Chapter 4 - Socialization
The socialization process
o Socialization: process through which people learn the expectations of society; learn to be human
∙ Process is more intense in younger years
∙ To be a fully socialized member of the society means to have internalized the expected norms of that society
Internalization: occurs when behaviors and assumptions are learned so thoroughly that people don’t question them, but accept them as correct. Lessons internalized can have a powerful influence on behavior and attitudes
∙ Socialization process guides us in how we behave within our given roles Roles: the expected behavior associated with a given status in society ∙ when you occupy a social role, you take on expectations of others. For example – you observe behavior, language, dress, and music tastes of college students as a freshman
Nature and Nurture: 2 things simultaneously occurring Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of technological determinism?
o Nature = biological components; what is natural / genetics o Nurture = what you learn (can control what turns genes on and off); what is social
o What makes us human?
∙ They both do; complex interaction of both – nature provides a certain stage for what is possible, but society provides a full drama of what we become
Ex: someone may be born with great capacity for knowledge, without a good education, those people are unlikely to reach full potential
Views of Socialization
Symbolic interaction: idea that human’s actions are based on the meanings people attribute to behavior; these meanings emerge through social interaction
Self: is what we imagine we are; a person’s identity that is socially sustained o Charles H. Cooley “Looking Glass Self”
∙ May feel positive, smart, attractive. Everyone different. Where do they come from?
∙ The way we feel about ourselves is related to how we interact with people
Ex: You reflect on incompetency of kids or say “that was close” affects how they feel about themselves We also discuss several other topics like What makes hmong history stand out?
Don't forget about the age old question of How is stimulus detected in homeostasis?
∙ The development of the looking glass self comes from
How we think we appear to others
How we think others judge us
How the first two make us feel – proud, embarrassed, or other feelings
∙ It is the perception of how others see us and the effect of other’s judgment on us – you use how people react to you and use as a reflection of ourselves
Chapter 4 - Socialization
Ex: guy with ½ of face gone, don’t look good. People never invited him because they didn’t want to look at him. This makes one socially isolated and people denied him. This can make somebody sad and reinforce how you think about yourself
Ex: critical parents, make a child feel more cautious about what they do
o George H. Meads “Role Playing”/ “Taking the role of the other”: putting oneself into the point of view of another
∙ Role taking: learning how to take up your social role; source of self awareness
Ex: being a sister, student If you want to learn more check out What are the effects of 1930 economic depression?
∙ Identity emerges from three stages:
Imitation Stage: children merely copy the behavior of those around them
∙ role taking nonexistent because the child is mimicking the behavior of those around them without understanding of social meaning of the behavior
Play stage: children begin to take on roles of significant people in their environment, not just imitating, but incorporating their relationship to the other.
∙ Children begin to take on role of significant others We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by dermatology?
∙ Significant others: most important someone in your life; close affiliation
o Ex: child to mother
o Point at which you separate – when friends come into
picture, or when child begins to care about what friends,
wear, say, do, or listen to.
Game Stage: children become capable of taking on multiple roles at the same time and begin to understand system of social relationships in which they are located
∙ Generalized other: the reference of noting that there is a generalized societal expectation – abstract knowledge of social roles and social expectations which is based on one’s social position (different culture depending on race, class, gender, religion, region) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of a scatterplot?
∙ Reference group: group you are a part of now or that you want to be like – referencing your behavior to what you want to be like Psychoanalytic theory: study on the importance of the internal unconscious mind
o Sigmund Freud’s Conflict Model: the idea that the unconscious mind shapes human behavior.
∙ ID: individual selfish needs and desires; impulses - “I WANT”
Chapter 4 - Socialization
Ex: kid playing with toy and other kid wants, they take it, because they want. Telling them to share and that your I WANTS don’t always dominate
∙ Superego: about societies needs for order and structure; the standards of society and morality– “We shouldn’t do that” ∙ EGO – moderating force; about reason and common sense - “find comprise”
If absent, there is probably psychotic behavior
Agents of Socialization
o Socialization agents: people, sources, or structures that pass on social expectations
o Who does the socializing?
Family: first source of socialization and is where children are introduced to the expectations of society.
∙ Children learn to view themselves through their parents’ eyes, and how parents define and treat a child is crucial to a child’s sense of self
Peers: those with who you interact with on equal terms such as friends, fellow students, and coworkers.
∙ without peer approval, most find it hard to feel socially
accepted, this can cause conformity because most groups (cliques) are based on a sense of exclusive member ship
∙ The media: tv, internet, games
influences values we form, our images of society, our desires of ourselves, and our relationships
∙ ex: if you see a new car on tv every-day or people drinking a particular beer at a party, you feel those will give you a status distinction, and that beer makes all parties better
Does tv socialize children?
∙ Tv is a one-way transmission (interaction)and it does have an effect, but it can’t be determined exactly how
∙ Ex: does violent tv make someone more violent?
o One watches violent tv, and other does not. Then when the kids play together, the kid that watched violent tv was more violent or accepting of it
Socialization in adulthood
o Desocialization: mortification in total institutions; periods where someone changes your behavior
∙ Death of one’s self-identity (old self)
Ex: becoming a mon – learn new customs and forget old you
Chapter 4 - Socialization
Ex: Marines make people counterintuitive. Use young because it is easier to change someone young than someone old. Takes away social identity and makes them all the same
o Resocialization: “birth” of new self-identity; old social roles are radically altered or replaced
∙ After marines, this occurs. Rids old self and recreates someone new that takes all orders and isn’t not selfish (doesn’t think of their own life), and to accomplish ANY mission.
o Occupational Socialization: Anticipatory Socialization ∙ Trying to make transition (conversion) from a student to a physician Ex: Med school gives costumes so you begin to feel like a physician. It is a way to ease into your new identity. Confidence and more comes from interning
o Socialization for death: you have to accept it and be content with it.