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ISU / Psychology / PSYCH 101 / What is the goal of research in psychology?

What is the goal of research in psychology?

What is the goal of research in psychology?

Description

School: Iowa State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: C. meissner
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psych 101, Week 2
Description: Research Methods in Psychology
Uploaded: 01/24/2017
4 Pages 122 Views 2 Unlocks
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If you want to learn more check out Is there a difference between new guinea and papua new guinea?
We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean when total of debits and credits are equal?

Research Methods in Psychology Research

Research We also discuss several other topics like Do alkali gain or lose electrons?

1. Solve practical problems

2. develop theories

I. Theory testing

A. The goal of research in psychology is to develop theories. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of laclere?

1. Scientific theory: an explanation for a phenomenon that can be falsified and

that involves entities that cannot be directly observed.

2. A theory is an explanation which means that it describes how some Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the first woman in greek mythology?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of bulk flow in biology?

phenomenon happens rather than just stating the relationship between

variables.

        EX: cafe serves hamburgers on Tuesday (not theory)

3. In order to be a scientific theory, the explanation must be falsifiable meaning

that there must be some hypothetical facts that would prove the theory false. 

  • has to have a possible fact that is wrong

a. An explanation that cannot be falsified cannot generate any predictions

and therefore cannot be tested.

  • inferiority complex  theory: can’t test that God created Earth and planted fossil evidence

4. A theory must involve entities that cannot be directly observed because

otherwise the explanation can be verified by direct observation and a theory is

unnecessary.

        

B. Theory testing works by using the theory to generate predictions about observable

events.

1. The theory is used to generate a prediction about observable events called a

hypothesis.

2. If the hypothesis generated by the theory fails to come out, then the

theory is falsified. 

  • has to be modified

3. If the hypothesis generated by the theory is true, then it increases our belief in

the theory a little bit. ,

  • more true predictions = more belief
  • by falsifying theory, come closer to truth

B. Major Research Techniques in Psychology

A. Case studies: a description of the behavior or abilities of a single individual. Worst

way to do research because hard to be falsified

1. The theories of the Psychoanalysts were based on case studies. Case studies

are subject to confirmation bias: people favor information that confirms their 

beliefs.

2. Case studies are good for generating research ideas, but poor for testing

theories

Freud study         B. Naturalistic observation: a research technique in which the researcher

observes and describes behavior.

1. Example of a good naturalistic observation: Jane Goodall and the

chimpanzees.

  • Jane 1st to observe chimps using tools and hunting monkeys

2. Naturalistic observations are good at answering simple questions

3. Naturalistic observations do not allow sufficient control to determine the

relationships between variables. - Not particular strong research

technique

C. The correlational approach: attempts to determine the relationship between variables without manipulating the variables.

Ex relationship between ACT Score and college GPA or relationship

between lung cancer and smoking cigarettes.

1.The correlational approach is best used when manipulating the 

variables being studied would be:

a. impossible or very difficult         ⎱(to manipulate

b. unethical                                 ⎰a variable)

2. The correlational approach can be used to determine if two variables

are related, but it cannot be used to determine if there is a causal

relationship between variables.

a. Causation: a causal relationship exists if a change in one 

variable results in a change in the other.

3. The direction and strength of the relationship between two variables can be measured by the correlation coefficient (r). 

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