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UA / mass communications / MC 101 / How does cross-merchandising promote a product?

How does cross-merchandising promote a product?

How does cross-merchandising promote a product?


MC 1/17/17

How does cross-merchandising promote a product?

I. Chapter 1

A. US media has global reach

B. Economies of scale: savings that accrue with mass production

1. Ex. Texas Instruments Calculators

C. Synergy: a combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts 1. Ex. Disney promotes within itself (ESPN, ABC)

2. Ex. Comcast purchases NBC: cable and internet with TV programming D. Cross-Merchandising: promoting a product in one form in order to sell it in some other form

1. Promotes synergy

E. Conglomerates

1. Vertical integration: try to buy everything that goes into your product a) EX. Newspaper buys paper company and news service

2. Antitrust Laws: Microsoft not allowed to stronghold other computer

What are the different ypes of conglomerates?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of the hmong people?


3. Horizontal Integration: all over spectrum of business, control various markets

a) Ex. GE owned NBC, in housing products and missile launchers

F. Number of corporations decreasing

G. Around 5 major companies

H. North Korea: government controls media

I. Venezuela: private ownership, still government control

J. IDEAL (no official example): libertarian: privately owned free of government control

K. Mixed Model: varying degrees of control

1. Ex. BBC

L. Free media in US, but there is regulation and censorship

M. Pressure of market: Ex. no one wants to sing at Trump inauguration

N. Very rarely engage in prior restraint

What is the meaning of technological determinism?

O. Media seen as 4th estate in US, watchdog of government

P. The audience is the final judge


A. Types of communication If you want to learn more check out Who determined that heart pumps blood through a closed system?

B. Types of models of communication

C. What is mass communication

D. Converging communication media

E. Technological determinism

F. Media literacy

G. Basic dimensions of media H. Corporate growth

I. Types of conglomerates

J. Models of media and governments

MC 1/19/17

I. It's usually not the media that's the problem, it's a person’s intelligence II. All new media caused concern with advertising→ no regulation in newspapers and magazines at first

III. Media can affect your Awareness, attitude and behavior

IV. Payne Fund Study: wanted to find out how bad sexual content and violence in movies A. Had laboratory experiments and survey questions

B. 2 variables found:

1. Education level: more educated the person is, the less affected they are 2. Home environment: do you have someone watching it with you, guiding you through it We also discuss several other topics like How does economic growth affect urbanization?

V. People Choice Study: political study during 1940 presidential election A. People very selective in their exposure of news = selective exposure

B. People have selective perception: watching debate → but will draw different conclusions or notice different things

C. Random sampling: equal chance of selection

D. Selective retention: caused people with different views to remember the same event differently

E. Media strengthened attitudes already held by votes→ only about 8% can actually be persuaded a different way

F. Opinion leaders: well informed people who help others interpret media messages G. Two-step flow: Communication process in which media effects travel through opinion leaders

H. Voters who pay the most attention to campaigns are the ones with the strongest views

VI. The American Soldier Study: Frank Capra produced series of films for the orientation of army recruits

A. Carl Hovland: psychologist, looked at individual differences.

B. Measured knowledge and opinions before the soldiers saw the films, assessed changes after seeing the films, and determined that film is a powerful teaching tool

C. Psychological differences and individual differences were found in soldiers 1. Ex. effect of film depends on psychological makeup of person and their predisposition We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by dermatology?

VII. Studies into the effects of TV

A. Television in the Lives of Our Children was a study by Wilbur Schramm and colleagues at Stanford University in the late 1950s.

1. Grandfather of communication school

B. Study found that some TV is harmful for some children under some conditions during some times

1. All depends on psychological predisposition

C. Joseph Klapper, CBS, wrote book Minimal Effects

1. Makes point that media actually has minimal effect

VIII. Critical Cultural Model

A. Focus is on how people use media to view the world

IX. Types of media effects

A. Message effects

1. Cognitive Effects: short term effects

2. Attitudinal effects: attitude effects

B. Medium effects

1. How does the medium change the view of the viewer

C. Ownership effects

1. Push the envelope or deal with censorship

D. Active Audience effects

1. How audience perceives media

X. Theories of media and society

A. Agenda setting Don't forget about the age old question of What is the purpose of a scatterplot?

1. Media tells public what to think about

2. Media sets the terms of public discourse→ media triggers panic or calm B. Uses and gratifications and functional Analysis

1. Surveillance of the environment

2. Correlation of different elements of society Don't forget about the age old question of What accounts for he difference between density and volume?

3. Transmission of culture from one generation to the next

4. Entertainment

a) Possible gratifications:

(1) Be amused

(2) Find models to imitate

(3) To experience the beautiful

(4) To have shared experiences with others

(5) To experience the beautiful

C. Social Learning

1. Albert Bandura: We are able to learn by observing others and the

consequences they face

2. “Modeling” like in Payne Fund Study

D. Symbolic Interactionism

1. How we use symbolism to identify things

E. Cultivation Analysis

1. Watching significant amounts of television alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world

2. Can cultivate a response known as “the mean world syndrome”

XI. Controversies in Media Impact

A. Powerful effects vs. Minimal effects vs. mixed effects

B. Magic bullet to two-step flow to multi-step flow

C. Hard to weed out research for general public

D. Empirical vs. cultural

E. Replication

F. Issue of time

G. Correlation vs. causation: time order, correlation, rule out other factors H. Correlation only proves that two things occurred at the same time, not that one thing caused the other


A. Payne Fund Study

B. War of the World's

C. People Choice study

D. Selective Exposure etc.

E. Paul Lazarsfeld→ his ideas

F. Carl Hovland→ his ideas

G. Television in the lives of children

H. Minimal effects

I. Agenda setting

J. Uses and gratifications

K. Social learning

L. Spiral Science

M. Mean world syndrome

N. Different kinds of effects

O. What you need to establish causation

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