Introduction to the Politics of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Map of Freedom in the world: *Shows freedom in the world*
∙ Space of Freedom expands and contracts
∙ Almost an invisible grid of state boundaries
Global Distribution of the World:
Actors and their power capabilities
∙ Who are Actors?
o NationStates, Corporations, Terrorist organizations, and criminal organizations. ∙ What are their Power Capabilities?
o Military, Economic, Population, Soft ideology.
* Global politics is constantly changing*
* Nation states are the union of power*
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hyperosmotic solution in biology?
∙ How can power be looked at?
o By satisfaction in the world
∙ Freedom score equation= PR+CL/2
o Free= 1.02.5
o Partly Free= 3.05.0
o Not Free= 5.57.0
∙ Political Rights(PR) and Civil Rights(CL) can go from 17 in Freedom Score. *The lower the number the better*
1. Electoral Process (112)
2. Political Pluralism and Participation (116)
3. Functioning of Government (112)
4. Freedom of Expression and Belief (116)
5. Association/ Organization Rights (112) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of the life-course-persistent pathway in criminology?
∙ Freedom of Assembly
∙ Freedom for Trade Union
6. Rule of Law (116)
∙ Independent Judiciary
∙ Equal Treatment Under the Law
7. Personal Autonomy/ Individual Rights
∙ Freedom to Own Property/business
∙ Equal Opportunity
What are the Score and Ratings for Political Rights and Civil Liberty? Political Rights:
We also discuss several other topics like What does an ectotherm do if environment temperatures are low?
State Trajectory of Power in The World:
∙ What will it describe
o Power in the world
Overlapping Crisis Xenophobic Sentiments 10th consecutive decline in Global Freedom Authoritarian Crackdown
What is Xenophobic Sentiment?
∙ Fear of foreigners
What is Authoritarian Crackdown? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the correlational approach?
∙ Gains Power
∙ War in Syria
∙ Slowdown of China’s economic
War in Syria Created several reparations.
Slow of China’s economic growth Used up all resources to try and keep growth going up, but eventually started slowing down.
*Commodity Prices were used*
What are commodity Prices?
∙ Occurs when prices are dropped
Leading Democracies in Distress:
What led Democracies in Distress?
∙ Democratic world’s inability to present unified and credible worthy strategy to end war in Syria and the dealing of refugees.
∙ U.S. is suffering “a crisis of confidence in its democratic institutions and international role.”
o Is there an Erosion of Democracy?
∙ What is Capitalism?
o System based on the private ownership of capital.
Private Ownership of Capital:
∙ What are the Rules?
o Only private owners of capital can play the game. Like a poker game. o There should be “arbiters” to ensure that players obey the rules and “police” for protection against noncapitalists.
Example Purpose of getting money is not to get more money. It is to satisfy your needs.
∙ What is the New Rule?
o The game should be democratized and competitiveness kept under control. Profits:
∙ What is a Profit?
o Standard for judging the success or failure of capital or any other endeavor. ∙ What are the Rules:
o Following the profit motive is guarantee of success.
o Older Rule Profit motive is wrong.
o Everything can be capitalized.
o Older Rule The most valuable things are not for sale.
∙ What are the Market Rules?
o Everything should be organized like markets and be about money.
o Everything I need to satisfy my consumer needs should be available and affordable in markets. I should be informed about market fluctuations.
∙ What are the New Rules?
o Many important things should not be dependent on markets, such as healthcare or education.
o Being is not about consuming The higher the level of consumption, the better we will be.
Protective Role of The State:
∙ What are the Rules?
o States must have the legitimate monopoly of the use of force to protect the RULES of capitalism.
∙ What are the New Rules?
o States must have the legitimate monopoly of the use of force to protect the PEOPLE from capitalism.
Consequences of Capitalism: *Reasons for having New Rules*
1. Overexploitation of Nature:
∙ Many names and manifestations; climate changes, global warming, pollution, and environmental decay.
o Global Economy
Too much CO2
Too much nonrecyclable garbage
Too many things people don’t need
Too many harmful things
∙ Why is this threat not taken seriously?
o A: Resistance from people who already enjoy high levels of income and consumption
o A: Resistance from people with very low income and consumption levels. o A: Technological Hubris
∙ What is the problem?
o Too much financial capital, relative to capacity to pay.
∙ What is the consequence?
o Overexploitation of people (to avoid financial meltdown).
∙ What is the problem?
o A minority (1% or 10% of the people) is getting a larger share of total income and wealth.
o Higher levels of inequality are associated with all forms of social dysfunction. o New rules for financial disclosure.
Consequence of New Rules:
∙ “Rules of Capitalism” are causing the destruction of people and nature, financial instability, and growing inequality.
Peter Smith: Talons of the Eagle:
∙ Global World
o Relationship between United States and Latin America
*United States has been beneficial to Latin America*
Global Political System:
∙ Composed of nationstates
o Nationstates condition within and without.
∙ What do nationstates compete for?
o Geopolitical and economic interests, but “cloaked in the uplifting idiom of a moral purpose
*nationstates are always competing against each other*
∙ Be careful and don’t follow the mouth and watch out about cloaking things. ∙ Foreign policy represents the interest of the ruling class
∙ The global political system is about power relations
∙ (Leslie Gelbe 2009: pg. 3233) Quote Smith used to explain how power expressed itself.
Types of Global Political System:
1. (1790s1930s) Rules of Imperial Order:
a. “The Americans thought of themselves as an empire at the outset of their national existence” (pg. 1414).
b. Balance of power, 1648 Peace of Westphalia “this principle assured that national politics would consist of relations among nationstates.
∙ What was the purpose of a balance of power?
o Prevent domination by any single European nation (pg.16).
c. Balance was only applied to establish European nationstates, not other parts of the world
∙ How could Imperialism be accomplished?
o Done through conquest and incorporation; subjugation, colonization, and creation of a sphere of influence.
d. 1823Monroe Doctrine: The American continents “are henceforth not to be considered as subject for future Colonization by any European power.”
U.S Creates a Sphere of Influence:
∙ 1898 Spanish American War:
o Expelled Spain
o Protectorates over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines ∙ 1903 Taking of the Panama Canal Zone:
∙ 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:
∙ What must the U.S. do to keep Europeans out?
o May have to assume “international police power.”
∙ Dollar Diplomacy in Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Haiti ∙ 18981934 More than 30 U.S military interventions “in the name of democracy.”