Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family Guided Questions: What is a marriage and what is a family? How has family changed throughout history? Do families have an impact on societies? How is family viewed by different theorists? Defining Marriage and Family What is marriage? In legal terms marriage is the unionIf you want to learn more check out mwmms
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between a man and a woman Types of Marriage Monogamous Marriage where one person is married to another person of the opposite sex. Polygamous Marriage of one person to multiple husbands/wives. Although illegal in the United States, still practiced in some states. Arranged Before entering into a relationship, terms are negotiated by the families of the bride and groom. What is Family? Family is defines as a group of two or more people living together related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Types of Family Household Despite relationship, all the people living in a housing unit. - Non-traditional families suck as same sex partners and cohabiting partners do not qualify as family members under the government. Affiliated Kin Individuals with no relations, who are still accepted as family. Living Apart Together- Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family Those who live in separate households but still consider themselves a couple. History of Family Historical and cultural factors and influences frame the ideas of family. Most concepts will be the same about family, but depending on the culture and the ‘era’ this can change. Families in the United States have always been diverse. U.S. Colonial Period to 1899 Colonial Families- unit of production Primarily nuclear families Husband, wife, and children Children from other families, apprentices, and hired laborers were a part of the household to live and work. Father Head of the family, disciplined Colonial children surviving to adulthood was low. (Mortality rate was one in every three) Roles were divided by gender United States: 1900 to Pre- WWII Traditional gender roles in families began to change due to economic and political changes. Politically women started to become more liberal, campaigning for the right to vote and taking roles outside the household. Government intervention began to rise as public concern raised on violence, neglect, birth-rates, divorce, and infant mortality. The purpose of that family changed from production to functional Focused on emotional well-being of its members. U.S. Modern Era: World War II to Present Were the 1950’s really the ‘golden age’? Teenage pregnancy were at their highest rates. Divorce rates rose Economic hardship Malnourished children Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family The structure of the family began to shift from that breadwinning father to a dual income household and families became smaller. Currently There are fewer marriages Fewer births People are getting married older There is an increasing amount of single-parent and step families. Functions of the Family Although throughout times the physical structure of the family has changed, the role a family plays in society and the expectations for a family have relatively stayed the same. The Functions of the Family Economic Security Most important role of the family is to provide financial security and stability. Which includes food, shelter, and clothing. After 25 cities were surveyed results showed that between October 2007 and September 2008 there was a reported 18 percent increase in the demand for food assistance. And homelessness increased 30 percent in some cities. Social Prestige and Status Family provides a sense of place and belonging in society. Family of Origin has many influences on experiences later in life both positive and negative. (See diagram on pg. 11) Education and Socialization of Children Procreation is essential to society. Parents are responsible for the education and socialization of their offspring. Protection Family provides physical and economic protection. Parents take care of children when they are young and in return children take care of their parents when they are older. Religious Tradition Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family Religious identity id found by parents performing traditions performing traditions particular to that religion. Recreation Traditionally it was the family that was a major source of recreation but now studies show that outside sources have become more dominate in doing so. Affection Families provide each other with a source of companionship, which is a basic human need. How do Different Theorist View the Family? Structural- Functional Theory (Functional Theory) Examine family from a macro level, taking a broad and global approach. Talcott Parsons Human behavior is driven by efforts to conform to the moral codes of society, moral codes constrain human behavior to promote common good. The main function of a family is to procreate and socialize children, and the family, as a system, needs to maintain its basic structure. Ideal structure consisted of husband, wife, and children. When families conform to norms of society they raise healthy children, nonconformity throws society into an equilibrium and results in divorce and juvenile delinquency. Functionalist Theory cannot account for social change. Conflict Theory Those who control the resources have all the power (Karl Marx) Conflict is inevitable and necessary, because it results in change and adaptation. Feminist Theory Focus on women’s feelings and perspectives, central to understanding the family as a whole. Gender is socially created, roles of husband/wife are defined by society not biology. Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family Women’s roles are restricted to subordinate positions, by conforming modern families to a nuclear family description. Feminists believe there is not neutral observation of humans, don’t treat the family as a whole but rather explore the individual experiences of each family member. Symbolic Interactionist Theory Examine families on a micro level, and believe individuals develop a sense of self through their interactions with others. Our perceptions of the reactions, that the people we care about have help form a sense of self. “Looking-glass self” Self- develops through interactions with others Society- the process we go through called socialization where we learn our roles. Role- the part we are expected to play in society Ecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner- described five environmental systems that influence the family. Believed in the necessity to look beyond child’s immediate environment, and to consider Interaction between biological makeup of child and external factors, in order to study a child’s development. Microsystem Immediate environment of the child, includes immediate relationships and organizations. (Family members or teachers) Mesosystem Makes up the interaction between different parts of the microsystem. Ecosystems Outside influences that do not have direct contact with the child, but have a huge impact on the child. (Parents workplace or extended family) Macro system The culture in which the child lives. (Culture values or economy) Chronosystems-Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family Normative and non-normative transitions which include puberty, marriage, and retirement or death, divorce, and war. Social Exchange Theory Individuals cannot be understood in isolation because they are part of an interconnected and interdependent system- a family. Key concepts of the theory Boundaries-Barriers that define the system and separate the system from environment and other systems Rules of Transformation- Government over environmental inputs are changed to outputs. Subsystems- analyzed separately in relation to their exchanges with the system and with other subsystems. Variety- extent to which the system is able to adapt to change to avoid rifts. Family Life Course/Development Theory Study transitions within marriage and family over time. Family development goes through life cycle change, each stage marked by expectations and norms. Biosocial Theory Human behavior in the family is an intricate interaction of genes and the environment. P.L. van de Berghe Family was the earliest social institution and is reduced to three Principles. Nepotism- favoritism towards one kin Reciprocity- exchange of favors Coercion- forced to act against one’s own interest Individuals can maximize transition of genes to the next generation Sarah Bhanji HDFS Chapter 1: Introduction to Marriage and Family