sat in a mall, people watched, recorded what you saw, and then made assumptions based on what you saw - Survey * a research method (obvs) - researchers use interviews/questionaires/etc. to gather information about beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviors, etc., of a certain group of people * Terminology // Population - the entire group of people the researchers are interested in // Sample - the group (part of the population) studied using the survey in order to reach conclusions about the population // Representative Sample - a group that mirrors the population of interest - includes the same proportion of any and all subgroups, as they appear in the population // Biased Sample - a Sample that does not accurately portray the population // Random Sample - this is the best method for gathering a representative sample - every member of the sample is selected randomly, with an equal chance of being included - Correlational Method * a measure of association - it measures how and how strongly two things are related * Positive Correlation // as one thing increases or decreases, the other thing does the same * Negative Correlation // as one thing increases or decreases, the other does the opposite * Zero Correlation // no association between variables * Perfect Correlation // each variable perfectly predicts changes in the other * NOTE: Correlations do not indicate cause & effect, they only predict possible changes - The Experimental Method * this is the only research method that can be used to identify cause & effect relationships * an actual experiment is set up in order to test a hypothesis about a cause-effect relationship between multiple variables * Random assignment to conditions * Manipulation of an independent variable - Independent Variable * the factor manipulated by the experimenter- Dependent Variable * the factor measured by the experimenter, that is influenced by the independent variable - Experimental Group * the group of participants in the experiment that are exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable - Control Group * the group of participants in the experiment that does not receive any manipulation - the measuring tool, a standard for comparison - participants are identical to those in the experimental group, except for receiving no influence or manipulation - Sources of Bias in Experimental Research * Confounding variables: any factor/variable that may have actually led to a difference between groups that was not controlled for - conditions not equivalent across groups * Selection bias: using any type of method of assigning participants to groups that is not random * Placebo effect: expectations of participants can potentially effect outcome // A Placebo: a harmless substance with no effect given to the control group to reduce the placebo effect. This way, their own expectation of change will not actually effect change. - Like that episode of Freaks and Geeks with the keg party, and the Geeks replace the keg with a keg of nonalcoholic beer, but all of the Freaks think that they are actually getting wasted, simply because they expect to be getting wasted. It’s hilarious, look it up. // Blind experiment: when participants don’t know what group they’re in, to avoid the placebo effect * Experimenter bias (expectancy effects): the experimenter’s expectation can also influence the outcome of an experiment // Double-blind experiment: neither the experiment or the participants know who is in the control group or who is in the experimental group - a third party keeps track of who does what - Ethics in Experiments * APA: American Psychological Association // developed an ethical guideline to be followed when conducting research with human participants - Informed Consent - informs participants of any possible risks, or lack thereof - Freedom from Coercion - participants must be volunteers, and must be allowed to quit the experiment at any time for any reason - Confidentiality - every participant is assigned a participant number, and all data is stored with that number, not with participant’s name - anonymity - Debriefing - the experiment must be explained to participants afterward, revealing all deception, or, essentially, why they did what they did Chapter 2: - Neuron * a specialized nerve cell that sends impulses through the nervous system - constantly sending messages from brain to body, and back * communicate through electrical impulses * release chemicals called neurotransmitters - Parts of the Neuron // Axon - carries signals away from cell body // Dendrite - receive incoming information, and send it to cell body // Synapses - gaps between neurons used to send info // Soma - cell body - processes messages, decides whether or not to fire - Three Main Types of Neurons * Afferent - sensory neurons - anything that you are sensing is incoming information, coming in on afferent neurons * Efferent - motor neurons - outgoing information from the brain, allows your body to react and respond to environment * Interneurons - carry info between neurons in the brain and neurons in the spinal cord * if someone throws a football at you, your afferent neurons recognize it, react, send a message to your spinal cord, interneurons carry that to the brain, where you decide what to do, then send the decision back on interneurons to the spine, and onto efferent neurons which cause you to do what the brain told you to do; catch the ball, duck away, etc. - Neurotransmitters * chemicals that transmit messages between neurons * chemical messengers * Messages on Neurotransmitters can be either… - Excitatory - tell the neuron to fire - Inhibitory - tell the neuron not to fire * Receptors - found on dendrites - protein molecules on the surface of dendrites that receive neurotransmitters - specific receptors can only interact with specific neurotransmitters, like a lock and a key * Major types of Neurotransmitters - Acetylcholine - affects memory, attention, learning, and a little bit of a role in movement - Dopamine - affects reinforcement (feeling rewarded, what makes you want to engage in a behavior again, gives you a sense of pleasure or satisfaction) - affects addiction and substance use - greatly affects movement, plays a large role in parkinson’s disease (too little dopamine) - excess dopamine can cause hallucinations and delusions (symptoms of psychosis, schizophrenia) - Norepinephrine - works with epinephrine - responsible for alertness, affects anxiety, gives a sense of being aware and ready to respond, wakefulness - plays a role in “fight or flight” - Epinephrine - kicks in with adrenaline - a burst of energy, to help you deal with a threat - energy released during exercise - affects metabolism of glucose - Serotonin - the boss - seems to play a role in everything - might be considered a neuromodulator (it may not only be responsible for its own functions, but in regulating all other neurotransmitters, still being researched) - affects mood, sleep, appetite, impulsivity, aggression (low serotonin, mood becomes erratic, and may change excessively - a key factor in depression and manic depression) - essentially, everything goes crazy if serotonin is too low - Glutamate - considered the brain and body’s major excitatory neurotransmitter - active in ares of the brain involved in learning, thought, and emotion - stimulates brain activity - might play a role in OCD (being researched) - GABA - affects anxiety - relaxing, brings heightened adrenaline, high epinephrine and norepinephrine, and crap back down to the norm - main inhibitory neurotransmitter - suppresses/slows brain activity - Endorphins - your body’s natural pain killer - provide relief from pain, induce feelings of pleasure and well-being - synthetic pain killers & natural opiates, essentially, mimic endorphins, giving your body the sense that there are more endorphins - in high levels, produce a sense of euphoria, which can become addictive - Anandamide - most recently discovered neurotransmitter - most impacted by THC - provides pain relief, affects appetite, memory, and motivation - may be responsible for some effects of marijuana - Peripheral Nervous System * the outgoing and incoming info that the brain is sending to the body * runs throughout spinal cord and body * Central Nervous System - just the brain and spinal cord * PNS - everything * Somatic Nervous System (a branch of PNS) // Conscious // Sensory nerves - bundles of afferent neurons, bringing in info // Motor nerves - bundles of efferent neurons, sending out info // gives you the ability to understand what’s going on and determine how to react to it * Autonomic Nervous System (a branch of PNS) // Automatic (less conscious) // operates without conscious control // transmits info between CNS and the glands, heart, and other muscles not normally under voluntary control- you’re not in total control of your heartbeat, it happens automatically // Branches of ANS - Sympathetic Nervous System - speeds things up, prepares for response (fight or flight) - stress response - Parasympathetic Nervous System - brings everything back down to a normal level - The Central Nervous System * brain & spinal cord * brain —> spinal cord —> PNS —> spinal cord —> brain * The Spinal Cord // acts as an extension of the brain // transfers info - main job is relay of messages // in some cases, it can make decisions on its own (usually for protection, reflex) - automatic, not conscious - protective automatic responses - touching a hot stove and immediately removing your hand before you even realize that it’s hot - that’s why it takes a second to hurt - your spinal cord removes your hand, tells your brain, and your brain says “ow” - The Brainstem * begins where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain (the top of the spinal cord) * a primitive area - purpose to handle all the functions that keep you alive * automatic * Medulla - part that controls breathing, heartbeat, coughing, swallowing, vomiting, and coughing * Pons - part that plays a role in REM sleep, dreaming, but mostly as a relay station in motor activity (sends unconscious movement from back of the brain to conscious movement in front) - Cerebellum * at base/back of the brain - on the outside of the brainstem * critical important in smooth, skilled movements // regulates automatic muscle contractions to maintain posture // coordinates series’ of movements so that they occur automatically (walking, choreographed dancing, etc.) // plays a role in motor learning and memories of motor activities - part of the “hindbrain” - The Thalamus * a relay station - a receptionist - responsible for almost all of the info flowing into and out of the forebrain // relays sensory info for all senses EXCEPT smell // affects ability to learn language and new verbal info // relays incoming info to forebrain, directs it where it needs to go, and intercepts outgoing info, and directs it where it needs to go - The Hypothalamus* hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, emotional behavior, motivation, basic human stuff * controls internal body temp - triggers sweating and shivering * home of biological clock - The Limbic System * Amygdala // involved in emotion, especially response to unpleasant or punishing ` stimuli // plays a large role in “gut” instinct - fear responses, potential danger - automatic response // primitive and instinctual when it comes to emotion - the “low road” - not a lot of thought, just automatic action - seeing a coiled up object from afar, tensing before you know what it is // helps form memories of vivid/emotional events, particularly negative events // damage to amygdala would impair ability to recognize facial expressions and tones of voice associated with fear and anger - non-verbal emotional/social cues, specifically negative * Hippocampus // main job = memory - not where memory is stored - memories are stored all over the brain - a librarian, takes the books, puts them where they belong, knows where they are, can help you retrieve them // takes info, puts it where it needs to be, and helps you find it again (does not play sole role in finding it again, but can assist) // if it were severely damaged, you would hold short-term memory for about 30 seconds, and then it would disappear - holds “neural maps” - helps you understand where things are in relation to one another (buildings, streets on campus, being able to visualize your neighborhood or inside of a building) - The Cerebrum * the largest area of the brain * divided into two hemispheres - right and left (cerebral hemispheres) // connected by a thick cord (Corpus Callosum) which helps transfer info between them - this is what they sever in “split-brain” * big, large area on top divided by the middle line - Cerebral Cortex - the covering of the cerebrum, all the neurons (little wrinkles) * higher level thinking, sensory processing, and motor responses // more conscious aspects of living and experience - The Lobes * Frontal Lobe + Subsections // Motor Cortex - voluntary body movement - back portion of frontal lobe - crossed & upside-down - everything happening on right side of the body comes from the left side of the cortex (and vice versa) - the upper half of the body comes from the lower half of the cortex (and vice versa) - everything is the opposite * more precise movements require more area of activity in the cortex // located directly in front of the central sulcus // Broca’s Area - speech production - usually located in left frontal lobe - directs the pattern of movement to produce speech sounds - including sound, signing, and writing * movement of mouth, hands, etc. // Prefrontal Cortex - executive function - directly behind the forehead - planning, thinking, motivation, implies control, emotional responses - Parietal Lobes * 2nd major set of lobes in the cerebral cortex * right behind the frontal lobes, top middle portion of the brain * reception & processing of touch // Somatosensory Cortex: registers touch, pain, all physical sensations - hot, cold, pressure, etc.. * Spatial orientation & sense of direction // cooperates with the hippocampus (neural maps) // gives you the ability to navigate the hippocampus’ neural maps * receives messages the motor cortex sends in the same upside down & crossed fashion * Parietal association areas: memory regarding how things feel - you can pick something up without looking at it and recognize what it is - recognizing a temperature - Occipital Lobes * 3rd major set of lobes in the cerebral cortex * in the back, near the rear of the brain * Primary Visual Cortex // at back of occipital lobes // registers vision // each eye is connected to the right & left sides of PVC - crossed in each eye - right visual field is sent to the left, left goes to the right * Occipital association areas: recognition of what you see - being able to recognize by sight (knowing what something looks like - a chair, your phone, a coffee mug) - if damaged, you wouldn’t be able to label what you were looking at - Temporal Lobes * 4th and last set of lobes * temples - located slightly above the ears - on the side * split * Primary Auditory Cortex // registering sound - hearing // right and left receive input from both ears - both ears send sounds to both sides // we see more activity in the right temporal lobe than in the left when listening to music - otherwise, both sides are actively processing what we hear * Wernicke’s Area// the other language area // left temporal lobe // comprehension, speech production - being able to produce language that other people understand - being able to make sense // formulating coherent speech and writing // comprehending spoken word // anything that has to do with a problem with language = aphasia * Temporal association areas: recognition by hearing - knowing what a phone ringing sounds like and how to respond - being able to recognize sounds * Lower temporal lobes // play a role in memory & autobiographical events - Lateralization * certain functions are going to be specific to either the right side or left side of the brain // certain abilities will be dominated by a certain side // stroke victims are good examples of how this works - Left Hemisphere * large role in language abilities // speaking, reading, writing, speech & written comprehension // very literal - doesn’t understand sarcasm or innuendo or tone of voice - takes things by definition * being able to reason and think logically * math is usually left, but not always // more visual learners process math on the right side * processes info about the self - facts & experience // knowing who you are in relation to other people - seeing yourself as distinct and separate from others // seeing yourself as your own person * more dominate in movement than right // sets everything into motion - initiates the activity/triggers the movement - tells the right side to move * more active than right side during positive emotions // people are generally more optimistic have more resting activity on the left side of their brain - Right Hemisphere * tends to be more active than left during negative emotions // people who are more susceptible to depression have higher resting rates of activity on the right side * visual & spatial info - being able to picture something // visual learners involve more of the right side // picturing where things are * processes music (right auditory cortex * not as definitive as the left - goes with the flow * it has not been confirmed in research that the right is more dominant in artists and creative people - it’s just a hypothesis // however, in the actual act of creating art, you are probs relying more on the right side* helps discern meaning behind language // facial expression , tone of voice, gestures - able to understand sarcasm and innuendo and non-verbal cues to determine what someone means with what they say Chapter 3: - Consciousness - active awareness - interpretation - perceiving - our awareness of ourselves and our environment - what you are actively aware of at any given moment - Selective Attention * what you are actively focusing on processing * a limited aspect of all that we experience * you are processing more about what you are focused on than anything else * constantly shifting - whatever is in your selective attention is in your consciousness - Pop-Out Effect - your brain is processing all other convos, but focusing on yours, until something important “pops out” * a stimulus strong enough to pull your attention away from whatever you’re doing - Inattention Blindness * failing to notice something obvious because our selective attention is focused elsewhere * magicians, illusionist, pick pockets, etc., rely on this * the invisible gorilla video - change blindness - an obvious change directly in front of us that we don’t notice - Dual Processing * Conscious processing // conscious thought, intent, awareness, use of attention and effort (high road) * Unconscious processing // goes on behind the scenes - automatic, instinctual, can be performed without conscious effort or awareness (low road) * Parellel Processing // simultaneous processing of a lot of different features and components of our environment - we don’t process one thing at a time, we are constantly processing a lot of things, so you experience it as one whole experience, not little bits and pieces all added together - Circadian Rhythm * energy level, mood, wakefulness - how we go about focussing our attention * how our bodies synchronize with the 24 hour cycle of day and night - tied to the cycle of light and dark - eyes send messages about light to brain which triggers certain chemicals to make you tired or awake - Suprachiasmatic Nuclei - part of the hypothalamus, regulates circadian rhythms - helps synch your bod - * eyes pick up light, or lack thereof, send that message into the brain, which links to the SCN, which either speeds up activity or reduces activity // light - increases activity // dark - decreases activity * Pineal Gland - secretes melatonin // as the eyes send the message that light is diminishing, the SCN activity declines and the pineal gland starts secreting melatonin, which makes us feel tired/sleepy There is more to Chapter 3, but the final Chapter 3 lecture takes place on February 1, the Tuesday before the Exam. I strongly recommend attending and taking notes. You also have all of the Power-Points from Professor Rogol’s lectures at your disposal, as well as the book, the study guides on Launchpad, and more. Do not forget to bring a pencil to the exam, and remember that it is multiple choice! She will be asking questions along the line of… “X thing happened to Bob, and now Bob is demonstrating Y. What part of the brain did Bob damage?” Therefore, understand the definitions in a way that allows to be able to apply them. You need to be able to recognize/name examples, and apply concepts to situations. Good luck, you guys. God bless us, every one.